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AD5934 数据手册DataSheet 下载
250 kSPS, 12-Bit Impedance Converter,
Network Analyzer
AD5934
FEATURES
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Programmable output peak-to-peak excitation voltage
to a maximum frequency of 100 kHz
Programmable frequency sweep capability with
serial I2C interface
Frequency resolution of 27 bits (<0.1 Hz)
Impedance measurement range from 1 kΩ to 10 MΩ
Capable of measuring 100 Ω to 1 kΩ with additional circuitry
Phase measurement capability
System accuracy of 0.5%
2.7 V to 5.5 V power supply operation
Temperature range: −40°C to +125°C
16-lead SSOP package
The AD5934 is a high precision impedance converter system
solution that combines an on-board frequency generator with a
12-bit, 250 kSPS, analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The
frequency generator allows an external complex impedance to
be excited with a known frequency. The response signal from
the impedance is sampled by the on-board ADC and a discrete
Fourier transform (DFT) is processed by an on-board DSP
engine. The DFT algorithm returns a real (R) and imaginary (I)
data-word at each output frequency.
Once calibrated, the magnitude of the impedance and relative
phase of the impedance at each frequency point along the sweep
is easily calculated using the following two equations:
R2 + I 2
APPLICATIONS
Magnitude =
Electrochemical analysis
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
Impedance spectroscopy
Complex impedance measurement
Corrosion monitoring and protection equipment
Biomedical and automotive sensors
Proximity sensing
Nondestructive testing
Material property analysis
Fuel/battery cell condition monitoring
Phase = tan−1(I/R)
A similar device, available from Analog Devices, Inc., is the
AD5933, which is a 2.7 V to 5.5 V, 1 MSPS, 12-bit impedance
converter, with an internal temperature sensor, available in a
16-lead SSOP.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
MCLK
AVDD
DVDD
DDS
CORE
(27 BITS)
SCL
SDA
DAC
ROUT
VOUT
VBIAS
I2 C
INTERFACE
Z(ω)
AD5934
REAL
REGISTER
IMAGINARY
REGISTER
RFB
1024-POINT DFT
VIN
ADC
(12 BITS)
GAIN
LPF
AGND
05325-001
VDD/2
DGND
Figure 1.
Rev. A
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113 ©2005–2008 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD5934
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
Applications....................................................................................... 1
General Description ......................................................................... 1
Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1
Revision History ............................................................................... 3
Specifications..................................................................................... 4
Start Frequency Register (Register Address 0x82, Register
Address 0x83, Register Address 0x84)..................................... 23
Frequency Increment Register (Register Address 0x85,
Register Address 0x86, Register Address 0x87) ..................... 23
Number of Increments Register (Register Address 0x88,
Register Address 0x89) .............................................................. 24
I2C Serial Interface Timing Characteristics .............................. 6
Number of Settling Time Cycles Register (Register Address
0x8A, Register Address 0x8B) .................................................. 24
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 7
Status Register (Register Address 0x8F).................................. 24
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 7
Real and Imaginary Data Registers (16 Bits—Register Address
0x94, Register Address 0x95, Register Address 0x96, Register
Address 0x97) .............................................................................. 25
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 8
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 9
Teminology...................................................................................... 11
System Description......................................................................... 12
Transmit Stage............................................................................. 13
Frequency Sweep Command Sequence................................... 14
Receive Stage ............................................................................... 14
DFT Operation ........................................................................... 14
Serial Bus Interface......................................................................... 26
General I2C Timing.................................................................... 26
Writing/Reading to the AD5934 .............................................. 27
Block Write.................................................................................. 27
Read Operations......................................................................... 28
Typical Applications....................................................................... 29
Measuring Small Impedances................................................... 29
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Impedance Calculation.................................................................. 15
Magnitude Calculation .............................................................. 15
Gain Factor Calculation ............................................................ 15
Impedance Calculation Using Gain Factor............................. 15
Gain Factor Variation with Frequency .................................... 15
2-Point Calibration..................................................................... 16
2-Point Gain Factor Calculation .............................................. 16
Gain Factor Setup Configuration............................................. 16
Gain Factor Recalculation......................................................... 16
Gain Factor Temperature Variation ......................................... 17
Impedance Error......................................................................... 17
Measuring the Phase Across an Impedance ........................... 19
Performing a Frequency Sweep .................................................... 21
Register Map.................................................................................... 22
Control Register (Register Address 0x80, Register Address
0x81)............................................................................................. 22
Biomedical: Noninvasive Blood impedance Measurement .. 30
Sensor/Complex Impedance Measurement............................ 31
Electro-Impedance Spectroscopy............................................. 31
Choosing a Reference for the AD5934 ........................................ 32
Layout and Configuration............................................................. 33
Power Supply Bypassing and Grounding................................ 33
Evaluation Board ............................................................................ 34
Using the AD5934 Evaluation Board....................................... 34
Prototyping Area ........................................................................ 34
Crystal Oscillator (XO) vs. External Clock............................. 34
Schematics................................................................................... 35
Bill Of Materials.......................................................................... 39
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 40
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 40
Rev. A | Page 2 of 40
AD5934
REVISION HISTORY
5/8—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Changes to Layout.............................................................. Universal
Changes to Features Section, General Description Section, and
Figure 1 ...............................................................................................1
Deleted Table 1; Renumbered Sequentially ...................................1
Changes to Table 1 ............................................................................4
Changes to Table 2 ............................................................................6
Changes to Figure 3 and Table 4 .....................................................8
Changes to System Description Section and Figure 14..............12
Changes to Figure 16 ......................................................................13
Changes to Frequency Sweep Command Sequence Section and
Receive Stage Section......................................................................14
Changes to Gain Factor Calculation Section and Impedance
Calculation Using Gain Factor Section ........................................15
Changes to Figure 20 ......................................................................16
Changes to Impedance Error Section...........................................17
Added Measuring the Phase Across an Impedance Section .....19
Added Figure 28 and Figure 29; Renumbered Sequentially ......20
Added Table 6; Renumbered Sequentially...................................20
Deleted Table 8 ................................................................................19
Deleted Table 10 and Table 11 .......................................................20
Changes to Table 9 ..........................................................................22
Deleted Table 14, Table 16, and Table 17 .....................................22
Changes to Status Register (Register Address 0x8F) Section....24
Added Measuring Small Impedances Section, Figure 37, and
Table 16.............................................................................................29
Changes to Table 17 ........................................................................32
Added Evaluation Board Section ..................................................34
Added Figure 40 ..............................................................................35
Added Figure 41 ..............................................................................36
Added Figure 42 ..............................................................................37
Added Figure 43 ..............................................................................38
Added Table 18 ................................................................................39
Changes to Ordering Guide...........................................................40
6/05—Revision 0: Initial Version
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Rev. A | Page 3 of 40
AD5934
SPECIFICATIONS
VDD = 3.3 V, MCLK = 16.776 MHz, 2 V p-p output excitation voltage @ 30 kHz, 200 kΩ connected between Pin 5 and Pin 6; feedback
resistor = 200 kΩ connected between Pin 4 and Pin 5; PGA gain = ×1, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
SYSTEM
Impedance Range
Min
1k
Total System Accuracy
System Impedance Error Drift
TRANSMIT STAGE
Output Frequency Range 2
Output Frequency Resolution
MCLK Frequency
TRANSMIT OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Range 1
AC Output Excitation Voltage 3
DC Bias 4
DC Output Impedance
Short-Circuit Current to Ground at VOUT
Range 2
AC Output Excitation Voltage3
DC Bias4
DC Output Impedance
Short-Circuit Current to Ground at VOUT
Range 3
AC Output Excitation Voltage3
DC Bias4
DC Output Impedance
Short-Circuit Current to Ground at VOUT
Range 4
AC Output Excitation Voltage3
DC Bias4
DC Output Impedance
Short-Circuit Current to Ground at VOUT
SYSTEM AC CHARACTERISTICS
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Total Harmonic Distortion
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range
Wide Band (0 MHz to 1 MHz)
Narrow Band (±5 kHz)
Y Version 1
Typ
Max
10 M
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
Ω
100 Ω to 1 kΩ requires extra buffer circuitry,
see Measuring Small Impedances section
2 V p-p output excitation voltage at 30 kHz,
200 kΩ connected between Pin 5 and Pin 6
0.5
%
30
ppm/°C
1
100
0.1
16.776
1.98
1.48
200
±5.8
kHz
Hz
MHz
<0.1 Hz resolution achievable using
direct digital synthesis (DDS) techniques
Maximum system clock frequency
V p-p
V
Ω
mA
Refer to Figure 4 for output voltage distribution
DC bias of the ac excitation signal; see Figure 5
TA = 25°C
TA = 25°C
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0.97
0.76
2.4
±0.25
V p-p
V
kΩ
mA
See Figure 6
DC bias of output excitation signal; see Figure 7
0.383
0.31
1
±0.20
V p-p
V
kΩ
mA
See Figure 8
DC bias of output excitation signal; see Figure 9
0.198
0.173
600
±0.15
V p-p
V
Ω
mA
See Figure 10
DC bias of output excitation signal; see Figure 11
60
−52
dB
dB
−56
−85
dB
dB
Rev. A | Page 4 of 40
AD5934
Parameter
RECEIVE STAGE
Input Leakage Current
Input Capacitance 5
Feedback Capacitance, CFB
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER5
Resolution
Sampling Rate
LOGIC INPUTS
Input High Voltage, VIH
Input Low Voltage, VIL
Input Current 6
Input Capacitance
POWER REQUIREMENTS
VDD
IDD, Normal Mode
IDD, Standby Mode
IDD, Power-Down Mode
1
Min
Y Version 1
Typ
Max
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
1
0.01
3
nA
pF
pF
To VIN pin
Pin capacitance between VOUT and GND
Feedback capacitance around current-tovoltage amplifier; appears in parallel with
feedback resistor
12
250
Bits
kSPS
ADC throughput rate
μA
pF
TA = 25°
TA = 25°C
V
mA
mA
mA
mA
μA
μA
VDD = 3.3 V
VDD = 5.5 V
VDD = 3.3 V; see the Control Register section
VDD = 5.5 V
VDD = 3.3 V
VDD = 5.5 V
0.7 × VDD
0.3 × VDD
1
7
2.7
10
17
7
9
0.7
1
5.5
15
25
5
8
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Temperature range for Y version = −40°C to +125°C, typical at +25°C.
The lower limit of the output excitation frequency can be lowered by scaling the clock supplied to the AD5934.
3
The peak-to-peak value of the ac output excitation voltage scales with supply voltage according to the following formula. VDD is the supply voltage.
Output Excitation Voltage (V p-p) = [2/3.3] × VDD
4
The dc bias value of the output excitation voltage scales with supply voltage according to the following formula. VDD is the supply voltage.
Output Excitation Voltage (V p-p) = [2/3.3] × VDD
5
Guaranteed by design or characterization, not production tested. Input capacitance at the VOUT pin is equal to pin capacitance divided by open-loop gain of currentto-voltage amplifier.
6
The accumulation of the currents into Pin 8, Pin 15, and Pin 16.
