Dave Lutian MANE-6960 Semester Project A Review of Alloy Steel Processing and Perspective on the Data used in Tribological Decision Making Alloy steel is the most common form of steel used in industry today (98% of annual steep production in the United States is alloy steel). At Sikorsky, we use alloy steel for many applications, especially for critically loaded components requiring high strength such as drive train, rotor and landing gear components. Because alloy steel plays such a critical role in our society, and in particular dynamic components at Sikorsky, this class project has presented an opportunity to deepen my knowledge in the field of alloy steel processing. This project has three phases: 1. Review of ASM Handbook Volume 5 in order to quantify the number of processes used in preparing alloy steel for tribological applications. 2. A summary of a specification of one of those processes 3. The perspective on the number of those processes required in order to make one part. To begin, there is more information in academia regarding the processing of alloy steel then could ever be reasonably captured in a short semester project. Even a review of carefully selected academic articles could create scope creep for a project of this duration. With that in mind, I chose to selectively review some of the SAE Specifications and ASM Handbooks that provide design guidance and criteria for many of our designs at Sikorsky. As a boundary to this short project, I chose to focus on specifications and handbooks that are used directly at Sikorsky. I performed a brief review of the following specs with the intention of summarizing processes that piqued my interest as an engineer: ASM Handbook Volume 5: Surface Engineering of Carbon and Alloy Steels SAE AIR4160: Alternatives to Cadmium Plating SAE AIR5919: (R) Alternatives to Cadmium Plating SAE ARP1631: Manufacturing Sequence for Fabrication of High-Strength Steel Parts SAE AMS2300: Steel Cleanliness, Premium Aircraft-Quality, Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure SAE AMS2401: Plating, Cadmium, Low Hydrogen Content Deposit SAE AMS2403: Plating, Nickel, General Purpose SAE AMS2406: Plating, Chromium, Hard Deposit SAE AMS 2419: Plating, Cadmium-Titanium SAE AMS2423: Plating, Nickel Hard Deposit SAE AMS2424: Plating, Nickel Low-Stressed Deposit SAE AMS2426: Coating, Cadmium Vacuum Deposition SAE AMS2427: Aluminum Coating Ion Vapor Deposition SAE AMS2430: Shot Peening, Automatic SAE AMS2460: Plating, Chromium SAE AMS2630: Inspection, Ultrasonic Product over 0.5 Inch (12.5mm) Thick SAE AMS2649: Etch Inspection of High Strength Steel Parts SAE AMS2759/2: Heat Treatment of Low-Alloy Steel Parts SAE AMS2759/9: Hydrogen Embrittlement Relief (Baking) of Steel Parts SAE AMS2800: Identification, Finished Parts SAE AMS6257: Steel Bars, Forgings, and Tubing 1.6Si 0.82Cr 1.8Ni 0.40Mo 0.08V (0.40-0.44C) Consumable Electrode Vacuum Remelted Normalized and Tempered SAE AMS6417: Steel Bars, Forgings, and Tubing 1.6Si 0.82Cr 1.8Ni 0.40Mo 0.08V Consumable Electrode Vacuum Remelted SAE AMS6419: Steel Bars, Forgings, and Tubing 1.6Si 0.82Cr 1.8Ni 0.40Mo 0.08V (0.40-0.45C) Consumable Electrode Vacuum Remelted SAE AMS-C-8837: Coating, Cadmium (Vapor Deposited) SAE AMS-QQ-C-320: Chromium Plating (Electrodeposited) SAE AMS-S-13165: Shot Peening of Metal Parts SAE AMS-STD-2154: Inspection, Ultrasonic, Wrought Metals, Process for SAE AS1182: Standard Machining Allowance, Aircraft-Quality and Premium Aircraft-Quality Steel Bars and Mechanical Tubing SAE ARP4462: Barkhausen Noise Inspection for Detecting Grinding Burns in High Strength Steel Parts After briefly reviewing the following specs, I will summarize the three point of this project referencing the following publications: ASM Handbook Volume 5: Surface Engineering of Carbon and Alloy Steels SAE AMS2460: Plating, Chromium SAE ARP1631: Manufacturing Sequence for Fabrication of High-Strength Steel Parts ASM Handbook Volume 5: Surface Engineering of Carbon and Alloy Steels It is obvious that we use a number of various methods to prepare steel parts for use in tribological applications. ASM Handbook Vol. 5 provides an inclusive overview of alloy steels, and includes the processes and corresponding methodologies for preparing steel parts for contact. The handbook provides information on the following processes: Cleaning, including: abrasive blasting, tumbling, brushing, acid pickling, salt bath descaling, alkaline descaling, acid cleaning, hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion, boiling alkaline, hot alkaline soak, hot rinse, vapor degreasing, solvent wiping, alkaline dipping, steam, and surfactant spraying. Finishing, including: abrasive flow, abrasive blasting including shot peening, barrel tumbling, grinding, brushing and buffing, centrifugal barrel, electrochemical, electropolishing, hand deburring, spindle finishing, thermal energy, and vibratory. Conversion coatings, including: phosphate coatings (iron phosphate, zinc phosphate, and manganese phosphates) and chromate coatings. The handbook cites a typical chromate process. For an electrogalvanized strip: electrogalvanizing, multiple stage warm water rinse, conversion coating application, cold water rinse, post treatment. For a hot-dip galvanized strip: Hot-dip galvanizing, surface conditioning (heat treatment), conversion coating application, warm air-drying, and oiling. Hot-dip coating processes, including: hot dip galvanizing and hot dip aluminum coatings. The handbook discusses the nature of the coatings, hardness and abrasion