Final Research Poster
Life Cycle Analysis of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions as a Result of Shale Gas Produc/on in Colorado 1 2 Allie Nagurney Dr. Jana Milford 1Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, LafayeQe College, Easton, PA 2 Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO Methods The Natural Gas Life Cycle (and NOx emissions sources) Consists of 1. Pre Production: drill rigs, hydraulic fracturing, well completions and workovers 2. Production: compressor engines, boilers, heaters, venting, flaring 3. Processing: compressor engines, amine unites, glycol dehydrators, boilers 4. Transmission: compressor engines 5. Distribution 6. End Use: residential combustion, electrical generation, commercial/ industrial combustion 11,12 Comparison of Upstream Emissions Inventories 17% 29-‐45% Weber and Clavin (2012) 20-‐22% Greenhouse Gas NOx 6000 4000 2000 0 Delta Garﬁeld Gunnison Mesa Moﬀat Rio Blanco RouQ County 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 La Plata County 9 Health wise, nitrogen oxides and ozone are responsible for respiratory problems. Nitrogen oxide forms “smog,” a brown haze that can decrease atmospheric visibility. 7,8 Objec>ves The number of natural gas producing wells in Colorado has increased from 22,949 in 2007 to 32,000 in 2012. 10 With this growth in mind, it is important to compile a new study of NOx emissions from shale gas production. A Life Cycle Analysis is a useful tool to comprehensively consider emissions impacts because • They identify where in the production chain emissions come from • They can help compare the absolute amount of emissions coming from each stage • They can identify where in the chain there is potential to reduce emissions Pre Produc/on Produc/on West Jump 1E+09 Produc/on 800000000 Export 600000000 Consump/on 400000000 200000000 Basin Wide Comparison of Upstream NOx Emissions by Source Category Denver-‐Julesburg Basin Piceance Basin Exempt Engines Drill Rigs Exempt Engines Drill Rigs Misc. Engines EPA Na/onal Emissions Inventory (2011) Heaters Workover Rigs Heaters Workover Rigs Heaters Workover Rigs Compressor Engines Glycol Dehydrator Compressor Engines Glycol Dehydrator Compressor Engines Glycol Dehydrator Department of Public Health (2011) Flaring Flaring Flaring After analyzing these studies, the WestJump Study (2008) was chosen for this study because it provided a consistent year of analysis throughout the basins, the EPA NEI proved to be too different from the other studies. COGCC Produc/on COGCC Produc/on PermiQed Sources Other Other PermiQed Sources PermiQed Sources Other 13 2008 marked an elevated year for drilling in the Piceance Basin, which is why drill rigs account for almost 50% of the total upstream emissions. Life Cycle Analysis for NOx Emissions Total Emissions=.17 lbs/mcf Residential Combustion End Use Percentage of NOx Emissions by Stage Upstream=40.70% Midstream=3.55% Combustion=55.75% 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 Pre Produc/on Produc/on Processing Transmission Distribu/on Residen/al Combus/on Life Cycle Stage Spa>al Domain Electrical Generation End Use DJ, Piceance, North San Juan Basins DJ, Piceance, North San Juan Basins Processing Transmission Distribu/on Residen/al Combus/on CO CDPHE CO CDPHE CO CDPHE EPA NEI COGCC Produc/on EIA Consump/on EIA Consump/on EIA Consump/on Statewide Statewide Statewide Statewide Electrical Combus/on EPA Clean Air Markets EPA Clean Air Markets Statewide Commercial/ Industrial Combus/on EPA NEI EPA AP-‐42 EIA Consump/on Statewide P Pre Produc/on Produc/on Processing Transmission Distribu/on Electrical Combus/on Total Emissions=.11 lbs/mcf Percentage NOx Emissions by Stage Upstream=62.18% Midstream=5.43% Combustion=32.41% Life Cycle Stage The EPA lists an “Industrial Boilers/ICEs” category in their sources of combustion NOx emissions. However, the EIA does not separate out boilers into a unique natural gas consumption category. To incorporate the boiler NOx emissions into this study, two methods were used. 1. The Industrial Boiler/ICE emissions were added to the Commercial/ Industrial NOx emissions to get a high end combustion emissions estimate. 