ECON 8413-001 International Trade Theory

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ECON 8413-001 International Trade Theory
Economics 8413
International Trade
Fall, 2015
Keith Maskus
Economics 107, 492-7588, [email protected]
Hours: Monday 3:00 – 5:00; Wednesday 2:00 – 3:00 and by appointment
Course D2L site: https://learn.colorado.edu/d2l/le/content/132868/Home
Syllabus and Reading List
This course covers advanced topics in international trade, including classical comparative
advantage, the theory of heterogeneous firms in trade, basics of trade policy, empirical
work in international trade, and factor mobility. While an attempt is made to be
comprehensive, time pressures dictate a judicious choice of materials to cover. However,
the reading list provides a wide range of supplementary materials to consult on specific
applications, which should be useful in thinking about research topics. The objectives of
the course are to expose students deeply to frontier issues in international trade and to
provide an analytical framework within which to pursue professional research.
There are no required texts for the course; readings will be emailed to you or I will
provide an active link to where you can get them. Unlinked readings are also posted to
the D2L site. However, the following books are very useful sources for particular issues
in trade theory and policy and are worth having in your personal library.
R. Feenstra, Advanced International Trade, Princeton U Press, 2004 (F).
H. Bowen, A. Hollander, and J-M Viaene, Applied International Trade, PalgraveMacmillan 2012 (BHV).
J. Markusen and K Maskus, International Trade: Theory and Evidence,
manuscript 2014 (MM); I will email this text to you.
E.K. Choi and J. Harrigan eds., Handbook of International Trade, Blackwell 2003
G. Gopinath, E. Helpman and K. Rogoff eds. Handbook of International
Economics, North-Holland 2014 (GHR).
A. Dixit and V. Norman, Theory of International Trade, Cambridge U. Press.
1992 (DN).
E. Helpman and P. Krugman, Market Structure and Foreign Trade, MIT Press,
1986 (HK).
K. Bagwell and R.W. Staiger The Economics of the World Trading System, MIT
Press, 2003 (BS).
P. Combes, T. Mayer, and J-F Thisse, Economic Geography, Princeton U Press,
2008 (CMT).
The following older books are useful resources for foundational material. They are listed
here solely for your reference. I have marked particularly important volumes with an
*P. Aghion and P. Howitt, Endogenous Growth Theory, MIT Press, 1999.
*W.M. Corden, Trade Policy and Economic Welfare, Oxford U. Press, 2d
edition, 1997.
R.C. Feenstra, Empirical Methods for International Trade, MIT Press, 1987.
*G. Grossman, Imperfect Competition and International Trade, MIT Press, 1992.
*G. Grossman and E. Helpman, Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy,
MIT Press, 1991.
E. Helpman and P. Krugman, Trade Policy and Market Structure, MIT Press,
*E.E. Leamer, Sources of International Comparative Advantage, MIT Press,
A. Woodland, International Trade and Resource Allocation, North-Holland,
*G. Grossman and K. Rogoff, Handbook of International Economics: Vol. 3,
North-Holland, 1995.
*R. Jones and P.B. Kenen (JK), Handbook of International Economics: Vol. 1,
North-Holland, 1985.
Finally, while this course emphasizes theory and frontier empirical work, some students
may want a foundation in the practical issues of trade policy and international economic
relations. Here are some useful qualitative and policy-oriented books on the WTO,
preferential trade, etc.
J.N. Bhagwati and R.E. Hudec, Fair Trade and Harmonization: Prerequisites for
Free Trade? Volume 1: Economic Analysis, MIT Press, 1996.
B. Hoekman and M. Kostecki, The Political Economy of the World Trading
System, 3rd ed, Oxford U Press, 2009.
A. Narlikar, M. Daunton and R.M. Stern, The Oxford Handbook on the WTO,
Oxford U Press, 2012.
K.E. Maskus, Private Rights and Public Problems: The Global Economics of
Intellectual Propertyin the 21st Century, Peterson Institute, 2012.
O. Cadot, et al, The Origin of Goods: Rules of Origin in Regional Trade
Agreements, Oxford U Press, 2006.
