...

FM2.ppt

by user

on
Category: Documents
4

views

Report

Comments

Description

Transcript

FM2.ppt
Chapter 2
The Business, Tax,
and Financial
Environments
2-1
© Pearson Education Limited 2004
Fundamentals of Financial Management, 12/e
Created by: Gregory A. Kuhlemeyer, Ph.D.
Carroll College, Waukesha, WI
After studying Chapter 2,
you should be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2-2
Describe the four basic forms of business organization in the
United States -- and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Understand how to calculate a corporation's taxable income and
how to determine the corporate tax rate - both average and
marginal.
Understand various methods of depreciation.
Understand why acquiring assets through the use of debt
financing offers a tax advantage over both common and
preferred stock financing.
Describe the purpose and make up of financial markets.
Demonstrate an understanding of how letter ratings of the major
rating agencies help you to judge a security’s default risk.
Understand what is meant by the term “term structure of interest
rates” and relate it to a “yield curve.”
The Business, Tax, and
Financial Environments
2-3
 The
Business Environment
 The
Tax Environment
 The
Financial Environment
The Business
Environment
The U.S. has four basic forms of
business organization:
2-4

Sole Proprietorships

Partnerships (general and limited)

Corporations

Limited liability companies
The Business
Environment
Sole Proprietorship -- A business
form for which there is one owner.
This single owner has unlimited
liability for all debts of the firm.
2-5

Oldest form of business organization.

Business income is accounted for on
your personal income tax form.
Summary for
Sole Proprietorship
Advantages
Disadvantages
 Simplicity

Unlimited liability
 Low

Hard to raise
additional capital

Transfer of
ownership
difficulties
setup cost
 Quick
 Single
setup
tax filing
on individual form
2-6
The Business
Environment
Partnership -- A business form in
which two or more individuals
act as owners.
Business
income is accounted
for on each partner’s personal
income tax form.
2-7
Types of Partnerships
General Partnership -- all partners have
unlimited liability and are liable for all
obligations of the partnership.
Limited Partnership -- limited partners
have liability limited to their capital
contribution (investors only). At least
one general partner is required and all
general partners have unlimited liability.
2-8
Summary for Partnership
Advantages
 Can
be simple
 Low
setup cost, higher
than sole
proprietorship
 Relatively
 Limited
quick setup
liability for
limited partners
2-9
Disadvantages
 Unlimited
liability for
the general partner
 Difficult
to raise
additional capital, but
easier than sole
proprietorship
 Transfer
of ownership
difficulties
The Business
Environment
Corporation -- A business form
legally separate from its owners.
An
artificial entity that can own
assets and incur liabilities.
Business
income is accounted
for on the income tax form of the
corporation.
2-10
Summary for Corporation
Advantages
 Limited
liability
 Easy
transfer of
ownership
 Unlimited
 Easier
life
to raise large
quantities of capital
2-11
Disadvantages
 Double
taxation
 More
difficult to
establish
 More
expensive
to set up and
maintain
The Business
Environment
Limited Liability Companies -- A
business form that provides its owners
(called “members”) with corporatestyle limited personal liability and the
federal-tax treatment of a partnership.
 Business
income is accounted for on
each “member’s” individual income
tax form.
2-12
Limited Liability
Company (LLC)
Generally, an LLC will possess only the
first two of the following four standard
corporation characteristics
2-13

Limited liability

Centralized management

Unlimited life

Transfer of ownership without other
owners’ prior consent
Summary for LLC
Advantages
2-14
Disadvantages