2. An average value from the EPA AP-42 (an emissions factor database) was used to get a low end combustion emissions estimate.16,20 Commercial/Industrial End Use (high end) 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21 Normalizing the Data The data was normalized to create emissions factors for each stage via the following equations: Upstream Emissions Factor(lbs/mcf)=Emissions/Production Midstream Emissions Factor(lbs/mcf)=Emissions/Consumption Combustion Emissions Factor(lbs/mcf)=Emissions/Consumption 0.05 0.045 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0.6 Pre Produc/on Produc/on 0.5 Processing 0.4 0.3 Transmission 0.2 Distribu/on 0.1 0 Life Cycle Stage Commercial/Industrial End Use (low end) Pre Produc/on Produc/on 0.14 0.12 Processing 0.1 0.08 Transmission 0.06 0.04 Distribu/on Life Cycle Stage Total Emissions=.58 lbs/mcf Percent of NOx Emissions by Stage Upstream=11.67% Midstream=1.02% Combustion=87.31% Commercial/ Industrial Combus/on 0.16 0 www.PosterPresentations.com North San Juan Basin Drill Rigs 0.02 RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012 14,21 Year West Jump (2008) NOx Emissions Natural Gas Amount Source West Jump 1.2E+09 WRAP Updated Phase III (2009) Summary of Natural Gas Emissions Sources, Production/Consumption Sources, and Spatial Domain Stage 1.4E+09 WRAP Phase III (2006) Greenhouse Gas NOx emissions are important to consider because NOx are precursors of ozone. NOx are released into the atmosphere via the combustion of fossil fuels. NOx forms when nitrogen and oxygen react in the presence of heat (such as a gas flare). Increasing the ozone concentration in the atmosphere increases the greenhouse effect. 7,8 NO + HC + O2 + sunlight à NO2 + O3 1.6E+09 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 County NOx Emissions Comparision for the North San Juan Basin Archuleta 1.8E+09 NOx Emissions (lbs/mcf) Dale et al. (2013) Jaramillo et al. (2007) 8000 Long Term Trends (mcf) NOx Emissions (lbs/mcf) % of Total Emissions NOx or Coming From Upstream Greenhouse Gas Sources Emissions 10000 • The total amount of NOx emissions and the life cycle stage percentage of emissions depends on the end use of the natural gas. • Upstream NOx Emissions account for between 11.67% and 62.18% of the total life cycle emissions. • Pre Production emissions for the Piceance Basin are higher than they are in a “typical” year because 2008 was a year of high drilling activity in the Piceance Basin as compared to the DJ and the North San Juan Basin. • The pre production equipment (drill rigs) and production equipment (heaters and compressor engines) should be examined to see how these pieces of equipment could be altered to reduce the total amount of emission. • Data could have improved if the upstream emissions were not just for three basins, but for statewide natural gas production. • NOx Emissions (lbs/mcf) Study 12000 Colorado Natural Gas Production, Export, and Consumption Trends NOx Emissions (lbs/mcf) Previous work has looked at greenhouse gas life cycle emissions for shale gas production,4,5,6 and when NOx emissions were considered the data contained high degrees of uncertainty.5 14000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Adams Arapahoe Boulder Broomﬁeld Crowley Denver Elbert Fremont Jeﬀerson Kit Carson Larimer Lincoln Logan Morgan Phillips Sedgwick Washington Weld Yuma 3 NOx Emissions (tons/year) 3 NOx Emissions (tons/year) NOx Emissions Comparision for the Piceance Basin Conclusions NOx Emissions Comparision for the Denver-‐Juleburg Basin NOx Emissions (tons/year) In the last ten years, hydraulic fracturing of shale gas has become economically feasible due to new technologies. In Colorado, natural gas is extracted via the hydraulic fracturing of shale deposits in the Denver Julesburg Basin, Piceance Basin, and North San Juan Basin. The production of natural gas emits carbon dioxide, methane, volatile organic carbons, and nitrogen oxides, which all have environmental effects.1,2 Results Amount of Natural Gas (mcf) Introduc>on Commercial/ Industrial Combus/on Total Emissions=.22 lbs/mcf Percentage NOx Emissions by Stage Upstream=30.37% Midstream=2.65% Combustion=66.98% Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Jana Milford, my mentor this summer, for her help and guidance. I would also like to thank Dr. Lupita Montoya for organizing the Research Experience for Undergraduates. I would like to thank Phil Swisher for his GIS work on this project. Lastly, I would like to thank the National Science Foundation and the Grant No. 1263385 for sponsoring the REU Program. References 1United States Energy Information Administration. 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