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AD8361 数据手册DataSheet 下载
LF to 2.5 GHz
TruPwr™ Detector
AD8361
FEATURES
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAMS
Calibrated rms response
Excellent temperature stability
Up to 30 dB input range at 2.5 GHz
700 mV rms, 10 dBm, re 50 Ω maximum input
±0.25 dB linear response up to 2.5 GHz
Single-supply operation: 2.7 V to 5.5 V
Low power: 3.3 mW at 3 V supply
Rapid power-down to less than 1 µA
VPOS
TRANSCONDUCTANCE
CELLS
χ2
FLTR
AD8361
ERROR
AMP
i
× 7.5
BUFFER
ADD
OFFSET
BAND-GAP
REFERENCE
PWDN
SREF
APPLICATIONS
COMM
Measurement of CDMA, W-CDMA, QAM, other complex
modulation waveforms
RF transmitter or receiver power measurement
IREF
Figure 2. 8-Lead MSOP
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
VPOS
RFIN
TRANSCONDUCTANCE
CELLS
χ2
INTERNAL FILTER
i
χ2
FLTR
AD8361
ERROR
AMP
i
× 7.5
BUFFER
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
PWDN
VRMS
BAND-GAP
REFERENCE
COMM
IREF
3.0
2.8
Figure 3. 6-Lead SOT-23
SUPPLY
REFERENCE MODE
2.6
2.4
2.2
The AD8361 is intended for true power measurement of simple
and complex waveforms. The device is particularly useful for
measuring high crest-factor (high peak-to-rms ratio) signals,
such as CDMA and W-CDMA.
INTERNAL
REFERENCE MODE
2.0
01088-C-003
The AD8361 is a mean-responding power detector for use in
high frequency receiver and transmitter signal chains, up to
2.5 GHz. It is very easy to apply. It requires a single supply only
between 2.7 V and 5.5 V, a power supply decoupling capacitor,
and an input coupling capacitor in most applications. The
output is a linear-responding dc voltage with a conversion gain
of 7.5 V/V rms. An external filter capacitor can be added to
increase the averaging time constant.
V rms (Volts)
VRMS
01088-C-002
RFIN
INTERNAL FILTER
i
χ2
1.8
1.6
1.4
GROUND
REFERENCE MODE
1.2
1.0
The AD8361 has three operating modes to accommodate a
variety of analog-to-digital converter requirements:
0.8
0.6
0.2
0.0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
RFIN (V rms)
0.4
0.5
01088-C-001
0.4
Figure 1. Output in the Three Reference Modes, Supply 3 V, Frequency 1.9 GHz
(6-Lead SOT-23 Package Ground Reference Mode Only)
1.
Ground reference mode, in which the origin is zero.
2.
Internal reference mode, which offsets the output 350 mV
above ground.
3.
Supply reference mode, which offsets the output to VS/7.5.
The AD8361 is specified for operation from −40°C to +85°C
and is available in 8-lead MSOP and 6-lead SOT-23 packages. It
is fabricated on a proprietary high fT silicon bipolar process.
Rev. C
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use.
Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication
or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.326.8703
© 2004 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD8361
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Specifications..................................................................................... 3
Applications..................................................................................... 12
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 4
Output Reference Temperature Drift Compensation ........... 16
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 4
Evaluation Board ............................................................................ 21
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 5
Characterization Setups............................................................. 23
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 6
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 24
Circuit Description......................................................................... 11
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 24
REVISION HISTORY
8/04—Data Sheet Changed from Rev. B to Rev. C.
Changed Trimpots to Trimmable Potentiometers .........Universal
Changes to Specifications ................................................................ 3
Changed Using the AD8361 Section Title to Applications ....... 12
Changes to Figure 43...................................................................... 14
Changes to Ordering Guide .......................................................... 24
Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 24
2/01—Data Sheet Changed from Rev. A to Rev. B.
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
Rev. C | Page 2 of 24
AD8361
SPECIFICATIONS
TA = 25°C, VS = 3 V, fRF = 900 MHz, ground reference output mode, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
SIGNAL INPUT INTERFACE
Frequency Range1
Linear Response Upper Limit
Input Impedance2
RMS CONVERSION
Conversion Gain
Dynamic Range
±0.25 dB Error4
±1 dB Error
±2 dB Error
Intercept-Induced Dynamic
Range Reduction5, 6
Deviation from CW Response
Condition
(Input RFIN)
Min
VS = 3 V
Equivalent dBm, re 50 Ω
VS = 5 V
Equivalent dBm, re 50 Ω
Typ
Max
Unit
2.5
GHz
mV rms
dBm
mV rms
dBm
Ω||pF
390
4.9
660
9.4
225||1
(Input RFIN to Output V rms)
7.5
fRF = 100 MHz, VS = 5 V
Error Referred to Best Fit Line3
CW Input, −40°C < TA < +85°C
CW Input, −40°C < TA < +85°C
CW Input, −40°C < TA < +85°C
CW Input, VS = 5 V, −40°C < TA < +85°C
Internal Reference Mode
Supply Reference Mode, VS = 3.0 V
Supply Reference Mode, VS = 5.0 V
5.5 dB Peak-to-Average Ratio (IS95 Reverse Link)
12 dB Peak-to-Average Ratio (W-CDMA 4 Channels)
18 dB Peak-to-Average Ratio (W-CDMA 15 Channels)
Inferred from Best Fit Line3
0 V at SREF, VS at IREF
fRF = 100 MHz, VS = 5 V
0 V at SREF, IREF Open
fRF = 100 MHz, VS = 5 V
3 V at IREF, 3 V at SREF
VS at IREF, VS at SREF
fRF = 100 MHz, VS = 5 V
6.5
2.7 ≤ VS ≤ 5.5 V, −40°C < TA < +85°C
2.7 ≤ VS ≤ 5.5 V, −40°C < TA < +85°C
2 pF at FLTR Pin, 224 mV rms at RFIN
100 nF at FLTR Pin, 224 mV rms at RFIN
VS − 0.5
−40°C < TA < +85°C
0 mV rms at RFIN, PWDN Input LO7
GRM or IRM, 0 mV rms at RFIN, PWDN Input HI
SRM, 0 mV rms at RFIN, PWDN Input HI
2.7
8.5
14
23
26
30
1
1
1.5
0.2
1.0
1.2
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
OUTPUT INTERCEPT5
Ground Reference Mode (GRM)
Internal Reference Mode (IRM)
Supply Reference Mode (SRM)
POWER-DOWN INTERFACE
PWDN HI Threshold
PWDN LO Threshold
Power-Up Response Time
PWDN Bias Current
POWER SUPPLIES
Operating Range
Quiescent Current
Power-Down Current
1
0
−50
+150
350
300
500
400
VS/7.5
590
750
0.1
5
320
<1
5.5
1.1
<1
10 × VS
Operation at arbitrarily low frequencies is possible; see Applications section.
Figure 17 and Figure 47 show impedance versus frequency for the MSOP and SOT-23, respectively.
Calculated using linear regression.
4
Compensated for output reference temperature drift; see Applications section.
5
SOT-23-6L operates in ground reference mode only.
6
The available output swing, and hence the dynamic range, is altered by both supply voltage and reference mode; see Figure 39 and Figure 40.
7
Supply current is input level dependant; see Figure 16.
2
3
Rev. C | Page 3 of 24
V/V rms
V/V rms
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
V
mV
mV
mV
mV
V
mV
V
V
µs
µs
µA
V
mA
µA
µA
AD8361
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 2.
Parameter
Supply Voltage VS
SREF, PWDN
IREF
RFIN
Equivalent Power, re 50 Ω
Internal Power Dissipation1
6-Lead SOT-23
8-Lead MSOP
Maximum Junction Temperature
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Lead Temperature Range
(Soldering 60 sec)
Rating
5.5 V
0 V, VS
VS − 0.3 V, VS
1 V rms
13 dBm
200 mW
170 mW
200 mW
125°C
−40°C to +85°C
−65°C to +150°C
300°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
1
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Specification is for the device in free air.
6-Lead SOT-23: θJA = 230°C/W; θJC = 92°C/W.