C.P. Bown and J. Pauwelyn, The Law, Economics and Politics of Retaliation in
WTO Dispute Settlement, Cambridge U Press, 2010.
There will be two examinations (September 30 and December 2), three problem sets, and
a research paper (details discussed below). I also anticipate classroom participation: ask
questions, bring up issues, offer insights on the material, etc. These tasks will be assigned
the following weights in the overall grade:
Examination 1
Examination 2
Problem Sets
The research paper should be an up-to-date, critical review of the frontier literature on a
particular aspect of trade theory or trade policy (consult with me for likely topics), not
exceeding 15 double-spaced pages. The paper should conclude with a description of a
research project you think would be fruitful. The goal of the paper is to move you into a
research topic that could lead to a journal submission and/or a start on your dissertation.
Required readings are marked with an (R). Very useful background readings, which are
highly recommended though not required, are marked with (B) and often provide
material for lectures. Additional readings are listed are for those wanting deeper and
fuller treatments. In nearly all sections I have incorporated both theoretical and empirical
Note: Abbreviations used for journals:
American Economic Review
Economic Journal
International Economic Review
Journal of International Economics
Journal of Political Economy
Quarterly Journal of Economics
Review of Economics and Statistics
Review of Economic Studies
1. Introductory Material on Trade and FDI: August 24
(R) BHV, Ch. 1
(R) MM, Ch. 1
2. The Gains from Trade in Competitive Models: August 24-26
(R) DN, Ch. 3
(R) Deardorff, “The General Validity of the Law of Comparative Advantage,” JPE
1980, 941-957 http://www.jstor.org/stable/i331949
(R) Bernhofen and Brown, “An Empirical Assessment of the Comparative
Advantage Gains from Trade: Evidence from Japan,” AER 2005, 208-225
(B) MM, Ch. 5
(B) Bernhofen and Brown, “A Direct Test of the Theory of Comparative Advantage:
The Case of Japan,” JPE 2004, 48-67
(B) Frankel and Romer, “Does Trade Cause Growth?” AER 1999, 379-399
Samuelson, “The Gains from International Trade Once Again,” EJ 1962
3. Technology Differences and Trade: Aug 26 - Sept 2
(R) BHV, Ch. 3
(R) Dornbusch, Fischer, and Samuelson, “Comparative Advantage, Trade, and
Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods,” AER 1977, 823839
(R) Eaton and Kortum, “Technology, Geography, and Trade,” ECA 2002, 1741-1779
(R) Costinot, “On the Origins of Comparative Advantage,” JIE 2009, 255-264
(R) Costinot, Donaldson and Komunjer, “What Goods do Countries Trade? A
Quantitative Exploration of Ricardo’s Ideas,” REStud 2012, 581-608
(B) MM, Ch. 7
(B) Trefler, “International Factor Price Differences: Leontief was Right!” JPE 1993,
961-987, secs. II and III http://www.jstor.org/stable/i337466
Ruffin, “The Missing Link: The Ricardian Approach to the Factor Endowments
Theory of Trade,” AER September 1988
Markusen and Svensson, “Trade in Goods and Factors with International Differences
in Production Technology,” IER 1985.