2
Rev. A | Page 5 of 40
AD5934
I2C SERIAL INTERFACE TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V; all specifications TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted (see Figure 2).
Table 2.
Parameter 1
fSCL
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6 2
Limit at TMIN, TMAX
400
2.5
0.6
1.3
0.6
100
0.9
0
0.6
0.6
1.3
300
0
300
0
250
20 + 0.1 Cb 3
400
t7
t8
t9
t10
t11
Cb
1
Unit
Description
kHz max
μs min
μs min
μs min
μs min
ns min
μs max
μs min
μs min
μs min
μs min
ns max
ns min
ns max
ns min
ns max
ns min
pF max
SCL clock frequency
SCL cycle time
tHIGH, SCL high time
tLOW, SCL low time
tHD, STA, start/repeated start condition hold time
tSU, DAT, data setup time
tHD, DAT, data hold time
tHD, DAT, data hold time
tSU, STA, setup time for repeated start
tSU, STO, stop condition setup time
tBUF, bus free time between a stop and a start condition
tR, rise time of SDA when transmitting
tR, rise time of SCL and SDA when receiving (CMOS compatible)
tF, fall time of SCL and SDA when transmitting
tF, fall time of SDA when receiving (CMOS compatible)
tF, fall time of SDA when receiving
tF, fall time of SCL and SDA when transmitting
Capacitive load for each bus line
Guaranteed by design and characterization, not production tested.
A master device must provide a hold time of at least 300 ns for the SDA signal (referred to VIH MIN of the SCL signal) to bridge the undefined falling edge of SCL.
3
Cb is the total capacitance of one bus line in pF. Note that tR and tF are measured between 0.3 VDD and 0.7 VDD.
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SDA
t9
t3
t10
t11
t4
SCL
t4
t6
t2
t5
t7
REPEATED
START
CONDITION
START
CONDITION
Figure 2. I2C Interface Timing Diagram
Rev. A | Page 6 of 40
t1
t8
STOP
CONDITION
05325-002
2
AD5934
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
DVDD to GND
AVDD1 to GND
AVDD2 to GND
SDA/SCL to GND
VOUT to GND
VIN to GND
MCLK to GND
Operating Temperatures
Extended Industrial Range (Y Grade)
Storage Temperature Range
Maximum Junction Temperature
SSOP Package, Thermal Impedance
θJA
θJC
Reflow Soldering (Pb-Free)
Peak Temperature
Time at Peak Temperature
Rating
−0.3 V to +7.0 V
−0.3 V to +7.0 V
−0.3 V to +7.0 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
ESD CAUTION
−40°C to +125°C
−65°C to +160°C
150°C
139°C/W
136°C/W
260°C
10 sec to 40 sec
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Rev. A | Page 7 of 40
AD5934
NC 1
16
SCL
NC 2
15
SDA
AD5934
14
AGND2
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
13
AGND1
12
DGND
VOUT 6
11
AVDD2
NC 7
10
AVDD1
MCLK 8
9
DVDD
NC 3
RFB 4
VIN 5
NC = NO CONNECT
05325-003
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
NOTES:
1. IT IS RECOMMENDED TO TIE ALL SUPPLY
CONNECTIONS (PIN 9, PIN 10, AND PIN 11)
AND RUN FROM A SINGLE SUPPLY BETWEEN
2.7V AND 5.5V.
2. IT IS ALSO RECOMMENDED TO
CONNECT ALL GROUND SIGNALS TOGETHER
(PIN 12, PIN 13, AND PIN 14).
Figure 3. Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1 to 3, 7
4
Mnemonic
NC
RFB
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
VIN
VOUT
MCLK
DVDD
AVDD1
AVDD2
DGND
AGND1
AGND2
SDA
SCL
Description
No Connect.
External Feedback Resistor. Connect from Pin 4 to Pin 5. This pin sets the gain of the current-to-voltage amplifier
on the receive side.
Input to Receive Transimpedance Amplifier. VIN presents a virtual earth voltage of VDD/2.
Excitation Voltage Signal Output.
The master clock for the system is supplied by the user.
Digital Supply Voltage.
Analog Supply Voltage 1.
Analog Supply Voltage 2.
Digital Ground.
Analog Ground 1.
Analog Ground 2.
I2C® Data Input.
I2C Clock Input.
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Rev. A | Page 8 of 40
AD5934
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
35
30
MEAN = 1.9824
SIGMA = 0.0072
MEAN = 0.7543
SIGMA = 0.0099
25
25
NUMBER OF DEVICES
20
15
10
20
15
10
5
0
1.92
05325-064
5
1.94
1.96
1.98
2.00
2.02
2.04
05325-073
NUMBER OF DEVICES
30
0
0.68
2.06
0.70
0.72
0.74
VOLTAGE (V)
0.80
0.82
0.84
0.86
30
30
MEAN = 0.3827
SIGMA = 0.00167
MEAN = 1.4807
SIGMA = 0.0252
25
NUMBER OF DEVICES
25
20
20
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15
10
15
10
5
0
1.30
05325-072
5
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
0
0.370
1.75
05325-077
NUMBER OF DEVICES
0.78
Figure 7. Range 2 DC Bias Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
Figure 4. Range 1 Output Excitation Voltage Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
0.375
0.380
0.385
0.390
0.395
0.400
VOLTAGE (V)
VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 8. Range 3 Output Excitation Voltage Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
Figure 5. Range 1 DC Bias Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
30
30
MEAN = 0.9862
SIGMA = 0.0041
MEAN = 0.3092
SIGMA = 0.0014
25
NUMBER OF DEVICES
25
20
15
10
15
10
5
05325-066
5
0
0.95
20
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.01
1.02
0
0.290
05325-074
NUMBER OF DEVICES
0.76
VOLTAGE (V)
0.295
0.300
0.305
0.310
0.315
VOLTAGE (V)
VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 6. Range 2 Output Excitation Voltage Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
Rev. A | Page 9 of 40
Figure 9. Range 3 DC Bias Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
0.320
AD5934
15.8
30
MEAN = 0.1982
SIGMA = 0.0008
14.8
14.3
20
IDD (mA)
15
10
13.8
13.3
12.8
12.3
05325-070
0.194
0.196
0.198
0.200
0.202
0.204
05325-088
11.8
5
11.3
10.8
0.206
0
2
4
MEAN = 0.1792
SIGMA = 0.0024
12
14
18
16
VDD = 3.3V
TA = 25°C
f = 32kHz
0.2
PHASE ERROR (Degrees)
25
20
15
0
–0.2
–0.4
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05325-075
NUMBER OF DEVICES
10
0.4
30
5
8
Figure 12. Typical Supply Current (IDD) vs. MCLK Frequency
Figure 10. Range 4 Output Excitation Voltage Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
10
6
MCLK FREQUENCY (MHz)
VOLTAGE (V)
0
0.160 0.165 0.170 0.175 0.180 0.185 0.190 0.195 0.200 0.205
–0.6
–0.8
–1.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
PHASE (Degrees)
VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 13. Typical Phase Error
Figure 11. Range 4 DC Bias Distribution, VDD = 3.3 V
Rev. A | Page 10 of 40
300
350
05325-028
NUMBER OF DEVICES
25
0
0.192
AVDD1, AVDD2, DVDD CONNECTED TOGETHER
OUTPUT EXCITATION FREQUENCY = 30kHz
RFB, Z CALIBRATION = 100kΩ
15.3
400
AD5934
TEMINOLOGY
Total System Accuracy
The AD5934 can accurately measure a range of impedance
values to less than 0.5% of the correct impedance value for
supply voltages between 2.7 V to 5.5 V.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
SNR is the ratio of the rms value of the measured output signal
to the rms sum of all other spectral components below the
Nyquist frequency. The value for SNR is expressed in decibels.
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
Along with the frequency of interest, harmonics of the fundamental
frequency and images of these frequencies are present at the
output of a DDS device. The spurious-free dynamic range refers
to the largest spur or harmonic present in the band of interest.
The wideband SFDR gives the magnitude of the largest harmonic
or spur relative to the magnitude of the fundamental frequency
in the 0 Hz to Nyquist bandwidth. The narrow-band SFDR
gives the attenuation of the largest spur or harmonic in a
bandwidth of ±200 kHz, about the fundamental frequency.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
THD is the ratio of the rms sum of harmonics to the fundamental,
where V1 is the rms amplitude of the fundamental, and V2, V3,
V4, V5, and V6 are the rms amplitudes of the second through the
sixth harmonics. THD is defined as
THD (dB) = 20 log
V2 2 + V3 2 + V4 2 + V5 2 + V6 2
V1
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Rev. A | Page 11 of 40
AD5934
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
MCLK
DDS
CORE
(27 BITS)
COS
DAC
ROUT
SIN
VOUT
VBIAS
SCL
I2C
INTERFACE
MICROCONTROLLER
SDA
Z(ω)
AD5934
REAL
REGISTER
IMAGINARY
REGISTER
RFB
MAC CORE
(1024 DFT)
PROGRAMMABLE
GAIN AMPLIFIER
MCLK
VIN
ADC
(12 BITS)
LPF
×5
×1
VDD/2
05325-078
WINDOWING
OF DATA
Figure 14. Block Overview
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The AD5934 is a high precision, impedance converter system
solution that combines an on-board frequency generator with a
12-bit, 250 kSPS ADC. The frequency generator allows an external
complex impedance to be excited with a known frequency. The
response signal from the impedance is sampled by the on-board
ADC and DFT processed by an on-board DSP engine. The DFT
algorithm returns both a real (R) and imaginary (I) data-word at
each frequency point along the sweep. The impedance magnitude
and phase is easily calculated using the following equations:
Magnitude =
R2 + I 2
The AD5934 permits the user to perform a frequency sweep with
a user-defined start frequency, frequency resolution, and number
of points in the sweep. In addition, the device allows the user to
program the peak-to-peak value of the output sinusoidal signal as
an excitation to the external unknown impedance connected
between the VOUT and VIN pins.
Table 5 gives the four possible output peak-to-peak voltages and
the corresponding dc bias levels for each range for 3.3 V. These
values are ratiometric with VDD. So for a 5 V supply:
Output Excitation Voltage for Range 1 = 1.98 ×
Phase = tan−1(I/R)
To characterize an impedance profile Z(ω), generally a frequency
sweep is required such as that shown in Figure 15.
Output DC Bias Voltage for Range 1 = 1.48 ×
5.0
=3 V p−p
3.3
5.0
= 2.24 V p − p
3.3
Table 5. Voltage Levels Respective Bias Levels for 3.3 V
05325-033
IMPEDANCE (Ω)
Range
No.
1
2
3
4
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 15. Impedance vs. Frequency Profile
Output Excitation
Voltage Amplitude
1.98 V p-p
0.99 V p-p
383 mV p-p
198 mV p-p
Output DC Bias Level
1.48 V
0.74 V
0.31 V
0.179 V
The excitation signal for the transmit stage is provided on-chip
using DDS techniques that permit subhertz resolution. The receive
stage receives the input signal current from the unknown impedance,
performs signal processing, and digitizes the result. The clock for
the DDS is generated from an external reference clock that is
provided by the user at MCLK.