Limited liability


Eliminates double
taxation
 Transfer

No restriction on
number or type of
owners

Easier to raise
additional capital
Limited life
(generally)
of
ownership
difficulties
(generally)
Corporate Income Taxes
Corp. Taxable Income
At Least
But <
$
0 $
50,000
50,000
75,000
75,000
100,000
100,000
335,000
335,000 10,000,000
10,000,000 15,000,000
15,000,000 18,333,333
18,333,333
2-15
Tax
Rate
15%
25%
34%
39%
34%
35%
38%
35%
Tax Calculation
.15x(Inc > 0)
$ 7,500 + .25x(Inc > 50,000)
13,750 + .34x(Inc > 75,000)
22,250 + .39x(Inc > 100,000)
113,900 + .34x(Inc > 335,000)
3,400,000 + .35x(Inc > 10,000,000)
5,150,000 + .38x(Inc > 15,000,000)
6,416,667 + .35x(Inc > 18,333,333)
Income Tax Example
Lisa Miller of Basket Wonders
(BW) is calculating the income tax
liability, marginal tax rate, and
average tax rate for the fiscal year
ending December 31.
BW’s corporate taxable income for
this fiscal year was $250,000.
2-16
Income Tax Example
Income tax liability
= $22,250 + .39 x ($250,000 - $100,000)
= $22,250 + $58,500
= $80,750
Marginal tax rate = 39%
Average tax rate = $80,750 / $250,000
= 32.3%
2-17
Depreciation
Depreciation represents the
systematic allocation of the cost of
a capital asset over a period of time
for financial reporting purposes, tax
purposes, or both.
 Generally,
profitable firms prefer to use
an accelerated method for tax
reporting purposes.
2-18
Common Types of
Depreciation

Straight-line (SL)

Accelerated Types
2-19

Double Declining Balance
(DDB)

Modified Accelerated Cost
Recovery System (MACRS)
Depreciation Example
Lisa Miller of Basket Wonders (BW) is
calculating the depreciation on a machine
with a depreciable basis of $100,000, a 6year useful life, and a 5-year property
class life.
She calculates the annual depreciation
charges using MACRS. [Note – ignore
“bonus” depreciation discussed in 2-25]
2-20
MACRS Example



2-21
Assets are depreciated based on one
of eight different property classes.
Generally, the half-year convention is
used.
Depreciation in any particular year is
the maximum of DDB or straight-line.
A switch in depreciation methods is
made from DDB to SL during the life
of the asset.
MACRS Example
Depreciation
Depreciation
Year
Calculation
Charge
0
----1
.5X2X(1/5) X $100,000 $ 20,000
2
2 X ( 1 / 5) X $80,000
32,000
3
2 X ( 1 / 5) X $48,000
19,200
4
$28,800 / 2.5 Years
11,520
5
$28,800 / 2.5 Years
11,520
6
$28,800 / 2.5 Yrs X .5
5,760
2-22
Net Book
Value
$100,000
80,000
48,000
28,800
17,280
5,760
0
MACRS Schedule
Recovery
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2-23
Property Class
3-Year
5-Year
33.33%
20.00%
44.45
32.00
14.81
19.20
7.41
11.52
11.52
5.76
7-Year
14.29%
24.49
17.49
12.49
8.93
8.92
8.93
4.46
Jobs and Growth Tax Relief
Reconciliation Act of 2003
Increase & Extension of Bonus Depreciation
• Increases a limited and additional
temporary depreciation deduction of 50%
in the first year -- subject to stipulations.
• Designed to enhance capital investment
by businesses.
2-24
Jobs and Growth Tax Relief
Reconciliation Act of 2003
Increase & Extension of Bonus Depreciation
• Example:
• $200,000 machine under 5-year MACRS property
class. Bonus = 50% of $200K = $100K.
• Remaining $100K ($200K - $100K bonus) at 20%
rate based on MACRS is $20K.
• Result is $120K ($100K + $20K) depreciation
charge in the first year.
• Set to expire soon, so will ignore in subsequent
problems (note – ignored in slide 2-20)
2-25
Other Tax Issues
Alternative Minimum Tax is a special tax
which equals 20% of alternative minimum
taxable income (generally not equal to
taxable income). Corporations pay the
maximum of AMT or regular tax liability.
Quarterly Tax Payments require
corporations to pay 25% of their
estimated annual tax liability on the 15th
of April, June, September, and December.
2-26
Interest Deductibility
Interest Expense is the interest paid on
outstanding debt and is tax deductible.
Cash Dividend is the cash distribution of
earnings to shareholders and is not a tax
deductible expense.
The after-tax cost of debt is:
(Interest Expense) X ( 1 - Tax Rate)
Thus, debt financing has a tax advantage!
2-27
Handling Corporate
Losses and Gains

Corporations that sustain a net
operating loss can carry that loss
back (Carryback) 2 years and forward
(Carryforward) 20 years to offset
operating gains in those years.