4. The Factor-Proportions Model: September 9-21
(R) F, Ch. 1 and 2
(R) HK, Ch. 1
(R) Trefler, “The Case of the Missing Trade and Other HOV Mysteries,” AER 1995,
(R) Davis and Weinstein, “An Account of Global Factor Trade,” AER 2001, 1423
-1453 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/aer.91.5.1423
(R) Romalis, “Factor Proportions and the Structure of Commodity Trade,” AER 2004
(B) F, Ch. 3
(B) MM, Ch. 8
(B) Harrigan, “Specialization and the Volume of Trade: Do the Data Obey the
Laws?” in CH, Ch 4
(B) Davis and Weinstein, “The Factor Content of Trade,” in CH, Ch. 5
R. Jones, “The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models,” JPE 1965
Deardorff, “Weak Links in the Chain of Comparative Advantage,” JIE 1979
Deardorff, “The General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem,” AER 1982
Melvin, “Production and Trade with Two Factors and Three Goods,” AER 1968
Leamer, Sources of International Comparative Advantage, MIT Press, 1985
Bowen, Leamer, and Sveikauskas, “Multicountry, Multifactor Tests of the Factor
Abundance Theory,” AER 1987
Costinot and Vogel, “Matching and Inequality in the World Economy,” JPE 2009,
Morrow, “Ricardian-Heckscher-Ohlin Comparative Advantage: Theory and
Evidence,” JIE 2010
Schott, “One Size Fits All? Heckscher-Ohlin Specialization in Global Production,”
AER 2003
5. The Specific-Factors Model: September 21-23
(R) Mussa, “Tariffs and the Distribution of Income: the Importance of Factor
Specificity, Substitutability, and Intensity in the Short and Long Run,” JPE 1974,
1191-1203 http://www.jstor.org/stable/i304827
(R) Kovak, “Regional Trade Effects of Trade Reform: What is the Correct Measure
of Liberalization?” AER 2013, 1960-1976
(B) MM, Ch.9
(B) Scheve and Slaughter, “What Determines Individual Trade Preferences?” JIE
2001, 267-292.
DN, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, parts 2 and 3
Neary, “Short-Run Capital Specificity and the Pure Theory of International Trade,”
EJ 1978
Kohli, “US Technology and the Specific-Factors Model,” JIE 1993
Grossman and Levinsohn, “Import Competition and the Stock Market Return to
Capital,” AER 1989, 1065-1087
6. Basic Oligopoly Models: September 28
(R) BHV, Ch. 8.1
(R) Brander and Krugman, “A Reciprocal Dumping Model of International Trade,”
JIE 1983, 313-21 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221996/15/3-4
(B) MM, Ch. 11
(B) HK, Ch. 5
(B) Trefler, “The Long and Short of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement,” AER
2004, 870-895 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/0002828042002633
Levinsohn, “Testing Imports as Market Discipline Hypothesis,” JIE 1993
Markusen, “Trade and the Gains from Trade with Imperfect Competition,” JIE 1981
Krugman, “Import Protection as Export Promotion: International Competition in the
Presence of Oligopoly and Economies of Scale,” in Grossman, 1992
Neary, “International Trade in General Oligopolistic Equilibrium,” manuscript.
EXAMINATION ONE: SEPTEMBER 30 (covers sections 1 through 5)
7. Monopolistic Competition: October 5-7
(R) BHV, Ch. 8.2-8.4
(R) F, Ch. 5
(R) Krugman, “Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition, and International
Trade,” JIE 1979, 469-479
(R) Hanson and Xiang, “The Home-Market Effect and Bilateral Trade Patterns,” AER
2004, 1108-29 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/0002828042002688
(B) MM, Ch. 12
(B) Krugman, “Scale Economics, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade,”
AER 1980, 950-959
(B) Davis and Weinstein, “Market Access, Economic Geography and Comparative
Advantage: An Empirical Test,” JIE 2003, 1-23.
(B) Davis, “Critical Evidence on Comparative Advantage? North-North Trade in a
Multilateral World,” JPE 1997, 1051-1060.
HK, Ch. 6-9
Lancaster, “Intra-Industry Trade under Perfect Monopolistic Competition,” JIE 1980
8. Gravity Models, Geography and Trade Costs: October 12-14
(R) Anderson and van Wincoop, “Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border
Puzzle,” AER 2003, 170-92
(R) Head and Mayer, “Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Cookbook,” in
GHR, Ch. 3
(R) Redding and Sturm, “The Costs of Remoteness: Evidence from German Division
and Reunification,” AER 2008, 1766-97
(B) Donaldson, “Railroads of the Raj: Estimating the Impact of Transportation
Infrastructure,” AER forthcoming http://economics.mit.edu/files/6038
(B) Anderson and van Wincoop, “Trade Costs,” Journal of Economic Literature 2004,
691-751 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/0022051042177649
(B) Hummels, “Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of
Globalization,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 2007, 131-54
(B) Baier and Bergstrand, “Bonus Vetus OLS: A Simple Method for Estimating
International Trade Cost Effects Using the Gravity Equation,” JIE 2009, 77-85.