Rev. A | Page 12 of 40
AD5934
TRANSMIT STAGE
Frequency Increment
As shown in Figure 16, the transmit stage of the AD5934 is made
up of a 27-bit phase accumulator DDS core that provides the output
excitation signal at a particular frequency. The input to the phase
accumulator is taken from the contents of the start frequency register
(see Register Address 0x82, Register Address 0x83, and Register
Address 0x84). Although the phase accumulator offers 27 bits of
resolution, the start frequency register has the three most significant
bits (MSBs) set to 0 internally; therefore, the user has the ability to
program only the lower 24 bits of the start frequency register.
This is a 24-bit word that is programmed to the on-board RAM at
Register Address 0x85, Register Address 0x86, and Register Address
0x87 (see the Register Map section). The required code loaded to
the frequency increment register is the result of the formula shown in
Equation 2, based on the master clock frequency and the required
increment frequency output from the DDS.
PHASE
ACCUMULATOR
(27 BITS)
DAC
VOUT
VBIAS
ROUT
05325-034
R(GAIN)
Figure 16. Transmit Stage
The AD5934 offers a frequency resolution programmable by the
user down to 0.1 Hz. The frequency resolution is programmed via
a 24-bit word loaded serially over the I2C interface to the frequency
increment register.
The frequency sweep is fully described by the programming of
three parameters: the start frequency, the frequency increment,
and the number of increments.
Frequency Increment Code =
⎛
⎞
⎜ Required Frequency Increment ⎟
⎜
⎟ × 2 27
MCLK
⎜⎜
⎟⎟
16
⎝
⎠
(2)
For example, if the user requires the sweep to have a resolution of
10 Hz and has a 16 MHz clock signal connected to MCLK, the code
that needs to be programmed is given by
Frequency Increment Code =
⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟
10
Hz
⎜
⎟
⎜ ⎛ 16 MHz ⎞ ⎟ ≡ 0x00053E
⎜⎜ ⎜
⎟ ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎝ 16 ⎠ ⎠
The user programs the value 0x00 to Register Address 0x85, the
value 0x05 to Register Address 0x86, and the value 0x3E to
Register Address 0x87.
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Start Frequency
This is a 24-bit word that is programmed to the on-board RAM
at Register Address 0x82, Register Address 0x83, and Register
Address 0x84 (see the Register Map section). The required code
loaded to the start frequency register is the result of the formula
shown in Equation 1, based on the master clock frequency and the
required start frequency output from the DDS.
Start Frequency Code =
⎞
⎛
⎜ Required Output Start Frequency ⎟
⎟ × 2 27
⎜
MCLK
⎟⎟
⎜⎜
16
⎠
⎝
(1)
For example, if the user requires the sweep to begin at 30 kHz and
has a 16 MHz clock signal connected to MCLK, the code that needs
to be programmed is given by
⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
30 kHz ⎟ 27
× 2 = 0x3D70A3
Start Frequency Code = ⎜⎜
⎛ 16 MHz ⎞ ⎟
⎜⎜ ⎜ 16 ⎟ ⎟⎟
⎠⎠
⎝⎝
The user programs the value of 0x3D to Register Address 0x82,
the value 0x70 to Register Address 0x83, and the value 0xA3 to
Register Address 0x84.
Number of Increments
This is a 9-bit word that represents the number of frequency
points in the sweep. The number is programmed to the on-board
RAM at Register Address 0x88 and Register Address 0x89 (see the
Register Map section). The maximum number of points that can
be programmed is 511.
For example, if the sweep needs 150 points, the user programs
the value 0x00 to Register Address 0x88 and the value 0x96 to
Register Address 0x89.
Once the three parameter values are programmed, the sweep is
initiated by issuing a start frequency sweep command to the
control register at Register Address 0x80 and Register Address
0x81 (see the Register Map section). Bit D2 in the status register
(Register Address 0x8F) indicates the completion of the frequency
measurement for each sweep point. Incrementing to the next
frequency sweep point is under the control of the user. The measured
result is stored in the two register groups that follow: 0x94, 0x95
(real data) and 0x96, 0x97 (imaginary data) that should be read
before issuing an increment frequency command to the control
register to move to the next sweep point. There is the facility to
repeat the current frequency point measurement by issuing a
repeat frequency command to the control register. This has the
benefit of allowing the user to average successive readings. When
the frequency sweep has completed all frequency points, Bit D3 in
the status register is set, indicating the completion of the sweep.
Once this bit is set, further increments are disabled.
Rev. A | Page 13 of 40
AD5934
FREQUENCY SWEEP COMMAND SEQUENCE
RECEIVE STAGE
The following sequence must be followed to implement a
frequency sweep:
The receive stage comprises a current-to-voltage amplifier,
followed by a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), antialiasing
filter, and ADC. The receive stage schematic is shown in Figure 17.
The unknown impedance is connected between the VOUT and
VIN pins. The first stage current-to-voltage amplifier configuration
means that a voltage present at the VIN pin is a virtual ground
with a dc value set at VDD/2. The signal current that is developed
across the unknown impedance flows into the VIN pin and
develops a voltage signal at the output of the current-to-voltage
converter. The gain of the current-to voltage amplifier is determined
by a user-selectable feedback resistor connected between Pin 4
(RFB) and Pin 5 (VIN). It is important for the user to choose a
feedback resistance value which, in conjunction with the selected
gain of the PGA stage, maintains the signal within the linear range
of the ADC (0 V to VDD).
Enter standby mode. Prior to issuing a start frequency sweep
command, the device must be placed in standby mode by
issuing an enter standby mode command to the control
register (Register Address 0x80 and Register Address 0x81).
In this mode, the VOUT and VIN pins are connected internally
to ground so there is no dc bias across the external impedance or
between the impedance and ground.
2.
Enter initialize mode. In general, high Q complex circuits
require a long time to reach steady state. To facilitate the
measurement of such impedances, this mode allows the user
full control of the settling time requirement before entering
start frequency sweep mode where the impedance
measurement takes place.
An initialize with start frequency command to the control
register enters initialize mode. In this mode, the impedance
is excited with the programmed start frequency but no
measurement takes place. The user times out the required
settling time before issuing a start frequency sweep command to
the control register to enter the start frequency sweep mode.
3.
Enter start frequency sweep mode. The user enters this mode
by issuing a start frequency sweep command to the control
register. In this mode, the ADC starts measuring after the
programmed number of settling time cycles elapses. The user
can program an integer number of output frequency cycles
(settling time cycles) to Register Address 0x8A and Register
Address 0x8B before beginning the measurement at each
frequency point (see Figure 30).
RFB
R
5×R
C
R
VIN
R
ADC
VDD/2
LPF
05325-038
1.
Figure 17. Receive Stage
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The DDS output signal is passed through a programmable
gain stage to generate the four ranges of peak-to-peak output
excitation signals listed in Table 5. The peak-to-peak output
excitation voltage is selected by setting Bit D10 and Bit D9 in
the control register (see the Control Register section) and is
made available at the VOUT pin.
The PGA allows the user to gain the output of the current-tovoltage amplifier by a factor of 5 or 1 depending upon the status
of Bit D8 in the control register (see the Register Map section
Register Address 0x80). The signal is then low-pass filtered and
presented to the input of the 12-bit, 250 kSPS ADC.
The digital data from the ADC is passed directly to the DSP core
of the AD5934 that performs a DFT on the sampled data.
DFT OPERATION
A DFT is calculated for each frequency point in the sweep. The
AD5934 DFT algorithm is represented by
X( f ) =
1023
∑
n=0
(x(n)(cos(n) − j sin(n)))
where:
X(f) is the power in the signal at the Frequency Point f.
x(n) is the ADC output.
cos(n) and sin(n) are the sampled test vectors provided by the
DDS core at the Frequency f.
The multiplication is accumulated over 1024 samples for each
frequency point. The result is stored in two 16-bit registers
representing the real and imaginary components of the result. The
data is stored in twos complement format.
Rev. A | Page 14 of 40
AD5934
IMPEDANCE CALCULATION
MAGNITUDE CALCULATION
IMPEDANCE CALCULATION USING GAIN FACTOR
The first step in the impedance calculation for each frequency
point is to calculate the magnitude of the DFT at that point.
The next example illustrates how the calculated gain factor
derived previously is used to measure an unknown impedance.
For this example, assume that the unknown impedance is 510 kΩ.
The DFT magnitude is given by
Magnitude =
R2 + I 2
where:
R is the real number stored at Register Address 0x94 and
Register Address 0x95.
I is the imaginary number stored at Register Address 0x96 and
Register Address 0x97.
For example, assume the results in the real data and imaginary
data registers are as follows at a frequency point:
After measuring the unknown impedance at a frequency of
30 kHz, assume that the real data and imaginary data registers
contain the following data:
Real Data Register = 0xFA3F = −1473 decimal
Imaginary Data Register = 0x0DB3 = +3507 decimal
Magnitude = ((−1473)2 + (3507)2 ) = 3802.863
The measured impedance at the frequency point is then given by
Impedance =
Real Data Register = 0x038B = 907 decimal
Imaginary Data Register = 0x0204 = 516 decimal
Magnitude =
=
(907 + 516 ) = 1043.506
2
2
To convert this number into impedance, it must be multiplied
by a scaling factor called the gain factor. The gain factor is
calculated during the calibration of the system with a known
impedance connected between the VOUT and VIN pins.
1
Gain Factor × Magnitude
1
Ω = 509.791 kΩ
515.819273 × 10 −12 × 3802.863
GAIN FACTOR VARIATION WITH FREQUENCY
Because the AD5934 has a finite frequency response, the gain
factor also shows a variation with frequency. This variation in
gain factor results in an error in the impedance calculation over
a frequency range. Figure 18 shows an impedance profile based
on a single-point gain factor calculation. To minimize this error,
the frequency sweep should be limited to as small a frequency
range as possible.
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Once the gain factor is calculated, it can be used in the
calculation of any unknown impedance between the VOUT and
VIN pins.
101.5
An example of a gain factor calculation follows, with these
assumptions:
IMPEDANCE (kΩ)
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 200 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 200 kΩ
Calibration frequency = 30 kHz
101.0
The typical contents of the real data and imaginary data
registers after a frequency point conversion would then be
VDD = 3.3V
CALIBRATION FREQUENCY = 60kHz
TA = 25°C
MEASURED CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 100kΩ
100.5
100.0
99.5
99.0
05325-085
GAIN FACTOR CALCULATION
Real Data Register = 0xF064 = −3996 decimal
98.5
54
Imaginary Data Register = 0x227E = +8830 decimal
Magnitude =
( − 3996 )2 + (8830)2 = 9692.106
56
58
60
62
64
66
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 18. Impedance Profile Using a Single-Point Gain Factor Calculation
Gain Factor =
⎛
⎞
1
⎜⎜
⎟⎟
Impedance
Admittance
⎞ ⎝
⎛
⎠
⎜
⎟=
Code
Magnitude
⎝
⎠
1
⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟
200 kΩ ⎟
⎜
Gain Factor =
= 515.819 × 10 −12
⎜ 9692.106 ⎟
⎜
⎟
⎝
⎠
Rev. A | Page 15 of 40
AD5934
2-POINT CALIBRATION
GAIN FACTOR SETUP CONFIGURATION
Alternatively, it is possible to minimize this error by assuming
that the frequency variation is linear and adjusting the gain
factor with a 2-point calibration. Figure 19 shows an impedance
profile based on a 2-point gain factor calculation.