8-Lead MSOP: θJA = 200°C/W; θJC = 44°C/W.
ESD CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily accumulate on
the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although this product features
proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices subjected to high energy
electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Rev. C | Page 4 of 24
AD8361
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
RFIN 3
PWDN 4
AD8361
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
8
SREF
7
VRMS
6
FLTR
5
COMM
VRMS 1
6
VPOS
AD8361
COMM 2
FLTR 3
5 RFIN
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
4
PWDN
Figure 4. 8-Lead MSOP
01088-C-005
IREF 2
01088-C-004
VPOS 1
Figure 5. 6-Lead SOT-23
Table 3. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
MSOP
1
2
Pin No.
SOT-23
6
N/A
Mnemonic
VPOS
IREF
3
5
RFIN
4
4
PWDN
5
6
7
8
Description
Supply Voltage Pin. Operational range 2.7 V to 5.5 V.
Output Reference Control Pin. Internal reference mode enabled when pin is left open; otherwise, this
pin should be tied to VPOS. Do not ground this pin.
Signal Input Pin. Must be driven from an ac-coupled source. The low frequency real input impedance
is 225 Ω.
Power-Down Pin. For the device to operate as a detector, it needs a logical low input (less than
100 mV). When a logic high (greater than VS − 0.5 V) is applied, the device is turned off and the supply
current goes to nearly zero (ground and internal reference mode less than 1 µA, supply reference
mode VS divided by 100 kΩ).
Device Ground Pin.
By placing a capacitor between this pin and VPOS, the corner frequency of the modulation filter is
lowered. The on-chip filter is formed with 27 pF||2 kΩ for small input signals.
Output Pin. Near rail-to-rail voltage output with limited current drive capabilities. Expected load
>10 kΩ to ground.
Supply Reference Control Pin. To enable supply reference mode, this pin must be connected to VPOS;
otherwise, it should be connected to COMM (ground).
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
2
3
COMM
FLTR
1
VRMS
N/A
SREF
Rev. C | Page 5 of 24
AD8361
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
2.8
3.0
900MHz
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.0
2.2
100MHz
1.5
1900MHz
2.0
1.0
1.6
ERROR (dB)
2.5GHz
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
0.8
–1.5
0.6
–2.0
0.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
INPUT (V rms)
0.4
0.5
–3.0
0.01
Figure 6. Output vs. Input Level, Frequencies 100 MHz, 900 MHz,
1900 MHz, and 2500 MHz, Supply 2.7 V, Ground Reference Mode, MSOP
5.5
0.4
(+5dBm)
3.0
5.5V
2.5
2.0
4.5
5.0V
1.5
4.0
3.0V
1.0
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3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
ERROR (dB)
OUTPUT (V)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
Figure 9. Error from Linear Reference vs. Input Level, 3 Sigma to Either Side of
Mean, Sine Wave, Supply 3.0 V, Frequency 900 MHz
5.0
2.7V
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
1.5
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
–1.5
–2.0
0.5
–2.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
0.7
0.8
01088-C-007
1.0
0.0
0.02
(–21dBm)
01088-C-009
0.0
01088-C-006
–2.5
0.2
Figure 7. Output vs. Input Level,
Supply 2.7 V, 3.0 V, 5.0 V, and 5.5 V, Frequency 900 MHz
5.0
IS95
REVERSE LINK
4.5
–3.0
0.01
0.02
(–21dBm)
0.6
(+8.6dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
01088-C-010
OUTPUT (V)
1.8
Figure 10. Error from Linear Reference vs. Input Level, 3 Sigma to Either Side
of Mean, Sine Wave, Supply 5.0 V, Frequency 900 MHz
3.0
CW
2.5
2.0
4.0
1.5
ERROR (dB)
1.0
3.0
2.5
WCDMA
4- AND 15-CHANNEL
2.0
IS95
REVERSE LINK
CW
0.5
0.0
4-CHANNEL
–0.5
–1.0
1.5
15-CHANNEL
–1.5
1.0
–2.0
0.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
0.7
0.8
Figure 8. Output vs. Input Level with
Different Waveforms Sine Wave (CW), IS95 Reverse Link,
W-CDMA 4-Channel and W-CDMA 15-Channel, Supply 5.0 V
–2.5
–3.0
0.01
0.02
0.2
0.1
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
1.0
01088-C-011
0.0
01088-C-008
OUTPUT (V)
3.5
Figure 11. Error from CW Linear Reference vs. Input with Different Waveforms
Sine Wave (CW), IS95 Reverse Link, W-CDMA 4-Channel and
W-CDMA 15-Channel, Supply 3.0 V, Frequency 900 MHz
Rev. C | Page 6 of 24
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
+85°C
ERROR (dB)
0.5
0
–0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
–1.5
–1.5
–2.0
–2.0
2.5
–2.5
0.02
(–21dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
0.4
(+5dBm)
–3.0
0.01
01088-C-012
–3.0
0.01
3.0
11
2.5
10
2.0
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
0.5
–1.5
–2.0
VS = 5V
INPUT OUT
OF RANGE
8
–40°C
+25°C
VS = 3V
INPUT OUT
OF RANGE
7
6
+85°C
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MEAN ±3 SIGMA
5
+25°C
4
+85°C
3
2
–2.5
1
–3.0
0.01
0
0.02
(–21dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
(+8.6dBm)
01088-C-013
ERROR (dB)
1.0
–0.5
0.4
(+5dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
9
1.5
–1.0
0.02
(–21dBm)
Figure 15. Output Delta from +25°C vs. Input Level, 3 Sigma to Either
Side of Mean Sine Wave, Supply 3.0 V, Frequency 1900 MHz,
Temperature −40°C to +85°C
Figure 12. Error from CW Linear Reference vs. Input, 3 Sigma to Either Side of
Mean, IS95 Reverse Link Signal, Supply 3.0 V, Frequency 900 MHz
0
–40°C
01088-C-015
–1.0
0.5
Figure 13. Error from CW Linear Reference vs. Input Level, 3 Sigma to Either
Side of Mean, IS95 Reverse Link Signal, Supply 5.0 V, Frequency 900 MHz
–40°C
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
0.7
0.8
01088-C-016
ERROR (dB)
AD8361
Figure 16. Supply Current vs. Input Level, Supplies 3.0 V, and 5.0 V,
Temperatures −40°C, +25°C, and +85°C
3.0
1.8
250
+25°C
2.5
+85°C
1.6
2.0
+85°C
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–40°C
–1.5
–40°C
1.4
+85°C
150
1.2
1.0
100
+25°C
0.8
–40°C
50
–2.0
0.6
–3.0
0.01
0.02
(–21dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
0.4
(+5dBm)
0
0
500
1000
1500
FREQUENCY (MHz)
2000
0.4
2500
Figure 17. Input Impedance vs. Frequency, Supply 3 V,
Temperatures −40°C, +25°C, and +85°C, MSOP
(See Applications for SOT-23 Data)
Figure 14. Output Delta from +25°C vs. Input Level, 3 Sigma to
Either Side of Mean Sine Wave, Supply 3.0 V,
Frequency 900 MHz, Temperature −40°C to +85°C
Rev. C | Page 7 of 24
01088-C-017
–2.5
01088-C-014
ERROR (dB)
1.0
SHUNT CAPACITANCE (pF)
1.5
SHUNT RESISTANCE (Ω)
200
AD8361
0.18
0.03
0.16
0.14
0.01
GAIN CHANGE (V/V rms)
INTERCEPT CHANGE (V)
0.02
0.00
–0.01
–0.02
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
–0.03
0.12
0.10
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
–0.02
–0.04
–40
–20
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
–0.06
–40
–20
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
01088-C-021
–0.04
01088-C-018
–0.05
Figure 21. Conversion Gain Change vs. Temperature, Supply 3 V,
Ground Reference Mode, Frequency 900 MHz
Figure 18. Output Reference Change vs. Temperature,
Supply 3 V, Ground Reference Mode
0.02
0.18
0.16
0.14
GAIN CHANGE (V/V rms)
INTERCEPT CHANGE (V)
0.01
0.00
0.12
0.10
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