9. Heterogeneous Firms and Trade: Background and Theory: October 19-26
(R) Bernard, Jensen, Redding and Schott, “Firms in International Trade,” Journal of
Economic Perspectives 2007, 105-30
(R) Melitz and Redding, “Heterogeneous Firms and Trade,” in GHR, Ch. 1
(R) Bernard, Redding, and Schott, “Comparative Advantage and Heterogeneous
Firms,” REStud 2007, 31-66
(R) Chaney, “Distorted Gravity: Heterogeneous Firms, Market Structure, and the
Geography of International Trade,” AER 2008, 1707-21
(B) Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare, “New Trade Models, Same Old
Gains?” AER 2012, 94-130
(B) Melitz, “The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate
Industry Productivity,” ECA 2003, 1695-1725
(B) Nocke and Yeaple, “Globalization and Multiproduct Firms,” NBER working
paper 19409, 2013 http://www.nber.org/papers/w19409.pdf
(B) Demidova and Rodriguez-Clare, “The Simple Analytics of the Melitz Model in a
Small Open Economy,” JIE 2013, 266-72
Melitz and Ottaviano, “Market Size, Trade and Productivity,” REStud 2003
Bernard, Redding, and Schott “Multiproduct Firms and Trade Liberalization,” QJE
10. Heterogeneous Firms and Trade: Empirical Studies: October 26-28
(R) Helpman, Melitz and Rubinstein, “Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and
Trading Volumes,” QJE 2008, 441-87
(R) Bustos, “Trade Liberalization, Exports and Technology Upgrading: Evidence on
the Impact of MERCOSUR on Argentinian Firms,” AER 2011, 304-340
(R) Pavcnik, “Trade Liberalization, Exit and Productivity Improvements: Evidence
From Chilean Plants” REStud 2002, 245-276
(B) Tybout, “Plant- and Firm-Level Evidence on ‘New’ Trade Theories,” in CH, Ch.
(B) Das, Roberts and Tybout, “Market Entry Costs, Producer Heterogeneity, and
Export Dynamics,” ECA 2007, 837-73
(B) Lileeva and Trefler, “Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Plant-Level
Productivity..for some Plants,” QJE 2010, 1051-1099,
Roberts and Tybout, “The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of
Entry with Sunk Costs,” AER 1997
Balistreri, Hillberry and Rutherford, "Structural Estimation and Solution of
International Trade Models with Heterogeneous Firms," JIE 2011
11. Demand Patterns and Trade: November 2
(R) Markusen, “Putting Per-Capita Income Back into Trade Theory,” JIE 2013, 25565 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221996/90
(B) Caron, Fally and Markusen, “International Trade Puzzles: A Solution Linking
Production and Preferences,” working paper 2013, QJE 2014
(B) Markusen, “Explaining the Volume of Trade: an Eclectic Approach,” AER 1986,
(B) MM, Ch. 14
Hunter, “The Contribution of Nonhomothetic Preferences to Trade,” JIE 1991
Bergstrand, “The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem, the Linder Hypothesis, and the Volume
and Pattern of International Trade,” EJ 1990
12. Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Firm: November 4-9
(R) BHV, Ch. 11
(R) Carr, Markusen and Maskus, “Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the
Multinational Enterprise,” AER 2001, 693-708
(R) Helpman, Melitz and Yeaple, “Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms”
AER 2004, 300-16
(B) MM, Ch. 15-16
(B) Markusen and Maskus, “General Equilibrium Approaches to the Multinational
Firm: A Review of Theory and Evidence,” in GH, Ch. 11
13. Offshoring, Fragmentation and Technology Diffusion: November 11-16
(R) Grossman and Rossi-Hansberg, “Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of
Offshoring,” AER 2008, 1978-1997
(R) Antras, “Firms, Contracts and Trade Structure, QJE 2003, 1375-1418
(R) Keller and Yeaple, “The Gravity of Knowledge,” AER 2013, 1414-1444
(B) Antras, “Incomplete Contracts and the Product Cycle,” AER 2005, 1054-73
(B) Antras and Rossi-Hansberg “Organizations and Trade,” Annual Review of
Economics 2009, 43-64
(B) MM, Ch. 17
(B) Keller, “International Technology Diffusion” Journal of Economic Literature
2004, 752-82 http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/0022051042177685
Coe, Helpman and Hoffmaister, “North-South R&D Spillovers,” EJ 1997
Hummels, Jorgensen, Munch and Xiang, “The Wage and Employment Effects
of Outsourcing: Evidence from Danish Matched Worker Firm Data,” AER 2014
Hummels, Ishii and Yi, “The Nature and Growth of Vertical Specialization in World
Trade,” JIE 2001, 75-96.