When calculating the gain factor, it is important that the receive
stage is operating in its linear region. This requires careful selection
of the excitation signal range, current-to-voltage gain resistor
and PGA gain. The gain through the system shown in Figure 20
is given by
101.5
Output Excitation Voltage Range ×
Gain Setting Resistor
× PGA Gain
ZUNKNOWN
100.5
CURRENT-TO-VOLTAGE
GAIN SETTING RESISTOR
100.0
RFB
99.5
VOUT
ZUNKNOWN
VIN
99.0
05325-086
98.5
54
VDD/2
56
58
60
62
64
66
ADC
PGA
(×1 OR ×5)
LPF
Figure 20. System Voltage Gain
For this example, assume the following system settings:
FREQUENCY (kHz)
VDD = 3.3 V
Gain setting resistor = 200 kΩ
ZUNKNOWN = 200 kΩ
PGA setting = ×1
Figure 19. Impedance Profile Using a 2-Point Gain Factor Calculation
2-POINT GAIN FACTOR CALCULATION
This is an example of a 2-point gain factor calculation assuming
the following:
The peak-to-peak voltage presented to the ADC input is 2 V p-p.
However, had the user chosen a PGA gain of ×5, the voltage
would saturate the ADC.
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Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZUNKNOWN = 100.0 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 100 kΩ
Calibration frequencies = 55 kHz and 65 kHz
GAIN FACTOR RECALCULATION
The gain factor must be recalculated for a change in any of the
following parameters:
Typical values of the gain factor calculated at the two calibration
frequencies read
Gain factor calculated at 55 kHz is 1.031224 × 10−9.
Gain factor calculated at 65 kHz is 1.035682 × 10−9.
Difference in gain factor (ΔGF) is
1.035682 × 10−9 − 1.031224 × 10−9 = 4.458000 × 10−12.
Frequency span of sweep (ΔF) is 10 kHz.
•
•
•
Therefore, the gain factor required at 60 kHz is given by
⎛ 4.458000E - 12 × 5 kHz ⎞ + 1.031224 × 10 -9
⎜
⎟
10 kHz
⎝
⎠
The required gain factor is 1.033453 × 10−9.
The impedance is calculated as previously described in the
Impedance Calculation section.
Rev. A | Page 16 of 40
Current-to-voltage gain setting resistor
Output excitation voltage
PGA gain
05325-089
IMPEDANCE (kΩ)
101.0
VDD = 3.3V
CALIBRATION FREQUENCY = 60kHz
TA = 25°C
MEASURED CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 100kΩ
AD5934
7
The typical impedance error variation with temperature is in
the order of 30 ppm/°C. Figure 21 shows an impedance profile
with a variation in temperature for 100 kΩ impedance using a
2-point gain factor calibration.
6
101.5
+125°C
100.5
RFB = 0.1kΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 0.1kΩ
TA = 25°C
5
0.5kΩ
1kΩ
4
3
2
1
05325-079
IMPEDANCE (kΩ)
101.0
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
GAIN FACTOR TEMPERATURE VARIATION
+25°C
100.0
0
–40°C
10
35
60
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
99.5
Figure 22. Impedance Range 1 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
98.5
54
VDD = 3.3V
CALIBRATION FREQUENCY = 60kHz
MEASURED CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 100kΩ
56
58
60
62
05325-087
99.0
64
66
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 21. Impedance Profile Variation with Temperature Using a
2-Point Gain Factor Calibration
IMPEDANCE ERROR
Minimizing the impedance range under test optimizes the
AD5934 measurement performance. Following are the examples of
the AD5934 performance when operating in the six different
impedance ranges. The gain factor is calculated with a precision
resistor in each case. Note that ROUT was measured to be 200 Ω
for 2 V p-p. ROUT was calibrated out in the gain factor calculations.
In Figure 22 to Figure 26, the 10 kHz excitation frequency was
generated using a 4 MHz clock.
Impedance Range 2 (1 kΩ to 10 kΩ)
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 23:
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 1 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 1 kΩ
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Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 100 Ω
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 100 Ω
RFB = 1kΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 1kΩ
TA = 25°C
1.6
1.4
5kΩ
10kΩ
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
05325-080
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 22:
1.8
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
Impedance Range 1 (0.1 kΩ to 1 kΩ)
2.0
0.2
0
10
35
60
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 23. Impedance Range 2 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
Rev. A | Page 17 of 40
AD5934
Impedance Range 3 (10 kΩ to 100 kΩ)
Impedance Range 5 (1 MΩ to 2 MΩ)
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 24:
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 26:
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 10 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 10 kΩ
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 100 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 100 kΩ
50kΩ
100kΩ
1
0.1
0
–0.1
–0.3
–1
–3
–5
–7
05325-081
–0.2
10
35
60
–9
100
RFB = 1MΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 1MΩ
TA = 25°C
1.5MΩ
2MΩ
10
FREQUENCY (kHz)
05325-083
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
0.2
3
RFB = 10kΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 10kΩ
TA = 25°C
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
0.3
35
60
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 24. Impedance Range 3 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
Figure 26. Impedance Range 5 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
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Impedance Range 4 (100 kΩ to 1 MΩ)
Impedance Range 6 (9 MΩ to 10 MΩ)
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 25:
The following conditions were used to conduct the tests shown
in Figure 27:
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 100 kΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 100 kΩ
Output excitation voltage = 2 V p-p
Calibration impedance value, ZCALIBRATION = 9 MΩ
PGA gain = ×1
Supply voltage = 3.3 V
Current-to-voltage amplifier gain resistor = 9 MΩ
1.0
4
500kΩ
1MΩ
0.5
2
RFB = 10MΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 10MΩ
TA = 25°C
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
% IMPEDANCE ERROR
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.5
–2.0
0
–2
–4
9.5MΩ
10MΩ
–6
–2.5
10
35
–8
60
–10
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
05325-084
–3.5
RFB = 100kΩ
CALIBRATION IMPEDANCE = 100kΩ
TA = 25°C
05325-082
–3.0
10
35
60
100
FREQUENCY (kHz)
Figure 25. Impedance Range 4 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
Figure 27. Impedance Range 6 Typical % Impedance Error over Frequency
Rev. A | Page 18 of 40
AD5934
MEASURING THE PHASE ACROSS AN IMPEDANCE
The AD5934 returns a complex output code made up of a
separate real and imaginary components. The real component is
stored at Register Address 0x94 and Register Address 0x95, and
the imaginary component is stored at Register Address 0x96
and Register Address 0x97 after each sweep measurement. These
correspond to the real and imaginary components of the DFT
and not the resistive and reactive components of the impedance
under test.
For example, it is a common misconception to assume that if a
user was analyzing a series RC circuit that the real value stored
in Register Address 0x94 and Register Address 0x95 and the
imaginary value stored in Register Address 0x96 and Register
Address 0x97 would correspond to the resistance and capacitive
reactance, respectfully. However, this is incorrect because the
magnitude of the impedance (|Z|) can be calculated by calculating
the magnitude of the real and imaginary components of the
DFT given by the following formula:
Magnitude =
The parameters of interest for many users are the magnitude of
the impedance (|ZUNKNOWN|) and the impedance phase (ZØ).The
measurement of the impedance phase (ZØ) is a 2-step process.
The first step involves calculating the AD5934 system phase.
The AD5934 system phase can be calculated by placing a
resistor across the VOUT and VIN pins of the AD5934 and
calculating the phase (using Equation 3) after each measurement
point in the sweep. By placing a resistor across the VOUT and
VIN pins, there is no additional phase lead or lag introduced to
the AD5934 signal path, and the resulting phase is due entirely
to the internal poles of the AD5934, that is, the system phase.
Once the system phase is calibrated using a resistor, the second
step involves calculating the phase of any unknown impedance
can be calculated by inserting the unknown impedance between
the VIN and VOUT terminals of the AD5934 and recalculating
the new phase (including the phase due to the impedance) using
the same formula. The phase of the unknown impedance (ZØ)
is given by
ZØ = (Φunknown − ∇system )
R2 + I 2
After each measurement, multiply it by the calibration term and
invert the product. Therefore, the magnitude of the impedance
is given by the following formula:
where:
∇system is the phase of the system with a calibration resistor
connected between VIN and VOUT.
Φunknown is the phase of the system with the unknown
impedance connected between VIN and VOUT.
ZØ is the phase due to the impedance, that is, the impedance phase.
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Impedance =
1
Gain Factor × Magnitude
Note that it is possible to calculate the gain factor and to calibrate
the system phase using the same real and imaginary component
values when a resistor is connected between the VOUT and
VIN pins of the AD5934, for example, measuring the impedance
phase (ZØ) of a capacitor.
Where the gain factor is given by
⎛
⎞
1
⎜⎜
⎟⎟
Impedance
⎛ Admittance ⎞ ⎝
⎠
Gain Factor = ⎜
⎟=
Code
Magnitude
⎝
⎠
The user must calibrate the AD5934 system for a known
impedance range to determine the gain factor before any valid
measurement can take place. Therefore, the user must know
the impedance limits of the complex impedance (ZUNKNOWN) for
the sweep frequency range of interest. The gain factor is simply
determined by placing a known impedance between the input/
output of the AD5934 and measuring the resulting magnitude of
the code. The AD5934 system gain settings need to be chosen to
place the excitation signal in the linear region of the on-board ADC.
Because the AD5934 returns a complex output code made up of
real and imaginary components, the user is also able to calculate
the phase of the response signal through the signal path of the
AD5934. The phase is given by the following formula:
Phase (rads) = tan−1(I/R)
(3)
The phase measured by Equation 3 accounts for the phase
shift introduced to the DDS output signal as it passes through the
internal amplifiers on the transmit and receive side of the AD5934,
along with the low-pass filter, and also the impedance connected
between the VOUT and VIN pins of the AD5934.
The excitation signal current leads the excitation signal voltage
across a capacitor by −90 degrees. Therefore, an approximate
−90 degrees phase difference between the system phase responses
measured with a resistor and the system phase responses measured
with a capacitive impedance exists.
As previously outlined, if the user wants to determine the phase
angle of the capacitive impedance (ZØ), the user first must
determine the system phase response ( ∇system ) and subtract
this from the phase calculated with the capacitor connected
between VOUT and VIN (Φunknown).
Figure 28 shows the AD5934 system phase response calculated
using a 220 kΩ calibration resistor (RFB = 220 kΩ, PGA = ×1)
and the repeated phase measurement with a 10 pF capacitive
impedance.
One important point to note about the phase formula used to
plot Figure 28 is that it uses the arctangent function that returns
a phase angle in radians and, therefore, it is necessary to convert
from radians to degrees.