0.08
0.06
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–0.01
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
–0.02
0.04
0.02
0.00
–0.02
–20
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
–0.06
–40
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
Figure 19. Output Reference Change vs. Temperature, Supply 3 V,
Internal Reference Mode (MSOP Only)
Figure 22. Conversion Gain Change vs. Temperature, Supply 3 V,
Internal Reference Mode, Frequency 900 MHz (MSOP Only)
0.03
0.18
0.16
0.02
0.14
GAIN CHANGE (V/V rms)
0.01
0.00
–0.01
–0.02
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
–0.03
0.12
0.10
MEAN ±3 SIGMA
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
–0.02
–0.04
–40
–20
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
Figure 20. Output Reference Change vs. Temperature, Supply 3 V,
Supply Reference Mode (MSOP Only)
–0.06
–40
–20
0
20
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
60
80
100
Figure 23. Conversion Gain Change vs. Temperature, Supply 3 V,
Supply Reference Mode, Frequency 900 MHz (MSOP Only)
Rev. C | Page 8 of 24
01088-C-023
–0.04
–0.05
01088-C-020
INTERCEPT CHANGE (V)
–20
01088-C-022
–40
01088-C-019
–0.04
–0.03
AD8361
GATE PULSE FOR
900MHz RF TONE
PWDN INPUT
500mV PER
VERTICAL
DIVISION
370mV
270mV
270mV
500mV PER
VERTICAL
DIVISION
RF INPUT
RF INPUT
67mV
67mV
25mV
01088-C-024
25mV
5µs PER HORIZONTAL DIVISION
01088-C-027
370mV
2µs PER HORIZONTAL DIVISION
Figure 24. Output Response to Modulated Pulse Input for Various RF Input
Levels, Supply 3 V, Modulation Frequency 900 MHz, No Filter Capacitor
Figure 27. Output Response Using Power-Down Mode for Various RF Input
Levels, Supply 3 V, Frequency 900 MHz, No Filter Capacitor
GATE PULSE FOR
900MHz RF TONE
PWDN INPUT
370mV
370mV
500mV PER
VERTICAL
DIVISION
270mV
270mV
500mV PER
VERTICAL
DIVISION
RF INPUT
RF INPUT
67mV
67mV
01088-C-028
01088-C-025
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
25mV
50µs PER HORIZONTAL DIVISION
25mV
20µs PER HORIZONTAL DIVISION
Figure 25. Output Response to Modulated Pulse Input for Various RF Input
Levels, Supply 3 V, Modulation Frequency 900 MHz, 0.01 µF Filter Capacitor
Figure 28. Output Response Using Power-Down Mode for Various RF Input
Levels, Supply 3 V, Frequency 900 MHz, 0.01 µF Filter Capacitor
HPE3631A
POWER SUPPLY
HPE3631A
POWER SUPPLY
2
VPOS
IREF
SREF 8
C3
3
RFIN
FLTR 6
0.1µF
4
PWDN
C2
100pF
TEK P6204
FET PROBE
VRMS 7
C1
R1
75Ω
C4
0.01µF
AD8361
1
AD8361
1
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
C1
C5
100pF
R1
75Ω
COMM 5
HP8648B
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
TEK TDS784C
SCOPE
HP8648B
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
TEK P6204
FET PROBE
C3
3
RFIN
4
PWDN
FLTR 6
0.1µF
C5
100pF
COMM 5
HP8110A
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
Figure 29. Hardware Configuration
for Output Response Using Power-Down Mode
Figure 26. Hardware Configuration for
Output Response to Modulated Pulse Input
Rev. C | Page 9 of 24
01088-C-029
C2
100pF
01088-C-026
C4
0.01µF
TEK TDS784C
SCOPE
AD8361
7.8
16
7.6
14
VS = 3V
7.2
12
7.0
10
PERCENT
CONVERSION GAIN (V/V rms)
7.4
6.8
6.6
8
6.4
6
6.2
4
6.0
2
1000
CARRIER FREQUENCY (MHz)
0
6.9
Figure 30. Conversion Gain Change vs. Frequency, Supply 3 V, Ground
Reference Mode, Frequency 100 MHz to 2500 MHz, Representative Device
370mV
7.8
Figure 33. Conversion Gain Distribution Frequency 100 MHz,
Supply 5 V, Sample Size 3000
RF
INPUT
SUPPLY
7.4
7.2
7.6
CONVERSION GAIN (V/V rms)
7.0
01088-C-033
5.6
100
01088-C-030
5.8
12
500mV PER
VERTICAL
DIVISION
10
PERCENT
270mV
8
6
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67mV
01088-C-031
4
2
0
0.32
Figure 31. Output Response to Gating on Power Supply, for Various RF Input
Levels, Supply 3 V, Modulation Frequency 900 MHz, 0.01 µF Filter Capacitor
0.34
0.38
0.36
0.40
IREF MODE INTERCEPT (V)
0.42
0.44
01088-C-034
25mV
20µs PER HORIZONTAL DIVISION
Figure 34. Output Reference, Internal Reference Mode, Supply 5 V,
Sample Size 3000 (MSOP Only)
HP8110A
PULSE
GENERATOR
AD811
50Ω
12
10
TEK TDS784C
SCOPE
AD8361
1
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
3
RFIN
FLTR 6
4
PWDN
C1
R1
75Ω
HP8648B
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
8
C3
0.1µF
TEK P6204
FET PROBE
6
4
C5
100pF
2
COMM 5
Figure 32. Hardware Configuration for Output Response to Power Supply
Gating Measurements
Rev. C | Page 10 of 24
0
0.64
0.66
0.70
0.68
0.72
SREF MODE INTERCEPT (V)
0.74
0.76
01088-C-035
C2
100pF
01088-C-032
C4
0.01µF
PERCENT
732Ω
Figure 35. Output Reference, Supply Reference Mode, Supply 5 V,
Sample Size 3000 (MSOP Only)
AD8361
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The AD8361 is an rms-responding (mean power) detector that
provides an approach to the exact measurement of RF power
that is basically independent of waveform. It achieves this
function through the use of a proprietary technique in which
the outputs of two identical squaring cells are balanced by the
action of a high-gain error amplifier.
The signal to be measured is applied to the input of the first
squaring cell, which presents a nominal (LF) resistance of
225 Ω between the RFIN and COMM pins (connected to the
ground plane). Because the input pin is at a bias voltage of about
0.8 V above ground, a coupling capacitor is required. By making
this an external component, the measurement range may be
extended to arbitrarily low frequencies.
The AD8361 responds to the voltage, VIN, at its input by
squaring this voltage to generate a current proportional to VIN
squared. This is applied to an internal load resistor, across which
a capacitor is connected. These form a low-pass filter, which
extracts the mean of VIN squared. Although essentially voltageresponding, the associated input impedance calibrates this port
in terms of equivalent power. Therefore, 1 mW corresponds to a
voltage input of 447 mV rms. The Applications section shows
how to match this input to 50 Ω.
The squaring cells have very wide bandwidth with an intrinsic
response from dc to microwave. However, the dynamic range of
such a system is fairly small, due in part to the much larger
dynamic range at the output of the squaring cells. There are
practical limitations to the accuracy of sensing very small error
signals at the bottom end of the dynamic range, arising from small
random offsets that limit the attainable accuracy at small inputs.
On the other hand, the squaring cells in the AD8361 have a
Class-AB aspect; the peak input is not limited by their quiescent
bias condition but is determined mainly by the eventual loss of
square-law conformance. Consequently, the top end of their
response range occurs at a fairly large input level (approximately
700 mV rms) while preserving a reasonably accurate square-law
response. The maximum usable range is, in practice, limited by
the output swing. The rail-to-rail output stage can swing from a
few millivolts above ground to less than 100 mV below the
supply. An example of the output induced limit: given a gain of
7.5 and assuming a maximum output of 2.9 V with a 3 V supply,
the maximum input is (2.9 V rms)/7.5 or 390 mV rms.