Antras, Chor, Fally and Hillberry, “Measuring the Upstreamness of Production and
Trade Flows,” AER P&P, 2012, 412-416.
14. Trade and Institutions: November 18
(R) Levchenko, “Institutional Quality and International Trade,” REStud 2007,
791-819 http://restud.oxfordjournals.org/content/74/3/791.full.pdf+html
(B) Nunn, “Relationship Specificity, Incomplete Contracts and the Pattern of Trade,”
QJE 2007, 569-600 http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/122/2/569.full.pdf+html
(B) Rauch, “Business and Social Networks in International Trade,” Journal of
Economic Literature 2001, 1177-1203
15. Trade Policy: Competitive and Imperfectly Competitive Markets: November 30
(R) BHV, Ch. 5 and Ch. 10
(B) MM, Ch. 18-20
(B) Eaton and Grossman, “Optimal Trade and Industrial Policy under Oligopoly,” in
Grossman, Ch. 7
Vousden, The Economics of Trade Protection, Cambridge U Press 1990
Corden, Trade Policy and Economic Welfare, Oxford U. Press 1997
Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes, “Voluntary Export Restraints on Automobiles:
Evaluating a Trade Policy,” AER 1999
Krishna, “Trade Restrictions as Facilitating Practices,” in Grossman, Ch. 5
Horstmann and Markusen, “Up the Average Cost Curve: Inefficient Entry and the
New Protectionism,” JIE 1986
EXAMINATION TWO: DECEMBER 2 (covers sections 7-14)
16. Economic Theories of Trade Agreements: Dec 7
(R) BS, Ch. 2
(R) Horn, Maggi and Staiger, “Trade Agreements as Endogenously Incomplete
Contracts,” AER 2010, 394-419
(B) Grossman and Horn, “Why the WTO? An Introduction to the Economics of Trade
Agreements,” manuscript 2012
(B) MM, Ch. 21-22
Ethier, “Political Externalities, Non-Discrimination, and a Multilateral World,”
Review of International Economics 2004
17. Political Economy of Protection: December 9
(R) Grossman and Helpman, “Protection for Sale,” AER 1994, 833-850
(R) Goldberg and Maggi, "Protection for Sale: An Empirical Investigation," AER
1999, 1135-55
Cassing, McKeown, and Ochs, “The Political Economy of the Tariff Cycle,”
American Political Science Review, 1986.
Magee, Brock and Young, Black Hole Tariffs and Endogenous Policy Theory:
Political Economy in General Equilibrium Cambridge U Press, 1989
Gawande and Bandyopadhyay, "Is Protection for Sale? Evidence on the GrossmanHelpman Theory of Endogenous Protection," REStat 2000
It is unfortunate but we will not have time to cover the following areas, though elements
of some were covered in the readings above. All of these subjects are actively being
researched and are interesting and important. Feel free to read in these areas for a
paper/dissertation topic or for your own interest.