Rev. A | Page 19 of 40
AD5934
200
component is negative, that is, the data lies in the second
quadrant, the arctangent formula returns a negative angle, and
it is necessary to add an additional 180° to calculate the correct
standard angle. Likewise, when the real and imaginary components
are both negative, that is, when data lies in the third quadrant,
the arctangent formula returns a positive angle, and it is necessary
to add an additional 180° to calculate the correct standard
phase. When the real component is positive and the imaginary
component is negative, that is, the data lies in the fourth quadrant,
the arctangent formula returns a negative angle, and it is necessary
to add an additional 360° to calculate the correct standard phase.
180
SYSTEM PHASE (Degrees)
160
220kΩ RESISTOR
140
120
100
80
60
10pF CAPACITOR
40
0
0
15k
30k
45k
60k
75k
90k
105k
120k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
05325-090
20
Therefore, the correct standard phase angle is dependent
upon the sign of the real and imaginary components, which is
summarized in Table 6.
Figure 28. System Phase Response vs. Capacitive Phase
The phase difference (that is, ZØ) between the phase response
of a capacitor and the system phase response using a resistor is
the impedance phase of the capacitor (ZØ) and is shown in
Figure 29.
–100
Table 6. Phase Angle
Real
Positive
Imaginary
Positive
Quadrant
First
Phase Angle
Positive
Negative
Second
180° ⎞
180° + ⎛⎜ tan −1 ( I /R) ×
⎟
π ⎠
⎝
Negative
Negative
Third
180° ⎞
180° + ⎛⎜ tan −1 ( I /R) ×
⎟
π ⎠
⎝
–90
PHASE (Degrees)
–80
–70
180°
π
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Positive
–60
–50
–40
–30
–20
0
15k
30k
45k
60k
75k
90k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
105k
120k
05325-091
–10
0
tan −1 (I /R) ×
Negative
Fourth
180° ⎞
360° + ⎛⎜ tan −1 ( I /R) ×
⎟
π ⎠
⎝
Once the magnitude of the impedance (|Z|) and the impedance
phase angle (ZØ, in radians) are correctly calculated, it is possible
to determine the magnitude of the real (resistive) and imaginary
(reactive) components of the impedance (ZUNKNOWN) by the vector
projection of the impedance magnitude onto the real and
imaginary impedance axis using the following formulas:
Figure 29. Phase Response of a Capacitor
The real component is given by
In addition, when using the real and imaginary values to interpret
the phase at each measurement point, care should be taken
when using the arctangent formula. The arctangent function
only returns the correct standard phase angle when the sign of
the real and imaginary values are positive, that is, when the
coordinates lie in the first quadrant. The standard angle is
taken counterclockwise from the positive real x-axis. If the sign
of the real component is positive and the sign of the imaginary
|ZREAL| = |Z| × cos(ZØ)
The imaginary component is given by
Rev. A | Page 20 of 40
|ZIMAG| = |Z| × sin(ZØ)
AD5934
PERFORMING A FREQUENCY SWEEP
PROGRAM FREQUENCY SWEEP PARAMETERS
INTO RELEVANT REGISTERS
(1) START FREQUENCY REGISTER
(2) NUMBER OF INCREMENTS REGISTER
(3) FREQUENCY INCREMENT REGISTER
PLACE THE AD5934 INTO STANDBY MODE.
RESET: BY ISSUING A RESET COMMAND TO
THE CONTROL REGISTER, THE DEVICE IS
PLACED IN STANDBY MODE.
PROGRAM INITIALIZE WITH START
FREQUENCY COMMAND TO THE CONTROL
REGISTER.
AFTER A SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF SETTLING
TIME HAS ELAPSED, PROGRAM START
FREQUENCY SWEEP COMMAND IN THE
CONTROL REGISTER.
POLL STATUS REGISTER TO CHECK IF
THE DFT CONVERSION IS COMPLETE.
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N
Y
PROGRAM THE INCREMENT FREQUENCY OR
THE REPEAT FREQUENCY COMMAND TO THE
CONTROL REGISTER.
READ VALUES FROM REAL AND
IMAGINARY DATA REGISTERS.
Y
POLL STATUS REGISTER TO CHECK IF
FREQUENCY SWEEP IS COMPLETE.
N
PROGRAM THE AD5934
INTO POWER-DOWN MODE.
Figure 30. Frequency Sweep Flowchart
Rev. A | Page 21 of 40
05325-047
Y
AD5934
REGISTER MAP
Table 7.
Register Name
Control
Register Address
0x80
0x81
0x82
0x83
0x84
0x85
0x86
0x87
0x88
0x89
0x8A
0x8B
0x8F
0x94
0x95
0x96
0x97
Start Frequency
Frequency Increment
Number of Increments
Number of Settling Time Cycles
Status
Real Data
Imaginary Data
CONTROL REGISTER (REGISTER ADDRESS 0x80,
REGISTER ADDRESS 0x81)
Bits
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D23 to D16
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D23 to D16
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D7 to D0
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
D15 to D8
D7 to D0
Function
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read/write
Read only
Read only
Read only
Read only
Read only
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The AD5934 contains a 16-bit control register (Register Address
0x80 and Register Address 0x81) that sets the control modes.
The default value of the control register upon reset is as follows:
D15 to D0 is reset to 0xA000 upon power-up.
The four MSBs of the control register are decoded to provide
control functions, such as performing a frequency sweep,
powering down the part, and controlling various other functions
defined in the control register map.
The user can choose to write only to Register Address 0x80 and
to not alter the contents of Register Address 0x81. Note that the
control register should not be written to as part of a block write
command. The control register also allows the user to program
the excitation voltage and set the system clock. A reset command
to the control register does not reset any programmed values
associated with the sweep (that is, start frequency, number of
increments, frequency increment). After a reset command,
an initialize with start frequency command must be issued to
the control register to restart the frequency sweep sequence
(see Figure 30).
Table 8. D10 to D9 Control Register Map
D10
0
0
1
1
D9
0
1
0
1
Range No.
1
3
4
2
Output Voltage Range
2.0 V p-p typical
200 mV p-p typical
400 mV p-p typical
1.0 V p-p typical
Table 9. D11 and D8 to D0 Control Register Map
Bits
D11
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
Description
No operation
PGA gain; 0 = ×5, 1 = ×1
Reserved; set to 0
Reserved; set to 0
Reserved; set to 0
Reset
External system clock; set to 1
Internal system clock; set to 0
Reserved; set to 0
Reserved; set to 0
Reserved; set to 0
D2
D1
D0
Table 10. D15 to D12 Control Register Map
D15
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
Rev. A | Page 22 of 40
D14
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
D13
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
D12
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
Description
No operation
Initialize with start frequency
Start frequency sweep
Increment frequency
Repeat frequency
No operation
No operation
Power-down mode
Standby mode
No operation
No operation
AD5934
Control Register Decode
Initialize with Start Frequency
This command enables the DDS to output the programmed
start frequency for an indefinite time. Initially, it is used to
excite the unknown impedance. When the output unknown
impedance has settled after a time determined by the user, the
user must initiate a start frequency sweep command to begin
the frequency sweep.
Start Frequency Sweep
In this mode, the ADC starts measuring after the programmed
number of settling time cycles has elapsed. The user has the
ability to program an integer number of output frequency cycles
(settling time cycles) to Register Address 0x8A and Register
Address 0x8B before the commencement of the measurement at
each frequency point (see Figure 30).
START FREQUENCY REGISTER (REGISTER
ADDRESS 0x82, REGISTER ADDRESS 0x83,
REGISTER ADDRESS 0x84)
The start frequency register contains the 24-bit digital
representation of the frequency from where the subsequent
frequency sweep is initiated. For example, if the user requires
the sweep to start from a frequency of 30 kHz using a 16.0 MHz
clock, the user must program the value 0x3D to Register Address
0x82, the value 0x70 to Register Address 0x83, and the value
0xA3 to Register Address 0x84. Doing this ensures the output
frequency starts at 30 kHz.
The start frequency code is
Start Frequency Code =
⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
⎜ 30 kHz ⎟ × 2 27 ≡ 0x3D70A3
⎜ ⎛ 16 MHz ⎞ ⎟
⎜⎜ ⎜
⎟ ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎝ 16 ⎠ ⎠
Increment Frequency
The increment frequency command is used to step to the next
frequency point in the sweep. This usually happens after data
from the previous step is transferred and verified by the DSP.
When the AD5934 receives this command, it waits for the
programmed number of settling time cycles before beginning
the ADC conversion process.
The default value of the start frequency register upon reset is as
follows: D23 to D0 are not reset at power-up. After the reset
command, the contents of this register are not reset.
FREQUENCY INCREMENT REGISTER (REGISTER
ADDRESS 0x85, REGISTER ADDRESS 0x86,
REGISTER ADDRESS 0x87)
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Repeat Frequency
There is the facility to repeat the current frequency point
measurement by issuing a repeat frequency command to the
control register. This command allows users to average
successive readings.
Power-Down Mode
The default state at power-up of the AD5934 is power-down
mode. The control register contains the code 1010,0000,0000,0000
(0xA000). In this mode, both the output and input pins, VOUT
and VIN, are connected internally to GND.
The frequency increment register contains a 24-bit representation
of the frequency increment between consecutive frequency
points along the sweep. For example, if the user requires an
increment step of 30 Hz using a 16.0 MHz clock, the user must
program the value 0x00 to Register Address 0x85, the value
0x0F to Register Address 0x86, and the value 0xBA to Register
Address 0x87.
The formula for calculating the frequency increment is given by
Frequency Increment Code =
Standby Mode
⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
10
Hz
⎟ 27
⎜
⎜ ⎛ 16 MHz ⎞ ⎟ × 2 ≡ 0x00053E
⎜⎜ ⎜ 16 ⎟ ⎟⎟
⎠⎠
⎝⎝
This mode powers up the part for general operation. In standby
mode, the VIN and VOUT pins are internally connected to GND.
Reset
A reset command allows the user to interrupt a sweep. The start
frequency, number of increments, and frequency increment
register contents are not overwritten. An initialize with start
frequency command is required to restart the frequency sweep
command sequence.
Output Voltage Range
The user programs the value 0x00 to Register Address 0x85,
the value 0x05 to Register Address 0x86, and the value 0x3E to
Register Address 0x87.
The default value of the frequency increment register upon reset
is as follows: D23 to D0 are not reset at power-up. After the reset
command, the contents of this register are not reset.
The output voltage range allows the user to program the
excitation voltage range at VOUT.
PGA Gain
The PGA gain allows the user to amplify the response signal
into the ADC by a multiplication factor of ×5 or ×1.
Rev. A | Page 23 of 40
AD5934
NUMBER OF INCREMENTS REGISTER (REGISTER
ADDRESS 0x88, REGISTER ADDRESS 0x89)
The default value of the number of increments register upon
reset is as follows: D8 to D0 are not reset at power-up. After a
reset command, the contents of this register are not reset.
Table 11. Number of Increments Register
Reg Addr
0x88
0x89
Bits
D15 to D9
Description
Don’t care
D8
Number of
increments
Function
Read or
write
Read or
write
Number of
increments
Read or
write
D7 to D0
Format
Integer
number
stored
in binary
format
Integer
number
stored
in binary
format
This register determines the number of frequency points in the
frequency sweep. The number of frequency points is represented
by a 9-bit word, D8 to D0. D15 to D9 are don’t care bits. This
register in conjunction with the start frequency register and the
frequency increment register determine the frequency sweep
range for the sweep operation. The maximum number of
increments that can be programmed is 511.
into the number of settling time cycles register can be increased
by a factor of 2 or 4, depending on the status of Bits D10 to D9.