Filtering
An important aspect of rms-dc conversion is the need for
averaging (the function is root-MEAN-square). For complex RF
waveforms, such as those that occur in CDMA, the filtering
provided by the on-chip, low-pass filter, although satisfactory
for CW signals above 100 MHz, is inadequate when the signal
has modulation components that extend down into the
kilohertz region. For this reason, the FLTR pin is provided: a
capacitor attached between this pin and VPOS can extend the
averaging time to very low frequencies.
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The voltage across the low-pass filter, whose frequency may be
arbitrarily low, is applied to one input of an error-sensing
amplifier. A second identical voltage-squaring cell is used to
close a negative feedback loop around this error amplifier. This
second cell is driven by a fraction of the quasi-dc output voltage
of the AD8361. When the voltage at the input of the second
squaring cell is equal to the rms value of VIN, the loop is in a
stable state, and the output then represents the rms value of the
input. The feedback ratio is nominally 0.133, making the rms-dc
conversion gain ×7.5, that is
VOUT = 7.5 × VIN rms
By completing the feedback path through a second squaring
cell, identical to the one receiving the signal to be measured,
several benefits arise. First, scaling effects in these cells cancel;
thus, the overall calibration may be accurate, even though the
open-loop response of the squaring cells taken separately need
not be. Note that in implementing rms-dc conversion, no
reference voltage enters into the closed-loop scaling. Second, the
tracking in the responses of the dual cells remains very close
over temperature, leading to excellent stability of calibration.
Offset
An offset voltage can be added to the output (when using the
MSOP version) to allow the use of ADCs whose range does not
extend down to ground. However, accuracy at the low end
degrades because of the inherent error in this added voltage.
This requires that the IREF (internal reference) pin be tied to
VPOS and SREF (supply reference) to ground.
In the IREF mode, the intercept is generated by an internal
reference cell and is a fixed 350 mV, independent of the supply
voltage. To enable this intercept, IREF should be open-circuited,
and SREF should be grounded.
In the SREF mode, the voltage is provided by the supply. To
implement this mode, tie IREF to VPOS and SREF to VPOS.
The offset is then proportional to the supply voltage and is
400 mV for a 3 V supply and 667 mV for a 5 V supply.
Rev. C | Page 11 of 24
AD8361
APPLICATIONS
Basic Connections
+VS 2.7V – 5.5V
Figure 36 through Figure 38 show the basic connections for the
AD8361’s MSOP version in its three operating modes. In all
modes, the device is powered by a single supply of between
2.7 V and 5.5 V. The VPOS pin is decoupled using 100 pF and
0.01 µF capacitors. The quiescent current of 1.1 mA in
operating mode can be reduced to 1 µA by pulling the PWDN
pin up to VPOS.
The input coupling capacitor combines with the internal input
resistance (Figure 37) to provide a high-pass corner frequency
given by the equation
f 3 dB =
1
2 π × CC × RIN
With the 100 pF capacitor shown in Figure 36 through Figure 38,
the high-pass corner frequency is about 8 MHz.
AD8361
0.01µF
CC
100pF
RFIN
R1
75Ω
1
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
3
RFIN
FLTR 6
4
PWDN
V rms
01088-C-038
A 75 Ω external shunt resistance combines with the ac-coupled
input to give an overall broadband input impedance near 50 Ω.
Note that the coupling capacitor must be placed between the
input and the shunt impedance. Input impedance and input
coupling are discussed in more detail below.
100pF
CFLTR
COMM 5
Figure 38. Basic Connections for Supply Referenced Mode
The output voltage is nominally 7.5 times the input rms voltage
(a conversion gain of 7.5 V/V rms). Three modes of operation
are set by the SREF and IREF pins. In addition to the ground
reference mode shown in Figure 36, where the output voltage
swings from around near ground to 4.9 V on a 5.0 V supply, two
additional modes allow an offset voltage to be added to the
output. In the internal reference mode (Figure 37), the output
voltage swing is shifted upward by an internal reference voltage
of 350 mV. In supply referenced mode (Figure 38), an offset
voltage of VS/7.5 is added to the output voltage. Table 4
summarizes the connections, output transfer function, and
minimum output voltage (i.e., zero signal) for each mode.
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+VS 2.7V – 5.5V
Output Swing
100pF
AD8361
CC
100pF
RFIN
R1
75Ω
1
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
3
RFIN
FLTR 6
4
PWDN
V rms
01088-C-036
0.01µF
CFLTR
COMM 5
Figure 36. Basic Connections for Ground Reference Mode
Figure 39 shows the output swing of the AD8361 for a 5 V
supply voltage for each of the three modes. It is clear from
Figure 39 that operating the device in either internal reference
mode or supply referenced mode reduces the effective dynamic
range as the output headroom decreases. The response for lower
supply voltages is similar (in the supply referenced mode, the
offset is smaller), but the dynamic range reduces further as
headroom decreases. Figure 40 shows the response of the
AD8361 to a CW input for various supply voltages.
5.0
SUPPLY REF
4.5
+VS 2.7V – 5.5V
4.0
100pF
R1
75Ω
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
3
RFIN
FLTR 6
V rms
PWDN
COMM 5
2.5
2.0
1.5
CFLTR
4
GROUND REF
3.0
1.0
0.5
Figure 37. Basic Connections for Internal Reference Mode
0.0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
0.7
Figure 39. Output Swing for Ground, Internal, and
Supply Referenced Mode, VPOS = 5 V (MSOP Only)
Rev. C | Page 12 of 24
0.8
01088-C-039
RFIN
1
01088-C-037
CC
100pF
OUTPUT (V)
AD8361
0.01µF
INTERNAL REF
3.5
AD8361
5.5
should however be noted that offsets at the low end can be
either positive or negative, so this plot could also trend upwards
at the low end. Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 12, and Figure 13
show a ±3 sigma distribution of the device error for a large
population of devices.
5.5V
5.0
4.5
5.0V
4.0
3.0V
OUTPUT (V)
3.5
3.0
2.0
2.5
1.5
2.0
2.7V
1.0
1.5
2.5GHz
0.0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
INPUT (V rms)
0.6
0.7
0.8
01088-C-040
0.5
ERROR (dB)
1.0
0.5
100MHz
0.0
1.9GHz
–0.5
100MHz
Figure 40. Output Swing for Supply Voltages of
2.7 V, 3.0 V, 5.0 V and 5.5 V (MSOP Only)
–1.0
Dynamic Range
–1.5
Because the AD8361 is a linear-responding device with a
nominal transfer function of 7.5 V/V rms, the dynamic range in
dB is not clear from plots such as Figure 39. As the input level is
increased in constant dB steps, the output step size (per dB) also
increases. Figure 41 shows the relationship between the output
step size (i.e., mV/dB) and input voltage for a nominal transfer
function of 7.5 V/V rms.
–2.0
0.01
0.02
(–21dBm)
0.1
(–7dBm)
0.4
(+5dBm)
INPUT (V rms)
1.0
01088-C-042
900MHz
Figure 42. Representative Unit, Error in dB vs. Input Level, VS = 2.7 V
It is also apparent in Figure 42 that the error plot tends to shift
to the right with increasing frequency. Because the input
impedance decreases with frequency, the voltage actually
applied to the input also tends to decrease (assuming a constant
source impedance over frequency). The dynamic range is
almost constant over frequency, but with a small decrease in
conversion gain at high frequency.
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Table 4. Connections and Nominal Transfer Function for
Ground, Internal, and Supply Reference Modes
Reference
Mode
Ground
Internal
Supply
IREF
VPOS
OPEN
VPOS
SREF
COMM
COMM
VPOS
Output
Intercept
(No Signal)
Zero
0.350 V
VS/7.5
Output
7.5 VIN
7.5 VIN + 0.350 V
7.5 VIN + VS/7.5
700
600
mV/dB
500
400
300
200
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
INPUT (mV)
600
700
800
01088-C-041
100
Figure 41. Idealized Output Step Size as a Function of Input Voltage
Plots of output voltage versus input voltage result in a straight
line. It may sometimes be more useful to plot the error on a
logarithmic scale, as shown in Figure 42. The deviation of the
plot for the ideal straight line characteristic is caused by output
clipping at the high end and by signal offsets at the low end. It
Input Coupling and Matching
The input impedance of the AD8361 decreases with increasing
frequency in both its resistive and capacitive components
(Figure 17). The resistive component varies from 225 Ω at
100 MHz down to about 95 Ω at 2.5 GHz.
A number of options exist for input matching. For operation at
multiple frequencies, a 75 Ω shunt to ground, as shown in
Figure 43, provides the best overall match. For use at a single
frequency, a resistive or a reactive match can be used. By
plotting the input impedance on a Smith Chart, the best value
for a resistive match can be calculated. The VSWR can be held
below 1.5 at frequencies up to 1 GHz, even as the input
impedance varies from part to part. (Both input impedance and
input capacitance can vary by up to ±20% around their nominal
values.) At very high frequencies (i.e., 1.8 GHz to 2.5 GHz), a
shunt resistor is not sufficient to reduce the VSWR below 1.5.