Losses are generally carried back
first and then forward starting with
the earliest year with operating gains.
2-28
Corporate Losses
and Gains Example
Lisa Miller is examining the impact of
an operating loss at Basket Wonders
(BW) in 2003. The following time line
shows operating income and losses.
What impact does the 2007 loss have
on BW?
2-29
2004
2005
2006
2007
$150,000
$150,000
$100,000
-$500,000
Corporate Losses
and Gains Example
The loss can offset the gain in each of the
years 2005 and 2006. The remaining $250,000
can be carried forward to 2008 or beyond.
Impact: Tax refund for federal taxes
paid in 2005 and 2006.
2-30
2004
2005
2006
2007
$150,000
$150,000
-$150,000
$100,000
-$100,000
-$500,000
$250,000
$150,000
0
0
-$250,000
Corporate Capital
Gains / Losses

Generally, the sale of a “capital asset”
(as defined by the IRS) generates a
capital gain (asset sells for more than
original cost) or capital loss (asset
sells for less than original cost).

Often historically, capital gains income
has received more favorable U.S. tax
treatment than operating income.
2-31
Corporate Capital
Gains / Losses

Currently, capital gains are taxed
at ordinary income tax rates for
corporations, or a maximum 35%.
Update: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Capital_gains_tax#United_States

2-32
Capital losses are deductible
only against capital gains.
Personal Income Taxes
 The
U.S. has a progressive tax
structure with four tax brackets of 10%,
15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35%.
 Personal
income taxes are determined
by taxable income, filing status, and
various credits.
 Result
2-33
is that low income individuals
pay no federal tax and others may
fluctuate between the marginal rates.
Financial Environment
 Businesses
interact continually with
the financial markets.
 Financial
Markets are composed of all
institutions and procedures for
bringing buyers and sellers of financial
instruments together.
 The
2-34
purpose of financial markets is to
efficiently allocate savings to ultimate
users.
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-35
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
INVESTMENT
SECTOR
Businesses
Government
Households
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-36
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
SAVINGS
SECTOR
Households
Businesses
Government
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-37
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-38
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
FINANCIAL
BROKERS
Investment
Bankers
Mortgage
Bankers
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-39
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
Commercial Banks
Savings Institutions
Insurance Cos.
Pension Funds
Finance Companies
Mutual Funds
Flow of Funds
in the Economy
FINANCIAL BROKERS
SECONDARY MARKET
SAVINGS SECTOR
2-40
FINANCIAL
INTERMEDIARIES
INVESTMENT SECTOR
SECONDARY
MARKET
Security
Exchanges
OTC
Market
Allocation of Funds
 Funds
will flow to economic units that are
willing to provide the greatest expected
return (holding risk constant).
 In a rational world, the highest expected
returns will be offered only by those
economic units with the most promising
investment opportunities.
 Result:
2-41
Savings tend to be allocated to the
most efficient uses.
EXPECTED RETURN (%)
Risk-Expected
Return Profile
Speculative Common Stocks
Conservative Common Stocks
Preferred Stocks
Medium-grade Corporate Bonds
Investment-grade Corporate Bonds
Long-term Government Bonds
Prime-grade Commercial Paper
U.S. Treasury Bills (risk-free securities)
RISK
2-42
What Influences Security
Expected Returns?
Default
Risk is the failure to meet
the terms of a contract.
Marketability is the ability to sell
a significant volume of securities
in a short period of time in the
secondary market without
significant price concession.
2-43
Ratings by Investment
Agencies on Default Risk
MOODY’S INV SERVICE
STANDARD & POOR’S
Aaa
Best Quality
AAA
Highest Grade
Aa
High Quality
AA
High Grade
A
Upper Med Grade
A
Higher Med Grade
Baa
Medium Grade
BBB
Medium Grade
Ba Possess Speculative BB
Speculative
Elements
C
Lowest Grade
D
In Default
Investment grade represents the top four categories.
Below investment grade represents all other categories.
2-44
What Influences Expected
Security Returns?
Maturity
is concerned with the life
of the security; the amount of
time before the principal amount
of a security becomes due.
Taxability
considers the expected
tax consequences of the security.
2-45
Upward Sloping Yield Curve
(Usual)
0 2 4 6 8 10
YIELD (%)
Term Structure of
Interest Rates
Downward Sloping Yield Curve
(Unusual)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
YEARS TO MATURITY
A yield curve is a graph of the relationship between
yields and term to maturity for particular securities.
2-46
What Influences Expected
Security Returns?
Embedded
Options provide the
opportunity to change specific
attributes of the security.
Inflation is a rise in the average
level of prices of goods and
services. The greater inflation
expectations, then the greater the
expected return.
2-47
Fly UP