The five most significant bits, D15 to D11, are don’t care bits.
The maximum number of output cycles that can be programmed is
511 × 4 = 2044 cycles. For example, consider an excitation signal of
30 kHz, the maximum delay between the programming of this
frequency and the time that this signal is first sampled by the
ADC is ≈ 511 × 4 × 33.33 μs = 68.126 ms. The ADC takes 1024
samples, and the result is stored as real data and imaginary data in
Register Address 0x94 to Register Address 0x97. The conversion
process takes approximately 1 ms using a 16.777 MHz clock.
STATUS REGISTER (REGISTER ADDRESS 0x8F)
The status register is used to confirm that particular measurement
tests have been successfully completed. Each of the bits from D7 to
D0 indicate the status of a specific functionality of the AD5934.
Bit D0 and Bit D4 to Bit D7 are treated as don’t care bits; these
bits do not indicate the status of any measurement.
The status of Bit D1 indicates the status of a frequency point
impedance measurement. This bit is set when the AD5934
completes the current frequency point impedance measurement.
This bit indicates that there is valid real data and imaginary data
in Register Address 0x94 to Register Address 0x97. This bit is
reset on receipt of a start frequency sweep, increment frequency,
repeat frequency, or reset command. This bit is also reset at
power-up.
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NUMBER OF SETTLING TIME CYCLES REGISTER
(REGISTER ADDRESS 0x8A, REGISTER ADDRESS
0x8B)
The default value of the number of settling time cycles register
upon reset is as follows: D10 to D0 are not reset at power-up.
After a reset command, the contents of this register are not reset.
This register determines the number of output excitation cycles
allowed to passthrough the unknown impedance after receipt of
a start frequency sweep, increment frequency, or repeat frequency
command, before the ADC is triggered to perform a conversion
of the response signal. The number of settling time cycles register
value determines the delay between a start frequency sweep/
increment frequency/repeat frequency command and the time
an ADC conversion commences. The number of cycles is
represented by a 9-bit word, D8 to D0. The value programmed
The status of Bit D2 indicates the status of the programmed
frequency sweep. This bit is set when all programmed increments
to the number of increments register are complete. This bit is
reset at power-up and on receipt of a reset command.
Table 12. Status Register 0x8F
Control Word
0000 0001
0000 0010
0000 0100
0000 1000
0001 0000
0010 0000
0100 0000
1000 0000
Description
Reserved
Valid real/imaginary data
Frequency sweep complete
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Table 13. Number of Settling Times Cycles Register
Register Address
0x8A
0x8B
Bits
D15 to D11
D10 to D9
D8
D7 to D0
Description
Don’t care
2-bit decode
D10
D9
Description
0
0
Default
0
1
No of cycles ×2
1
0
Reserved
1
1
No of cycles ×4
MSB number of settling time cycles
Number of settling time cycles
Rev. A | Page 24 of 40
Function
Read or write
Format
Integer number stored in binary format
Read or write
Data
AD5934
Valid Real/Imaginary Data
This bit is set when data processing for the current frequency
point is finished, indicating real/imaginary data available for
reading. The bit is reset when a start frequency sweep/increment
frequency/repeat frequency DDS command is issued. In addition,
this bit is reset to 0 when a reset command is issued to the
control register.
Frequency Sweep Complete
This bit is set when data processing for the last frequency point in
the sweep is complete. This bit is reset when a start frequency
sweep command is issued to the control register. This bit is also
reset when a reset command is issued to the control register.
REAL AND IMAGINARY DATA REGISTERS (16 BITS—
REGISTER ADDRESS 0x94, REGISTER ADDRESS
0x95, REGISTER ADDRESS 0x96, REGISTER
ADDRESS 0x97)
These registers contain a digital representation of the real and
imaginary components of the impedance measured for the
current frequency point. The values are stored in 16-bit, twos
complement format. To convert this number to an actual
impedance value, the magnitude,
(Real 2 + Imaginary 2 ) , must
be multiplied by an admittance/code number (called a gain
factor) to give the admittance and the result inverted to give the
impedance. The gain factor varies for each ac excitation
voltage/gain combination.
The default value upon reset: these registers are not reset at
power-up or on receipt of a reset command. Note that the data
in these registers is only valid if Bit D1 in the status register is
set, indicating that the processing at the current frequency point
is complete.
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Rev. A | Page 25 of 40
AD5934
SERIAL BUS INTERFACE
Control of the AD5934 is carried out via the I2C-compliant
serial interface protocol. The AD5934 is connected to this bus
as a slave device under the control of a master device. The
AD5934 has a 7-bit serial bus slave address. When the device is
powered up, it has a default serial bus address, 0001101 (0x0D).
Data is sent over the serial bus in sequences of nine clock
pulses, 8 bits of data followed by an acknowledge bit, which can
be from the master or slave device. Data transitions on the data
line must occur during the low period of the clock signal and
remain stable during the high period because a low-to-high
transition when the clock is high can be interpreted as a stop
signal. If the operation is a write operation, the first data byte
after the slave address is a command byte. This tells the slave
device what to expect next. It may be an instruction telling the
slave device to expect a block write, or it may be a register address
that tells the slave where subsequent data is to be written. Because
data can flow in only one direction as defined by the R/W bit, it
is not possible to send a command to a slave device during a
read operation. Before performing a read operation, it is sometimes
necessary to perform a write operation to tell the slave what sort
of read operation to expect and/or the address from which data
is to be read.
GENERAL I2C TIMING
Figure 31 shows the timing diagram for general read and write
operations using the I2C-compliant interface.
The master initiates data transfer by establishing a start condition,
defined as a high-to-low transition on the serial data line (SDA)
while the serial clock line (SCL) remains high. This indicates
that a data stream follows. The slave responds to the start condition
and shifts in the next 8 bits, consisting of a 7-bit slave address
(MSB first) and an R/W bit, which determines the direction of
the data transfer, that is, whether data is written to or read from
the slave device (0 = write, 1 = read).
When all data bytes are read or written, stop conditions are
established. In write mode, the master pulls the data line high
during the 10th clock pulse to assert a stop condition. In read
mode, the master device releases the SDA line during the low
period before the ninth clock pulse, but the slave device does
not pull it low. This is known as a no acknowledge. The master
then takes the data line low during the low period before the
10th clock pulse, and then high during the 10th clock pulse to
assert a stop condition.
The slave responds by pulling the data line low during the low
period before the ninth clock pulse, known as the acknowledge
bit, and holding it low during the high period of this clock
pulse. All other devices on the bus remain idle while the selected
device waits for data to be read from or written to it. If the R/W
bit is 0, the master writes to the slave device. If the R/W bit is 1,
the master reads from the slave device.
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SCL
0
START CONDITION
BY MASTER
0
0
1
1
SLAVE ADDRESS BYTE
0
1
R/W
D7
D6
ACKNOWLEDGED BY
AD5934
Figure 31. Timing Diagram
Rev. A | Page 26 of 40
D5
D4
D3
D2
REGISTER ADDRESS
D1
D0
ACKNOWLEDGED BY
MASTER/SLAVE
05325-048
SDA
AD5934
The I2C interface specification defines several different protocols
for different types of read and write operations. This section
describes the protocols used in the AD5934. The figures in this
section use the abbreviations shown in Table 14.
Condition
Start
Stop
Read
Write
Acknowledge
No acknowledge write byte/command byte
REGISTER
DATA
Code Description
This command is used when writing
multiple bytes to the RAM; see the
Block Write section.
This command is used when reading
multiple bytes from RAM/memory; see
the Block Read section.
This command enables the user to set
the address pointer to any location in
the memory; the data contains the
address of the register to which the
pointer should be pointing.
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Block
Read
Address
Pointer
S
3. The addressed slave device asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
4. The master sends a register address.
5. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
6. The master sends a data byte.
7. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
BLOCK
WRITE
A
NUMBER
BYTES WRITE
A
POINTER
COMMAND
1011 0000
REGISTER
ADDRESS
TO POINT TO
A
A
P
1. The master device asserts a start condition on SDA.
2. The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
write bit (low).
3. The addressed slave device asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
4. The master sends an 8-bit command code (1010 0000) that
tells the slave device to expect a block write.
5. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
6. The master sends a data byte that tells the slave device the
number of data bytes to be sent to it.
7. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
8. The master sends the data bytes.
9. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA after each data byte.
10. The master asserts a stop condition on SDA to end the
transaction.
2. The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
write bit (low).
A
W
In this operation, the master device writes a block of data to a
slave device (see Figure 34). The start address for a block write
must previously have been set. In the case of the AD5934, this is
done by setting a pointer to set the register address.
1. The master device asserts a start condition on SDA.
W
P
BLOCK WRITE
In this operation, the master device sends a byte of data to the
slave device. The write byte can either be a data byte write to a
Register Address or it can be a command operation. To write data
to a register, the command sequence is as follows (see Figure 32):
SLAVE
ADDRESS
A
Figure 33. Setting Address Pointer to Register Address
Write Byte/Command Byte
S
SLAVE
ADDRESS
A
BYTE 0
Figure 34. Writing a Block Write
Rev. A | Page 27 of 40
A
BYTE 1
A
BYTE 2
A
P
05325-051
1011 0000
A
05325-050
Table 15. Command Codes
1010 0001
REGISTER
ADDRESS
To set a register pointer, the following sequence is applied:
1. The master device asserts a start condition on SDA.
2. The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
write bit (low).
3. The addressed slave device asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
4. The master sends a pointer command code (see Table 15, an
address pointer = 1011 0000).
5. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
6. The master sends a data byte (a register address to where
the pointer is to point).
7. The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
8. The master asserts a stop condition on SDA to end the
transaction.
The command codes in Table 15 are used for reading/writing to
the interface. They are explained in detail in this section but are
grouped within Table 15 for easy reference.
Code
Name
Block
Write
A
In the AD5934, the write byte protocol is also used to set a
pointer to a register address (see Figure 33). This protocol is
used for a subsequent single-byte read from the same address,
block read, or block write starting at that address.
User Command Codes
Command
Code
1010 0000
W
Figure 32. Writing Register Data to Register Address
Table 14. I2C Abbreviation Table
Abbreviation
S
P
R
W
A
A
SLAVE
ADDRESS
S
05325-049
8. The master asserts a stop condition on SDA to end the
transaction.
WRITING/READING TO THE AD5934
AD5934
READ OPERATIONS
Block Read
The AD5934 uses two I2C read protocols: the receive byte and
the block read.
In this operation, the master device reads a block of data from a
slave device (see Figure 36). The start address for a block read
must previously have been set by setting the address pointer.
Receive Byte
In the AD5934, the receive byte protocol is used to read a single
byte of data from a register address whose address has previously
been set by setting the address pointer.
1.
2.
In this operation, the master device receives a single byte from a
slave device as follows (see Figure 35):
3.
4.
1.