Where VSWR is critical, remove the shunt component and
insert an inductor in series with the coupling capacitor as
shown in Figure 44.
Table 5 gives recommended shunt resistor values for various
frequencies and series inductor values for high frequencies. The
coupling capacitor, CC, essentially acts as an ac-short and plays
no intentional part in the matching.
Rev. C | Page 13 of 24
AD8361
Table 6. Recommended Values for a Reactive Input
Matching (Figure 45)
AD8361
Figure 43. Input Coupling/Matching Options, Broadband Resistor Match
RFIN
AD8361
01088-C-044
CC
LM
RFIN
CC
RFIN
LM
AD8361
01088-C-045
CM
Figure 45. Input Coupling/Matching Options, Narrowband Reactive Match
RSERIES
CC
RFIN
LM (nH)
180
15
12
4.7
4.7
3.3
Figure 46 shows a technique for coupling the input signal into
the AD8361 that may be applicable where the input signal is
much larger than the input range of the AD8361. A series
resistor combines with the input impedance of the AD8361 to
attenuate the input signal. Because this series resistor forms a
divider with the frequency dependent input impedance, the
apparent gain changes greatly with frequency. However, this
method has the advantage of very little power being tapped off
in RF power transmission applications. If the resistor is large
compared to the transmission line’s impedance, then the VSWR
of the system is relatively unaffected.
01088-C-046
RFIN
CM (pF)
16
2
2
1.5
1.5
1.5
Input Coupling Using a Series Resistor
Figure 44. Input Coupling/Matching Options, Series Inductor Match
RFIN
Frequency (MHz)
100
800
900
1800
1900
2500
1.7
250
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
AD8361
Table 5. Recommended Component Values for Resistive or
Inductive Input Matching (Figure 43 and Figure 44)
Frequency
100 MHz
800 MHz
900 MHz
1800 MHz
1900 MHz
2500 MHz
Matching Component
63.4 Ω Shunt
75 Ω Shunt
75 Ω Shunt
150 Ω Shunt or 4.7 nH Series
150 Ω Shunt or 4.7 nH Series
150 Ω Shunt or 2.7 nH Series
RESISTANCE (Ω)
Figure 46. Input Coupling/Matching Options, Attenuating the Input Signal
200
1.4
150
1.1
100
0.8
50
0.5
0
Alternatively, a reactive match can be implemented using a shunt
inductor to ground and a series capacitor, as shown in Figure 45. A
method for hand calculating the appropriate matching components
is shown on page 12 of the AD8306 data sheet.
Matching in this manner results in very small values for CM,
especially at high frequencies. As a result, a stray capacitance as
small as 1 pF can significantly degrade the quality of the match.
The main advantage of a reactive match is the increase in
sensitivity that results from the input voltage being gained up
(by the square root of the impedance ratio) by the matching
network. Table 6 shows the recommended values for reactive
matching.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
FREQUENCY (MHz)
3000
0.2
3500
CAPACITANCE (pF)
RSH
01088-C-047
RFIN
RFIN
01088-C-043
CC
Figure 47. Input Impedance vs. Frequency, Supply 3 V, SOT-23
Selecting the Filter Capacitor
The AD8361’s internal 27 pF filter capacitor is connected in
parallel with an internal resistance that varies with signal level
from 2 kΩ for small signals to 500 Ω for large signals. The
resulting low-pass corner frequency between 3 MHz and
12 MHz provides adequate filtering for all frequencies above
240 MHz (i.e., 10 times the frequency at the output of the
squarer, which is twice the input frequency). However, signals
with high peak-to-average ratios, such as CDMA or W-CDMA
signals, and low frequency components require additional
filtering. TDMA signals, such as GSM, PDC, or PHS, have a
peak-to average ratio that is close to that of a sinusoid, and the
internal filter is adequate.
Rev. C | Page 14 of 24
AD8361
The filter capacitance of the AD8361 can be augmented by
connecting a capacitor between Pin 6 (FLTR) and VPOS. Table 7
shows the effect of several capacitor values for various
communications standards with high peak-to-average ratios
along with the residual ripple at the output, in peak-to-peak and
rms volts. Note that large filter capacitors increase the enable and
pulse response times, as discussed below.
Table 7. Effect of Waveform and CFILT on Residual AC
Waveform
IS95 Reverse Link
CFILT
Open
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
IS95 8-Channel
Forward Link
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
Output
V dc
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
Residual AC
mV p-p
mV rms
550
100
1000
180
2000
360
40
6
160
20
430
60
20
3
40
6
110
18
290
40
975
150
2600
430
50
7
190
30
670
95
225
35
940
135
2500
390
45
6
165
25
550
80
current consumption, disabling the device reduces the leakage
current to less than 1 µA. Figure 27 and Figure 28 show the
response of the output of the AD8361 to a pulse on the PWDN
pin, with no capacitance and with a filter capacitance of 0.01 µF,
respectively; the turn-on time is a function of the filter
capacitor. Figure 31 shows a plot of the output response to the
supply being turned on (i.e., PWDN is grounded and VPOS is
pulsed) with a filter capacitor of 0.01 µF. Again, the turn-on
time is strongly influenced by the size of the filter capacitor.
If the input of the AD8361 is driven while the device is disabled
(PWDN = VPOS), the leakage current of less than 1 µA
increases as a function of input level. When the device is
disabled, the output impedance increases to approximately
16 kΩ.
Volts to dBm Conversion
In many of the plots, the horizontal axis is scaled in both rms
volts and dBm. In all cases, dBm are calculated relative to an
impedance of 50 Ω. To convert between dBm and volts in a
50 Ω system, the following equations can be used. Figure 48
shows this conversion in graphical form.
⎡ (V rms )2 ⎤
⎢
⎥
50 Ω ⎥
Power (dBm ) = 10log ⎢
= 10log 20 (V rms )2
⎢ 0.001 W ⎥
⎢
⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
(
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
⎛ dBm ⎞
V rms = 0.001 W × 50 Ω × log −1 ⎜
⎟=
⎝ 10 ⎠
V rms
Operation at Low Frequencies
Although the AD8361 is specified for operation up to 2.5 GHz,
there is no lower limit on the operating frequency. It is only
necessary to increase the input coupling capacitor to reduce the
corner frequency of the input high-pass filter (use an input
resistance of 225 Ω for frequencies below 100 MHz). It is also
necessary to increase the filter capacitor so that the signal at the
output of the squaring circuit is free of ripple. The corner
frequency is set by the combination of the internal resistance of
2 kΩ and the external filter capacitance.
1
log −1 (dBm/10 )
20
dBm
+20
+10
0
0.1
–10
–20
0.01
–30
–40
0.001
01088-C-048
W-CDMA 15
Channel
Figure 48. Conversion from dBm to rms Volts
Power Consumption, Enable and Power-On
The quiescent current consumption of the AD8361 varies with
the size of the input signal from about 1 mA for no signal up to
7 mA at an input level of 0.66 V rms (9.4 dBm, re 50 Ω). If the
input is driven beyond this point, the supply current increases
steeply (see Figure 16). There is little variation in quiescent
current with power supply voltage.