18. Trade, Innovation and Endogenous Growth
Krugman, “A Model of Innovation, Technology Transfer, and the World Distribution
of Income,” JPE 1979
Dollar, “Technological Innovation, Capital Mobility, and the Product Cycle in NorthSouth Trade,” AER 1986
Grossman and E. Helpman, Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, MIT
Press 1991
Helpman, “Innovation, Imitation, and Intellectual Property Rights,” ECA, 1993
He and Maskus, “Southern Innovation and Reverse Knowledge Spillovers,” IER
Howitt, “Endogenous Growth and Cross-Country Income Differences,” AER 2000,
19. Trade, Labor Markets and Immigration
Costinot and Vogel, “Matching and Inequality in the World Economy,” JPE 2010
Grossman, “The Distribution of Talent and the Pattern and Consequences of
International Trade,” JPE 2004
Helpman, Itshoki, Redding and Muendler, “Trade and Inequality: from Theory to
Estimation,” NBER working paper 17991, 2012
Ohnsorge and Trefler, “Sorting it Out: International Trade with Heterogeneous
Workers,” JPE 2007
Davidson, Martin and Matusz, “Trade and Search-Generated Unemployment,” JIE
Ottaviano, Peri and Wright, “Immigration, Offshoring and American Jobs,” AER
Peri, “The Effect of Immigration on Productivity: Evidence from US States,” REStat
G. Hanson and M. Slaughter, “The Rybczynski Theorem, Factor-Price Equalization,
and Immigration: Evidence from U.S. States,” NBER working paper 7074, 1999
20. Product Quality and Trade
Hallak, “Product Quality and the Direction of Trade,” JIE 2006
Hummels and Klenow, “The Variety and Quality of a Nation’s Exports,” AER 2005
Hummels and Skiba, “Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of
the Alchian-Allen Hypothesis,” JPE 2004
Schott, “Across-Product versus Within-Product Specialization and Trade,” QJE 2004
21. Trade in Intermediates and Vertical Specialization
F, Ch.4
Antras and Chor, “Organizing the Global Value Chain,” NBER working paper 18163,
Kohler, “International Outsourcing and Factor Prices with Multistage Production,” EJ
Nunn and Trefler, “Incomplete Contracts and the Boundaries of the Multinational
Firm,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2013
22. International Trade and the Environment
Copeland and Taylor, “Trade and Trans-boundary Pollution,” AER 1995
Antweiler, Copeland, and Taylor, “Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?” AER
Copeland and Taylor, “Trade, Growth and the Environment,” Journal of Economic
Literature 2004
Bohringer, Carbone, and Rutherford, “Embodied Carbon Tariffs,” NBER working
paper 17376, 2011
Bohringer and Rutherford, “Carbon Abatement and International Spillovers,”
Environmental and Resource Economics 2002
23. “Behind the Border” Regulations and Trade
Grossman and Lai, “International Protection of Intellectual Property,” AER 2004
Ganslandt and Maskus, “Vertical Distribution, Parallel Trade, and Price Divergence
in Integrated Markets,” European Economic Review 2007
Ivus, “Do Stronger Patent Rights Raise High-Tech Exports to the Developing
World?” JIE 2010
Chen and Mattoo, “Regionalism in Standards: Good or Bad for Trade?” Canadian
Journal of Economics 2008
24. Empirics of WTO and Regional Trade Agreements
Rose, “Do We Really Know that the WTO Increases Trade?” AER 2004
Subramanian and Wei, “The WTO Promotes Trade, Strongly but Unevenly,” NBER
working paper 10024, 2003
Broda, Limao and Weinstein, “Optimal Tariffs and Market Power: the Evidence,”
AER 2008
Baier and Bergstrand, “Economic Determinants of Free Trade Agreements,” JIE 2004
Baier and Bergstrand, “Estimating the Effects of Free Trade Agreements on
International Trade Using Matched Econometrics,” JIE 2009
Romalis, “NAFTA’s and CUSFTA’s Impact on International Trade,” REStat 2007
Chen and Joshi, “Third-Country Effects on the Formation of Free Trade
Agreements,” JIE 2010
25. Exchange Rates, Pricing and Trade
Alessandria and Kaboski, “Pricing to Market and the Failure of Absolute PPP,” AER:
Macroeconomics 2011
Atkeson and Burstein, “Pricing to Market, Trade Costs, and International Relative
Prices,” AER 2008
Feenstra, “Symmetric Pass-Through of Tariffs and Exchange Rates under Imperfect
Competition: An Empirical Test,” JIE 1989
Fly UP