The master device asserts a start condition on SDA.
2.
The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
read bit (high).
3.
The addressed slave device asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
4.
The master receives a data byte.
7.
8.
5.
The master asserts a no acknowledge on SDA (the slave
needs to check that master has received data).
9.
6.
The master asserts a stop condition on SDA and the
transaction ends.
SLAVE
ADDRESS
R
A
REGISTER
DATA
A
P
10.
11.
12.
05325-052
S
5.
6.
Figure 35. Reading Register Data
The master device asserts a start condition on SDA.
The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
write bit (low).
The addressed slave device asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
The master sends a command code (1010 0001) that tells
the slave device to expect a block read.
The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
The master sends a byte-count data byte that tells the slave
how many data bytes to expect.
The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
The master asserts a repeat start condition on SDA. This is
required to set the read bit high.
The master sends the 7-bit slave address followed by the
read bit (high).
The slave asserts an acknowledge on SDA.
The master receives the data bytes.
The master asserts an acknowledge on SDA after each
data byte.
A no acknowledge is generated after the last byte to signal
the end of the read.
The master asserts a stop condition on SDA to end the
transaction.
14.
S
SLAVE
ADDRESS
W
A
BLOCK
READ
A
NUMBER
BYTES READ
A
S
SLAVE
ADDRESS
R
A
Figure 36. Performing a Block Read
Rev. A | Page 28 of 40
BYTE 0
A
BYTE 1
A
BYTE 2
A
P
05325-053
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13.
AD5934
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
MEASURING SMALL IMPEDANCES
The AD5934 is capable of measuring impedance values up to
10 MΩ if the system gain settings are chosen correctly for the
impedance subrange of interest.
If the user places a small impedance value (≤500 Ω over the
sweep frequency of interest) between the VOUT and VIN pins,
it results in an increase in signal current flowing through the
impedance for a fixed excitation voltage in accordance with
Ohm’s law. The output stage of the transmit side amplifier
available at the VOUT pin may not be able to provide the
required increase in current through the impedance. To have a
unity gain condition about the receive side I-V amplifier, the
user needs to have a similar small value of feedback resistance
for system calibration as outlined in the Gain Factor Setup
Configuration section. The voltage presented at the VIN pin is
hard biased at VDD/2 due to the virtual earth on the receive
side I-V amplifier. The increased current sink/source
requirement placed on the output of the receive side I-V
amplifier may also cause the amplifier to operate outside of the
linear region. This causes significant errors in subsequent
impedance measurements.
The value of the output series resistance, ROUT, (see Figure 37)
at the VOUT pin must be taken into account when measuring
small impedances (ZUNKNOWN), specifically when the value of
the output series resistance is comparable to the value of the
impedance under test (ZUNKNOWN). If the ROUT value is unaccounted for in the system calibration (that is, the gain factor
calculation) when measuring small impedances, there is an
introduced error into any subsequent impedance measurement
that takes place. The introduced error depends on the relative
magnitude of the impedance being tested compared to the value
of the output series resistance.
The value of the output series resistance depends upon the
selected output excitation range at VOUT and has a tolerance
from device to device like all discrete resistors manufactured in
a silicon fabrication process. Typical values of the output series
resistance are outlined in Table 16.
Table 16. Output Series Resistance (ROUT) vs. Excitation Range
Parameter
Range 1
Range 2
Range 3
Range 4
Value (Typ)
2 V p-p
1 V p-p
0.4 V p-p
0.2 V p-p
Output Series Resistance Value
200 Ω typical
2.4 kΩ typical
1.0 kΩ typical
600 Ω typical
Therefore, to accurately calibrate the AD5934 to measure small
impedances, it is necessary to reduce the signal current by
attenuating the excitation voltage sufficiently and also account
for the ROUT value and factor it into the gain factor calculation
(see the Gain Factor Calculation section).
Measuring the ROUT value during device characterization is
achieved by selecting the appropriate output excitation range at
VOUT and sinking and sourcing a known current at the pin
(for example, ±2 mA) and measuring the change in dc voltage.
The output series resistance can be calculated by measuring the
inverse of the slope (that is, 1/slope) of the resultant I-V plot.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
2V p-p
TRANSMIT SIDE
OUTPUT AMPLIFIER
DDS
In the circuit shown in Figure 37, ZUNKNOWN recognizes the
output series resistance of the external amplifier which is
typically much less than 1 Ω with feedback applied depending
upon the op amp device used (for example, AD820, AD8641,
AD8531) as well as the load current, bandwidth, and gain.
R1
ROUT VOUT
R2
VDD
20kΩ
RFB
VDD/2
20kΩ
1µF
AD8531
AD820
AD8641
AD8627
RFB
I-V
VIN
ZUNKNOWN
VDD/2
Figure 37. Additional External Amplifier Circuit for
Measuring Small Impedances
05324-148
PGA
A circuit that helps to minimize the effects of the issues
previously outlined is shown in Figure 37. The aim of this
circuit is to place the AD5934 system gain within its linear
range when measuring small impedances by using an additional
external amplifier circuit along the signal path. The external
amplifier attenuates the peak-to-peak excitation voltage at
VOUT by a suitable choice of resistors (R1 and R2), thereby
reducing the signal current flowing through the impedance and
minimizing the effect of the output series resistance in the
impedance calculations.
The key point is that the output impedance of the external
amplifier in Figure 37 (which is also in series with ZUNKNOWN)
has a far less significant effect on gain factor calibration and
subsequent impedance readings in comparison to connecting
the small impedance directly to the VOUT pin (and directly in
series with ROUT). The external amplifier buffers the unknown
impedance from the effects of ROUT and introduces a smaller
output impedance in series with ZUNKNOWN.
Rev. A | Page 29 of 40
AD5934
For example, if the user measures ZUNKNOWN that is known to
have a small impedance value within the range of 90 Ω to
110 Ω over the frequency range of 30 kHz to 32 kHz, the
user may not be in a position to measure ROUT directly in
the factory/lab. Therefore, the user may choose to add on
an extra amplifier circuit like that shown in Figure 37 to the
signal path of the AD5934. The user must ensure that the
chosen external amplifier has a sufficiently low output series
resistance over the bandwidth of interest in comparison to the
impedance range under test (for an op amp selection guide, see
www.analog.com/opamps). Most amplifiers from Analog
Devices have a curve of closed-loop output impedance vs.
frequency at different amplifier gains to determine the output
series impedance at the frequency of interest.
The system settings are as follows:
VDD = 3.3 V
VOUT = 2 V p-p
R2 = 20 kΩ
R1 = 4 kΩ
Gain setting resistor = 500 Ω
ZUNKNOWN = 100 Ω
PGA setting = ×1
The gain factor calculated is for a 100 Ω resistor connected
between VOUT and VIN, assuming the output series resistance
of the external amplifier is small enough to be ignored.
When biasing the circuit shown in Figure 37, note that the
receive side of the AD5934 is hard-biased about VDD/2 by
design. Therefore, to prevent the output of the external
amplifier (attenuated AD5934 Range 1 excitation signal) from
saturating the receive side amplifiers of the AD5934, a voltage
equal to VDD/2 must be applied to the noninverting terminal
of the external amplifier.
BIOMEDICAL: NONINVASIVE BLOOD IMPEDANCE
MEASUREMENT
When a known strain of a virus is added to a blood sample that
already contains a virus, a chemical reaction takes place whereby
the impedance of the blood under certain conditions changes.
By characterizing this effect across different frequencies, it is
possible to detect a specific strain of virus. For example, a strain
of the disease exhibits a certain characteristic impedance at one
frequency but not at another, resulting in the need to sweep
different frequencies to check for different viruses. The AD5934,
with its 27-bit phase accumulator, allows for subhertz frequency
tuning.
The AD5934 can be used to inject a stimulus signal through the
blood sample via a probe. The response signal is analyzed and
the effective impedance of the blood is tabulated. The AD5934
is ideal for this application because it allows the user to tune to
the specific frequency required for each test.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
To attenuate the excitation voltage at VOUT, choose a ratio
of R1/R2. With the values of R1 = 4 kΩ and R2 = 20 kΩ,
attenuate the signal by 1/5th of 2 V p-p = 400 mV. The
maximum current flowing through the impedance is 400 mV/
90 Ω = 4.4 mA.
The system is subsequently calibrated using the usual method
with a midpoint impedance value of 100 Ω, a calibration
resistor, and a feedback resistor at a midfrequency point in the
sweep. The dynamic range of the input signal to the receive side
of the AD5934 can be improved by increasing the value of the
I-V gain resistor at the RFB pin. For example, increasing the I-V
gain setting resistor at the RFB pin increases the peak-to-peak
signal presented to the ADC input from 400 mV (RFB = 100 Ω)
to 2 V p-p (RFB = 500 Ω).
RFB
1
16
2
15
3
TOP VIEW 14
(Not to Scale)
4
13
5
12
6
11
7
10
8
9
ADuC702x
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
AD5934
PROBE
7V
10µF
ADR43x
6
4
Figure 38. Measuring a Blood Sample for a Strain of Virus
Rev. A | Page 30 of 40
05325-057
2
0.1µF
AD5934
SENSOR/COMPLEX IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT
ELECTRO-IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY
The operational principle of a capacitive proximity sensor is
based on the change of a capacitance in a RLC resonant circuit.
This leads to changes in the resonant frequency of the RLC
circuit, which can be evaluated as shown Figure 39.
The AD5934 has found use in the area of corrosion monitoring.
Corrosion in a metal, such as aluminum, which is used in air
craft and ships, requires continuous assessment because the metal
is exposed to a wide variety of conditions, such as temperature and
moisture. The AD5934 offers an accurate and compact solution
for this type of measurement compared to the large and expensive
existing units on the market.
It is first required to tune the RLC circuit to the area of resonance.
At the resonant frequency, the impedance of the RLC circuit is
at a maximum. Therefore, a programmable frequency sweep
and tuning capability is required, which is provided by the AD5934.
CHANGE IN
RESONANCE DUE
TO APPROACHING
OBJECT
PROXIMITY IMPEDANCE (Ω)
RESONANT
FREQUENCY
Mathematically the corrosion of a metal is modeled using a RC
network that consists of a resistance, RS, in series with a parallel
resistor and capacitor, RP and CP. A system metal would typically
have values as follows: RS is 10 Ω to 10 kΩ, RP is 1 kΩ to 1 MΩ,
and CP is 5 μF to 70 μF.
FO
FREQUENCY (Hz)
05325-058
The frequency range of interest when monitoring corrosion is
0.1 Hz to 100 kHz.
Figure 39. Detecting a Change in Resonant Frequency
To ensure that the measurement itself does not introduce a
corrosive effect, the metal needs to be excited with minimal
voltage, typically in the 200 mV region, which the AD5934 is
capable of outputting. A nearby processor or control unit, such
as the ADuc702x, would log a single impedance sweep from
0.1 kHz to 100 kHz every 10 minutes and download the results
back to a control unit. To achieve system accuracy from the
0.1 kHz to 1 kHz region, the system clock needs to be scaled
down from the 16.776 MHz nominal clock frequency to 500 kHz,
typically. The clock scaling can be achieved digitally using an
external direct digital synthesizer, such as the AD9834, as a
programmable divider that supplies a clock signal to MCLK
and that can be controlled digitally by the nearby microprocessor.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
An example of the use of this type of sensor is for a train proximity
measurement system. The magnetic fields of the train approaching
on the track change the resonant frequency to an extent that can
be characterized. This information can be sent back to a mainframe
system to show the train location on the network.