The AD8361 can be disabled either by pulling the PWDN
(Pin 4) to VPOS or by simply turning off the power to the
device. While turning off the device obviously eliminates the
Rev. C | Page 15 of 24
)
AD8361
Output Drive Capability and Buffering
The AD8361 is capable of sourcing an output current of
approximately 3 mA. If additional current is required, a simple
buffering circuit can be used as shown in Figure 51. Similar
circuits can be used to increase or decrease the nominal
conversion gain of 7.5 V/V rms (Figure 49 and Figure 50). In
Figure 50, the AD8031 buffers a resistive divider to give a slope
of 3.75 V/V rms. In Figure 49, the op amp’s gain of two increases
the slope to 15 V/V rms. Using other resistor values, the slope
can be changed to an arbitrary value. The AD8031 rail-to-rail
op amp, used in these example, can swing from 50 mV to 4.95 V
on a single 5 V supply and operate at supply voltages down to
2.7 V. If high output current is required (>10 mA), the AD8051,
which also has rail-to- rail capability, can be used down to a
supply voltage of 3 V. It can deliver up to 45 mA of output
current.
5V
100pF
0.01µF
0.01µF
VPOS
VOUT
AD8031
AD8361
15V/V rms
OUTPUT REFERENCE TEMPERATURE DRIFT
COMPENSATION
The error due to low temperature drift of the AD8361 can be
reduced if the temperature is known. Many systems incorporate
a temperature sensor; the output of the sensor is typically
digitized, facilitating a software correction. Using this
information, only a two-point calibration at ambient is required.
The output voltage of the AD8361 at ambient (25°C) can be
expressed by the equation
VOUT = (GAIN × VIN ) + ς ΟΣ
where GAIN is the conversion gain in V/V rms and VOS is the
extrapolated output voltage for an input level of 0 V. GAIN and
VOS (also referred to as intercept and output reference) can be
calculated at ambient using a simple two-point calibration by
measuring the output voltages for two specific input levels.
Calibration at roughly 35 mV rms (−16 dBm) and 250 mV rms
(+1 dBm) is recommended for maximum linear dynamic range.
However, alternative levels and ranges can be chosen to suit the
application. GAIN and VOS are then calculated using the
equations
COMM PWDN
5kΩ
GAIN =
(VOUT2 − VOUT1 )
01088-C-049
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
5kΩ
VOS = VOUT1 − (GAIN × VIN1 )
Figure 49. Output Buffering Options, Slope of 15 V/V rms
5V
0.01µF
100pF
10kΩ
VPOS
VOUT
0.01µF
5kΩ
AD8361
AD8031
3.75V/V rms
01088-C-050
5kΩ
COMM PWDN
Both GAIN and VOS drift over temperature. However, the drift
of VOS has a bigger influence on the error relative to the output.
This can be seen by inserting data from Figure 18 and Figure 21
(intercept drift and conversion gain) into the equation for VOUT.
These plots are consistent with Figure 14 and Figure 15, which
show that the error due to temperature drift decreases with
increasing input level. This results from the offset error having a
diminishing influence with increasing level on the overall
measurement error.
From Figure 18, the average intercept drift is 0.43 mV/°C from
−40°C to +25°C and 0.17 mV/°C from +25°C to +85°C. For a
less rigorous compensation scheme, the average drift over the
complete temperature range can be calculated as
Figure 50. Output Buffering Options, Slope of 3.75 V/V rms
5V
0.01µF
100pF
⎛ 0.010 V − (− 0.028 V ) ⎞
DRIFTVOS (V/°C ) = ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ = 0.000304 V/°C
⎝ + 85°C − (− 40°C ) ⎠
0.01µF
VPOS
VOUT
AD8361
AD8031
VIN2 − VIN1
7.5V/V rms
COMM PWDN
01088-C-051
With the drift of VOS included, the equation for VOUT becomes
VOUT = (GAIN × VIN) + VOS + DRIFTVOS × (TEMP − 25°C)
Figure 51. Output Buffering Options, Slope of 7.5 V/V rms
Rev. C | Page 16 of 24
AD8361
Extended Frequency Characterization
The equation can be rewritten to yield a temperature
compensated value for VIN:
VIN =
(VOUT − VOS − DRIFTVOS × (TEMP − 25°C ))
GAIN
Figure 52 shows the output voltage and error (in dB) as a
function of input level for a typical device (note that output
voltage is plotted on a logarithmic scale). Figure 53 shows the
error in the calculated input level after the temperature
compensation algorithm has been applied. For a supply voltage
of 5 V, the part exhibits a worst-case linearity error over
temperature of approximately ±0.3 dB over a dynamic range of
35 dB.
10
2.5
2.0
1.5
+85°C
0
1.0
VOUT (V)
+25°C
0.5
–0.5
–40°C
–1.0
–2.0
–2.5
–25
In order to characterize the AD8361 at frequencies greater than
2.5 GHz, a small collection of devices were tested. Dynamic
range, conversion gain, and output intercept were measured at
several frequencies over a temperature range of −30°C to +80°C.
Both CW and 64 QAM modulated input wave forms were used
in the characterization process in order to access varying peakto-average waveform performance.
The dynamic range of the device is calculated as the input
power range over which the device remains within a
permissible error margin to the ideal transfer function. Devices
were tested over frequency and temperature. After identifying
an acceptable error margin for a given application, the usable
dynamic measurement range can be identified using the plots in
Figure 54 through Figure 57. For instance, for a 1 dB error
margin and a modulated carrier at 3 GHz, the usable dynamic
range can be found by inspecting the 3 GHz plot of Figure 57.
Note that the −30°C curve crosses the −1 dB error limit at
−17 dBm. For a 5 V supply, the maximum input power should
not exceed 6 dBm in order to avoid compression. The resultant
usable dynamic range is therefore
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0.1
10
5
0
01088-C-052
–1.5
6 dBm − (−17 dBm)
Figure 52. Typical Output Voltage and Error vs.
Input Level, 800 MHz, VPOS = 5 V
or 23 dBm over a temperature range of −30°C to +80°C.
2.0
10
2.5
1.5
2.0
+80°C
1.0
+25°C
1.5
+85°C
0.5
1.0
0
0.5
+25°C
–40°C
–1.0
0
–0.5
–1.5
–1.0
–2.0
–1.5
–2.5
–2.0
–3.0
–30
–25
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0
5
10
1
–2.5
–25
0.1
–20
–15
–10
–5
0
5
10
PIN (dBm)
Figure 53. Error after Temperature Compensation of
Output Reference,800 MHz, VPOS = 5 V
Figure 54. Transfer Function and Error Plots Measured at
1.5 GHz for a 64 QAM Modulated Signal
Rev. C | Page 17 of 24
VOUT (V)
–0.5
01088-0-054
ERROR (dB)
–30°C
01088-C-053
ERROR (dB)
ERROR (dB)
1.0
Although the AD8361 was originally intended as a power
measurement and control device for cellular wireless
applications, the AD8361 has useful performance at higher
frequencies. Typical applications may include MMDS, LMDS,
WLAN, and other noncellular activities.
AD8361
2.5
10
10
2.5
2.0
2.0
+80°C
1.5
1.5
+25°C
1.0
1.0
CW
1
–0.5
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.0
–1.5
–1.5
–2.0
1
VOUT (V)
0
ERROR (dB)
0.5
VOUT (V)
64 QAM
01088-C-055
–2.0
–2.5
–25
0.1
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0
5
10
Figure 55. Transfer Function and Error Plots Measured at
2.5 GHz for a 64 QAM Modulated Signal
01088-C-058
ERROR (dB)
–30°C
0.1
–2.5
–25
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0
5
10
Figure 58. Error from CW Linear Reference vs. Input Drive Level for CW
and 64 QAM Modulated Signals at 3.0 GHz
2.5
10
8.0
2.0
+80°C
7.5
CONVERSION GAIN (V/V rms)
1.5
+25°C
1.0
0
VOUT (V)
ERROR (dB)
–30°C
0.5
1
–0.5
7.0
6.5
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–1.0
–1.5
6.0
0.1
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0
5
10
5.0
Figure 56. Transfer Function and Error Plots Measured at
2.7 GHz for a 64 QAM Modulated Signal
2.5
10
+25°C
1.0
–30°C
1
–0.5
VOUT (V)
0.5
800 1200 1600 2200 2500 2700 3000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
–1.0
–1.5
–2.0
–2.5
–25
0.1
–20
–15
–10
–5
PIN (dBm)
0
5
10
Figure 57. Transfer Function and Error Plots Measured at
3.0 GHz for a 64 QAM Modulated Signal
01088-C-057
ERROR (dB)
400
The transfer functions and error for a CW input and a 64 QAM
input waveform is shown in Figure 58. The error curve is
generated from a linear reference based on the CW data. The
increased crest factor of the 64 QAM modulation results in a
decrease in output from the AD8361. This decrease in output is
a result of the limited bandwidth and compression of the
internal gain stages. This inaccuracy should be accounted for in
systems where varying crest factor signals need to be measured.
+80°C
0
200
Figure 59. Conversion Gain vs. Frequency for a
Typical Device, Supply 3 V, Ground Reference Mode
2.0
1.5
100
01088-C-059
–2.5
–25
01088-C-056
5.5
–2.0
The conversion gain is defined as the slope of the output voltage
versus the input rms voltage. An ideal best fit curve can be
found for the measured transfer function at a given supply
voltage and temperature. The slope of the ideal curve is
identified as the conversion gain for a particular device. The
conversion gain relates the measurement sensitivity of the
AD8361 to the rms input voltage of the RF waveform. The
conversion gain was measured for a number of devices over a
temperature range of −30°C to +80°C. The conversion gain for a
typical device is shown in Figure 59. Although the conversion
gain tends to decrease with increasing frequency, the AD8361
provides measurement capability at frequencies greater than
Rev. C | Page 18 of 24
AD8361
One of the AD8361s (U2) has a net gain of about 14 dB
preceding it and therefore operates most accurately at low input
signal levels. This is referred to as the weak signal path. U4, on
the other hand, does not have the added gain and provides
accurate response at high levels. The output of U2 is attenuated
by R1 in order to cancel the effect of U2’s preceding gain so that
the slope of the transfer function (as seen at the slider of R1) is
the same as that of U4 by itself.
2.5 GHz. However, it is necessary to calibrate for a given
application to accommodate for the change in conversion gain
at higher frequencies.
Dynamic Range Extension for the AD8361
The accurate measurement range of the AD8361 is limited by
internal dc offsets for small input signals and by square law
conformance errors for large signals. The measurement range
may be extended by using two devices operating at different
signal levels and then choosing only the output of the device
that provides accurate results at the prevailing input level.
The circuit comprising U3, U5, and U6 is a crossfader, in which
the relative gains of the two inputs are determined by the output
currents of a fuzzy comparator made from Q1 and Q2.
Assuming that the slider of R2 is at 2.5 V dc, the fuzzy
comparator commands full weighting of the weak signal path
when the output of U2 is below about 2.0 V dc, and full
weighting of the strong signal path when the output of U3
exceeds about 3.0 V dc. U3 and U5 are OTAs (operational
transconductance amplifiers).
Figure 60 depicts an implementation of this idea. In this circuit,
the selection of the output is made gradually over an input level
range of about 3 dB in order to minimize the impact of
imperfect matching of the transfer functions of the two
AD8361s. Such a mismatch typically arises because of the
variation of the gain of the RF preamplifier U1 and both the
gain and slope variations of the AD8361s with temperature.
5V
270Ω
12V
0.01µF
U2
8
1
RFC
+12V
16kΩ
100pF
U1
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
ERA-3
20dB
AD8361
5
4
2
R1
5kΩ
5V
6
3
68Ω
7
0.1µF
3
U3
6
CA3080
5
12V
8.2nF
–5V
5V
20kΩ
1kΩ
5V
RF
INPUT
6dB
SPLITTER
Q2
2N3906
R2
10kΩ
100Ω
2
7 U6
1kΩ
3
20kΩ
Q1
2N3906
AD820
6
VOUT
4
5V
0.01µF
U4
+12V
8
1
100pF
68Ω
20kΩ
2
AD8361
2
7
3
6
4
5
5V
3
12kΩ
0.1µF
U5
CA3080
5
6
1MΩ
–5V
+5V
–5V
R3
10kΩ
Figure 60. Range Extender Application
Rev. C | Page 19 of 24
01088-C-060
6dB
PAD
2
AD8361
1.
The mismatch in input levels to the crossfader is never
large enough to evoke very much distortion because the
AD8361s are reasonably well-behaved.
2.
The effect of the distortion in this case is merely to distort
the otherwise nearly linear slope of the transition between
the crossfader’s two inputs.
VOUT
m1 ≠ m2
DIFFERING
SLOPES INDICATE
MALADJUSTMENT
OF R1
m2
VOUT
MISALIGNMENT INDICATES
MALADJUSTMENT OF R3
TRANSITION
REGION
01088-C-062
U6 provides feedback to linearize the inherent tanh transfer
function of the OTAs. When one OTA or the other is fully
selected, the feedback is very effective. The active OTA has zero
differential input; the inactive one has a potentially large
differential input, but this does not matter because the inactive
OTA is not contributing to the output. However, when both
OTAs are active to some extent, and the two signal inputs to the
crossfader are different, it is impossible to have zero differential
inputs on the OTAs. In this event, the crossfader admittedly
generates distortion because of the nonlinear transfer function
of the OTAs. Fortunately, in this application, the distortion is
not very objectionable for two reasons:
RF INPUT LEVEL – V rms
Figure 62. Intercept Adjustment
In principle, this method could be extended to three or more
AD8361s in pursuit of even more measurement range. However,
it is very important to pay close attention to the matter of not
excessively overdriving the AD8361s in the weaker signal paths
under strong signal conditions.
Figure 63 shows the extended range transfer function at multiple
temperatures. The discontinuity at approximately 0.2 V rms arises
as a result of component temperature dependencies. Figure 64
shows the error in dB of the range extender circuit at ambient
temperature. For a 1 dB error margin, the range extender circuit
offers 38 dB of measurement range.
3.0
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REF LINE
m1
2.0
VOUT (V)
Figure 61. Slope Adjustment
This circuit has three trimmable potentiometers. The suggested
setup procedure is as follows:
Set R2 so that its slider’s voltage is at the middle of the
desired transition zone (about 2.5 V dc is recommended).
Set R1 so that the transfer function’s slopes are equal on
both sides of the transition zone. This is perhaps best
accomplished by making a plot of the overall transfer
function (using linear voltage scales for both axes) to assess
the match in slope between one side of the transition
region and the other (see Figure 61). Note: it may be
helpful to adjust R3 to remove any large misalignment in
the transfer function in order to correctly perceive slope
differences.
Finally (re)adjust R3 as required to remove any remaining
misalignment in the transfer function (see Figure 62).
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
DRIVE LEVEL (V rms)
0.8
01088-C-063
2.
1.0
Figure 63. Output vs. Drive Level over Temperature for
a 1 GHz 64 QAM Modulated Signal
5
4
3
2
ERROR (dB)
Preset R3 at midrange.
4.
1.0
0.5
1.
3.
–30°C
1.5
1
0
–1
–2
–3
–4
–5
–32
–27
–22
–17
–12
–7
–2
DRIVE LEVEL (dBm)
3
8
13
Figure 64. Error from Linear Reference at 25°C for a
1 GHz 64 QAM Modulated Signal
Rev. C | Page 20 of 24
01088-C-064
RF INPUT LEVEL – V rms
+80°C
01088-C-061
TRANSITION
REGION
2.5
AD8361
EVALUATION BOARD
Figure 65 and Figure 68 show the schematic of the AD8361
evaluation board. Note that uninstalled components are drawn
in as dashed. The layout and silkscreen of the component side
are shown in Figure 66, Figure 67, Figure 69, and Figure 70. The
board is powered by a single supply in the 2.7 V to 5.5 V range.
The power supply is decoupled by 100 pF and 0.01 µF
capacitors. Additional decoupling, in the form of a series
resistor or inductor in R6, can also be added. Table 8 details the
various configuration options of the evaluation board.
Table 8. Evaluation Board Configuration Options
Component
TP1, TP2
SW1
SW2/SW3
C1, R2
C2, C3, R6
C5
C4, R5
Function
Ground and Supply Vector Pins.