Another application for the AD5934 is in parked vehicle detection.
The AD5934 is placed in an embedded unit connected to a coil
of wire underneath the parking location. The AD5934 outputs a
single frequency within the 80 kHz to 100 kHz frequency range,
depending upon the wire composition. The wire can be modeled
as a resonant circuit. The coil is calibrated with a known impedance
value and at a known frequency. The impedance of the loop is
monitored constantly. If a car is parked over the coil, the impedance
of the coil changes and the AD5934 detects the presence of the car.
Rev. A | Page 31 of 40
AD5934
CHOOSING A REFERENCE FOR THE AD5934
To achieve the best performance from the AD5934, carefully
choose the precision voltage reference. The AD5934 has three
reference inputs: AVDD1, AVDD2, and DVDD. The voltage on
these reference inputs should be run from the same voltage supply.
There are four possible sources of error that should be considered
when choosing a voltage reference for high accuracy applications:
initial accuracy, ppm drift, long term drift, and output voltage
noise. To minimize these errors, a reference with high initial
accuracy is preferred. In addition, choosing a reference with an
output trim adjustment, such as a device in the ADR43x family,
allows a system designer to trim system errors by setting a reference
voltage to a voltage other than the nominal. The trim adjustment
can also be used at temperature to trim out any error.
Because the supply current required by the AD5934 is extremely
low, the parts are ideal for low supply applications. The ADR395
voltage reference is recommended in this case. The ADR395
requires less than 100 μA of quiescent current. It also provides
good noise performance at 8 μV p-p in the 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz range.
Long-term drift is a measure of how much the reference drifts
over time. A reference with a tight long term drift specification
ensures that the overall solution remains stable during its lifetime.
A reference with a tight temperature coefficient specification
should be chosen to reduce the temperature dependence of the
system output voltage on ambient conditions.
In high accuracy applications, which have a relatively low noise
budget, reference output voltage noise needs to be considered.
Choosing a reference with as low an output noise voltage as
practical for the system noise resolution required is important.
Precision voltage references, such as the ADR433, produce low
output noise in the 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz range. Examples of some
recommended precision references for use as supply to the
AD5934 are shown in Table 17.
Table 17. List of Precision References for the AD5934
Part No.
ADR433B
ADR433A
ADR434B
ADR434A
ADR435B
ADR435A
ADR439B
ADR439A
Initial Accuracy (mV max)
±1.5
±4
±1.5
±5
±2
±6
±2
±5.5
Output Voltage (V)
3.0
3.0
4.096
4.096
5.0
5.0
4.5
4.5
Temperature Drift (ppm/°C max)
3
10
3
10
3
10
3
10
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz Noise (μV p-p typ)
3.75
3.75
6.25
6.25
8
8
7.5
7.5
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Rev. A | Page 32 of 40
AD5934
LAYOUT AND CONFIGURATION
POWER SUPPLY BYPASSING AND GROUNDING
When accuracy is important in a circuit, carefully consider
the power supply and ground return layout on the board. The
printed circuit board (PCB) containing the AD5934 should
have separate analog and digital sections, each having its own
area of the board. If the AD5934 is in a system where other
devices require an AGND-to-DGND connection, the connection
should be made at one point only. This ground point should be
as close as possible to the AD5934.
The power supply to the AD5934 should be bypassed with 10 μF
and 0.1 μF capacitors. The capacitors should be physically as
close as possible to the device, with the 0.1 μF capacitor ideally
right up against the device. The 10 μF capacitors are the tantalum
bead type. It is important that the 0.1 μF capacitor has low
effective series resistance (ESR) and effective series inductance
(ESI); common ceramic types of capacitors are suitable. The
0.1 μF capacitor provides a low impedance path to ground for
high frequencies caused by transient currents due to internal
logic switching.
The power supply line itself should have as large a trace as
possible to provide a low impedance path and reduce glitch
effects on the supply line. Clocks and other fast switching digital
signals should be shielded from other parts of the board by
digital ground. Avoid crossover of digital and analog signals
if possible. When traces cross on opposite sides of the board,
ensure that they run at right angles to each other to reduce feedthrough effects on the board. The best board layout technique
is the microstrip technique where the component side of the board
is dedicated to the ground plane only and the signal traces are
placed on the solder side. However, this is not always possible
with a 2-layer board.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Rev. A | Page 33 of 40
AD5934
EVALUATION BOARD
The AD5934 evaluation board allows designers to evaluate
the high performance AD5934 impedance converter with
minimum effort.
USING THE AD5934 EVALUATION BOARD
The evaluation board interfaces to the USB port of a PC. It is
possible to power the entire board from the USB port.
The impedance converter evaluation kit includes a populated
and tested AD5934 printed circuit board. The EVAL-AD5934EBZ
kit is shipped with a CD-ROM that includes self-installing
software. Connect the PC to the evaluation board using the
supplied cable.
The evaluation board is a test system designed to simplify the
evaluation of the AD5934. The evaluation board data sheet that
is available with the evaluation board gives full information on
how to operate the evaluation board. Further evaluation
information is available from www.analog.com.
PROTOTYPING AREA
An area is available on the evaluation board for the user to add
additional circuits to the evaluation test set. Users may want to
include switches for multiple calibration use.
The software is compatible with Microsoft® Windows® 2000 and
Windows XP.
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR (XO) vs. EXTERNAL CLOCK
A schematic of the evaluation board is shown in Figure 40 and
Figure 41.
A 16 MHz oscillator is included on the evaluation board.
However, this oscillator can be removed and, if required, an
external CMOS clock can be connected to the part.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Rev. A | Page 34 of 40
AD5934
SCHEMATICS
05325-144
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Figure 40. EVAL-AD5934EBZ USB Schematic
Rev. A | Page 35 of 40
AD5934
05325-145
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Figure 41. EVAL-AD5934EBZ Schematic
Rev. A | Page 36 of 40
AD5934
05325-146
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Figure 42. Linear Regulator on EVAL-AD5934EBZ
Rev. A | Page 37 of 40
AD5934
05325-147
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Figure 43. Decoupling on the EVAL-AD5934EBZ
Rev. A | Page 38 of 40
AD5934
BILL OF MATERIALS
Table 18.
Reference Designator
C1, C3, C5 to C9,
C11, C15, C16,
C18 to C22, C24,
C26 to C28, C32,
C34, C36, C37, C39
C2, C4, C12 to C14,
C25, C30, C31, C33,
C38, C40
C10, C17
C23
C29, C35
C41
C42
C43
CLK1, CLK2
D4
J1
J2 to J6
LK1 to LK14
R1
R2
R3 3
R43
R5, R6
R7
R8, R9
R10
R11
R12, R13
T1 to T3, T5 to T8
VIN, VOUT
U1
U2
U3
U4
U5
U6
Y1
Y2
SMD
Yes
Part Description
50 V, X7R, SMD ceramic capacitors, 0.1 μF, 0603
Supplier/Part No.
FEC 1301804 1
Yes
X5R, ceramic capacitors, 10 μF, 0805
FEC 94021361
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
50 V, X7R, SMD ceramic capacitors, 22 pF, 0603
6.3 V, X5R, SMD ceramic capacitor, 2.2 μF, 0603
16 V tantalum capacitors, 10 μF, TAJ_B
Wire wrap pins (×2), 7.5 mm capacitor
50 V, NPO, SMD ceramic capacitor, 15 pF, 0603
16 V, X7R, SMD ceramic capacitor, 1 μF, 0603
SMB sockets, 50 Ω
Light emitting diode, 0805
USB Mini-B connector (USB-OTG)
Connector\power 2-way terminal blocks (5 mm pitch)
Jumper blocks, 2-way, 0.1" spacing SIP-2P
SMD resistor, 50 Ω, 0603
Through hole resistor, inserted in wire wrap pins, 200 kΩ R1/8WA 2
4 kΩ through hole resistor
20 kΩ through hole resistor
SMD resistors, 100 kΩ, 0603
SMD resistor, 0 Ω, 0603
SMD resistors, 2.2 kΩ, 0603
SMD resistor, 10 kΩ, 0603
SMD resistor, 1 kΩ, 0805
SMD resistors, 20 kΩ, 0603
Test points
50 Ω SMB sockets
OP97 op amp, 8-lead SOIC
24LC64 IC serial EEPROM, 64 KB, 2.5 V, SOIC8, SO8NB
USB microcontroller, Cypress CY7C68013A-56LFXC, LFCSP-56
ADR425, 0 V reference SO8NB
ADP3303-3.3 precision low dropout voltage regulator SO8NB
AD5933/AD5934 SSOP16
CM309S SMD crystal 24 MHz
3.3 V, 16 MHz clock oscillator
Stick-on feet ×4
Antistatic bag, board to be packed in bag
USB A to Mini-B cable
FEC 7220051
FEC 94021011
FEC 4987371
FEC 7219801
FEC 13102201
FEC 11113491
FEC 13182431
FEC 97864901
FEC 1517891
FEC 10222471/FEC 1504111
FEC 11706581
FEC 93415011
Not inserted 4
Not inserted4
FEC 93304021
FEC 93316621
FEC 93308101
FEC 93303991
FEC 93323831
FEC 93307711
FEC 87311281
FEC 11113491
Not Inserted
FEC 97580701
Digi-Key 428-1669-ND
ADR425ARZ
ADP3303ARZ-3.3
AD5933YRSZ/AD5934YRSZ
FEC 95096581
AEL-4313
FEC 6518131
FEC 5227641
Digi-Key 167-1011-ND
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
1
FEC = Farnell Electronics.
Place wire wrap pins into holes and insert a resistor with shortened legs into pins.
Keep holes for R3 and R4 free of solder.
4
Insert wire wrap pins into holes.
2
3
Rev. A | Page 39 of 40
AD5934
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
6.50
6.20
5.90
9
5.60
5.30
5.00
1
8
0.25
0.09
1.85
1.75
1.65
2.00 MAX
0.38
0.22
0.05 MIN
COPLANARITY
0.10
8.20
7.80
7.40
0.65 BSC
SEATING
PLANE
8°
4°
0°
0.95
0.75
0.55
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-150-AC
060106-A
16
Figure 44. 16-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [SSOP]
(RS-16)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Model
AD5934YRSZ 1
AD5934YRSZ-REEL71
EVAL-AD5934EBZ1
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
Package Description
16-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package (SSOP)
16-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package (SSOP)
Evaluation Board
Package Option
RS-16
RS-16
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
Purchase of licensed I2C components of Analog Devices or one of its sublicensed Associated Companies conveys a license for the purchaser under the Philips I2C Patent
Rights to use these components in an I2C system, provided that the system conforms to the I2C Standard Specification as defined by Philips.
©2005–2008 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D05325-0-5/08(A)
T
T
Rev. A | Page 40 of 40
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