Device Enable. When in Position A, the PWDN pin is connected to +VS and the AD8361 is in powerdown mode. In Position B, the PWDN pin is grounded, putting the device in operating mode.
Operating Mode. Selects either ground reference mode, internal reference mode or supply
reference mode. See Table 4 for more details.
Input Coupling. The 75 Ω resistor in Position R2 combines with the AD8361’s internal input
impedance to give a broadband input impedance of around 50 Ω. For more precise matching
at a particular frequency, R2 can be replaced by a different value (see Input Coupling and
Matching and Figure 43 through Figure 46).
Capacitor C1 ac couples the input signal and creates a high-pass input filter whose corner
frequency is equal to approximately 8 MHz. C1 can be increased for operation at lower
frequencies. If resistive attenuation is desired at the input, series resistor R1, which is
nominally 0 Ω, can be replaced by an appropriate value.
Power Supply Decoupling. The nominal supply decoupling of 0.01 µF and 100 pF. A series
inductor or small resistor can be placed in R6 for additional decoupling.
Default Condition
Not Applicable
SW1 = B
SW2 = A, SW3 = B
(Ground Reference Mode)
R2 = 75 Ω (Size 0402)
C1 = 100 pF (Size 0402)
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Filter Capacitor. The internal 50 pF averaging capacitor can be augmented by placing a
capacitance in C5.
Output Loading. Resistors and capacitors can be placed in C4 and R5 to load test V rms.
Rev. C | Page 21 of 24
C2 = 0.01 µF (Size 0402)
C3 = 100 pF (Size 0402)
R6 = 0 Ω (Size 0402)
C5 = 1 nF (Size 0603)
C4 = R5 = Open (Size 0603)
AD8361
VPOS
C3
100pF
C2
0.01µF
C3
100pF
VS
SW3
AD8361
SW2
B
C1
100pF
RFIN
1
VPOS
SREF 8
2
IREF
VRMS 7
VPOS
FLTR 6
R4
0Ω
R5
C4
(OPEN)
(OPEN)
PWDN
(OPEN)
(OPEN)
1
VRMS
VPOS
6
2
COMM
RFIN
5
3
FLTR
PWDN
4
TP2 VPOS
J1
Vrms
C1
100pF
R2
75Ω
C5
1nF
TP1
COMM 5
TP1
A
SW1
1
3
SW1
2
J3
R7
50Ω
Figure 68. Evaluation Board Schematic, SOT-23
Figure 65. Evaluation Board Schematic, MSOP
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
01088-C-066
Figure 69. Layout of the Component Side, SOT-23
Figure 66. Layout of Component Side, MSOP
01088-C-067
B
AD8361
R5
1nF
4
R4
0Ω
C4
01088-C-065
VPOS
RFIN
A
B
C5
3
R2
75Ω
J2
01088-C-070
A
VS
01088-C-069
R6
0Ω
C2
0.01µF
Figure 70. Silkscreen of the Component Side, SOT-23
Figure 67. Silkscreen of Component Side, MSOP
Rev. C | Page 22 of 24
01088-C-068
TP2
AD8361
Problems caused by impedance mismatch may arise using the
evaluation board to examine the AD8361 performance. One
way to reduce these problems is to put a coaxial 3 dB attenuator
on the RFIN SMA connector. Mismatches at the source, cable,
and cable interconnection, as well as those occurring on the
evaluation board, can cause these problems.
A simple (and common) example of such a problem is triple
travel due to mismatch at both the source and the evaluation
board. Here the signal from the source reaches the evaluation
board and mismatch causes a reflection. When that reflection
reaches the source mismatch, it causes a new reflection, which
travels back to the evaluation board, adding to the original
signal incident at the board. The resultant voltage varies with
both cable length and frequency dependence on the relative
phase of the initial and reflected signals. Placing the 3 dB pad at
the input of the board improves the match at the board and thus
reduces the sensitivity to mismatches at the source. When such
precautions are taken, measurements are less sensitive to cable
length and other fixture issues. In an actual application when
the distance between AD8361 and source is short and well
defined, this 3 dB attenuator is not needed.
Analysis
The conversion gain and output reference are derived using the
coefficients of a linear regression performed on data collected
in its central operating range (35 mV rms to 250 mV rms). This
range was chosen to avoid areas of operation where offset
distorts the linear response. Error is stated in two forms error
from linear response to CW waveform and output delta from
2°C performance.
The error from linear response to CW waveform is the
difference in output from the ideal output defined by the
conversion gain and output reference. This is a measure of both
the linearity of the device response to both CW and modulated
waveforms. The error in dB uses the conversion gain multiplied
by the input as its reference. Error from linear response to CW
waveform is not a measure of absolute accuracy, since it is
calculated using the gain and output reference of each device.
However, it does show the linearity and effect of modulation on
the device response. Error from 25° C performance uses the
performance of a given device and waveform type as the
reference; it is predominantly a measure of output variation
with temperature.
C4
0.1µF
CHARACTERIZATION SETUPS
C2
100pF
Equipment
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AD8361
VPOS
1
VPOS
SREF 8
IREF
2
IREF
VRMS 7
SREF
VRMS
C3
RFIN
R1
75Ω
C1
0.1µF
FLTR 6
3
RFIN
4
PWDN
01088-C-071
The primary characterization setup is shown in Figure 72. The
signal source used was a Rohde & Schwarz SMIQ03B, version
3.90HX. The modulated waveforms used for IS95 reverse link,
IS95 nine active channels forward (forward link 18 setting),
and W-CDMA 4-channel and 15-channel were generated using
the default settings coding and filtering. Signal levels were
calibrated into a 50 Ω impedance.
COMM 5
PWDN
Figure 71. Characterization Board
AD8361
CHARACTERIZATION
BOARD
SMIQ038B
RF SOURCE
DC OUTPUT
RF SIGNAL
RFIN
VRMS
3dB
ATTENUATOR
PRUP
+VS
SREF
IREF
DC SOURCES
PC CONTROLLER
DC MATRIX / DC SUPPLIES / DMM
Figure 72. Characterization Setup
Rev. C | Page 23 of 24
01088-C-072
IEEE BUS
AD8361
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
3.00
BSC
8
2.90 BSC
5
6
4.90
BSC
3.00
BSC
5
4
2.80 BSC
1.60 BSC
4
1
2
3
PIN 1
INDICATOR
PIN 1
0.95 BSC
0.65 BSC
1.10 MAX
0.15
0.00
0.38
0.22
COPLANARITY
0.10
0.23
0.08
8°
0°
SEATING
PLANE
1.90
BSC
1.30
1.15
0.90
0.80
0.60
0.40
1.45 MAX
0.50
0.30
0.15 MAX
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-187AA
0.22
0.08
SEATING
PLANE
10°
4°
0°
0.60
0.45
0.30
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-178AB
Figure 73. 8-Lead Mini Small Outline Package [MSOP]
(RM-8)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
Figure 74. 6-Lead Small Outline Transistor Package [SOT-23]
(RT-6)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD8361ARM
AD8361ARM-REEL
AD8361ARM-REEL7
AD8361ARMZ1
AD8361ARMZ-REEL1
AD8361ARMZ-REEL71
AD8361ART-REEL
AD8361ART-REEL7
AD8361ARTZ-RL71
AD8361-EVAL
AD8361ART-EVAL
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
8-Lead MSOP, Tube
8-Lead MSOP, 13" Tape and Reel
8-Lead MSOP, 7" Tape and Reel
8-Lead MSOP, Tube
8-Lead MSOP, 13" Tape and Reel
8-Lead MSOP, 7" Tape and Reel
6-Lead SOT-23, 13" Tape and Reel
6-Lead SOT-23, 7" Tape and Reel
6-Lead SOT-23, 7" Tape and Reel
Evaluation Board MSOP
Evaluation Board SOT-23-6L
Package Option
RM-8
RM-8
RM-8
RM-8
RM-8
RM-8
RT-6
RT-6
RT-6
Branding
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
J3A
www.BDTIC.com/ADI
1
Z = Pb-free part.
© 2004 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
C01088–0–8/04(C)
Rev. C | Page 24 of 24
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