resistance, adhesion and impact resistance, corrosion protection, consequences of atmospheric exposure (industrial and urban environments, rural and suburban, and marine), effects of temperature, performance in salt and fresh water, performance in soils, and paint adhesion and performance. Hot-dip aluminum zinc coatings, including: Microstructure of the 55Al-Zn coating, protection of aluminum zinc alloys, atmospheric corrosion resistance (corrosion mechanisms, aqueous corrosion resistance, corrosion in natural waters, andcorrosion in soils) Hot-dip Lead Alloy (Terne) Coatings, including: applications, forming, corrosion characteristics, joining, painting and handling considerations, nickel terne, and composite coatings. Electrogalvanizing, including: Nature of the electrogalvanized coating, advantages, limitations, and applications. Electroplating, including: surface preparation, nickel plating, plating baths, applications and properties for electroless nickel plating, chromium plating, zinc plating, cadmium plating, and tin plating. Metal cladding, including: the principal cladding techniques, noble metal clad systems, transition metal systems and complex multi-layer systems. Organic coatings, including: how paint films deter corrosion, prepaint processing, differences between prepaint and postpaint, part design considerations, selection guidelines, and advantages of prepainted steels. Painting with zinc-rich paints, including: zinc dust/zinc oxide coatings, zincrich coatings (surface preparation, nature of zinc-rich coatings, organic zincrich coatings, and inorganic zinc-rich coatings), and a comparison between zinc dust/zinc oxide paint and zinc-rich coatings. Porcelain Enameling, including: coating materials, discussion on steel substrates, and coating properties. Thermal Spray Coatings, including: applicability to steel (buildings, bridges, towers, radio and TV antenna masts, steel gantry structures, high-power search radar aerials, overhead walkways, railroad overhead line support columns, electrification masts, tower cranes, traffic island posts, and street and bridge railings), corrosion protection by thermal spraying, service life estimates, service life versus coating thickness for 90Al-10MMC coating, wear coatings, coatings used for hardfacing applications (aluminum bronze; soft bearing coatings: tobin bronze, Babbitt, and tin; hard bearing coatings: Mo/Ni-Cr-B-Si blend, molybdenum, high-carbon steel, alumina/titania, tubgsten carbide, Co-Mo-Cr-Si, Fe-Mo-C; aluminum oxide; chromium oxide; tungsten oxide; chromium carbide; Cu-Ni-In; Cu-Ni; Co-Cr-Ni-W; WC/Ni-CrB-SiC; Ni-Cr-B-SiC-Al-Mo; Ni-Al/Ni-Cr-B-SiC), and oxidation protection. Hardfacing, including: welding processes, hardfacing materials, and composition, hardness, and abrasion data for build-up alloys and metal-tometal wear alloys Vapor deposition coatings, including a brief discussion on Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) processing and a discussion on ion plating for the aircraft industry (landing gear, fastener applications) Surface modification, including: ion implantation and laser surface processing including a discussion on laser surface heat treatment (as discussed in class on December 2). Surface hardening, including: a brief description of the benefits of common surface hardening processes (carburizing, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction hardening, and flame hardening), discussion of flame, induction, and highenergy beam methods (flame hardening, induction hardening, and highenergy beam methods), discussion of diffusion methods (carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding), a discussion of carburizing methods (gas carburizing, vacuum carburizing, plasma carburizing, salt bath carburizing, and pack carburizing), and brief descriptions of carbonitriding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. The ASM Handbook provides a wealth of data regarding surface treatments for steel applications. Eighty-eight process types are identified in the summary above. As part of this project, I began to think about how to capture this data in a quick, useful way for engineering needing to make decisions with regard to surface treatments when designing steel components. In order to quickly gain access to the data for the purposes of making an engineering design decision, it would be useful for this data to be stored in database format. In this type of format, engineers could input a set of design requirements, and a database could pull all applicable data from the ASM Handbook in order to provide the applicable process options to the engineer instantly. While this is not a technical breakthrough, this convenience could enable engineers to become more familiar with the processes and procedures suitable for their applications without looking through the ASM Handbook. I have applied this methodology to the “Cleaning” section of the AMS Handbook only, as a template for what this sort of database might look like. It is an excel file with all cleaning methods used for steel for a variety of applications (removal of pigments oils, scaling, machining debris, etc.) and frequencies (seldom in the process vs. high rate production). The excel file itself uses the autofilter function to select the desirable cleaning processes for the application and frequency required for the engineer. This sort of database might be expanded and enhanced in order to provide engineers with a quick, seamless reference to the otherwise verbose ASM handbook. I am confident that there are many types of engineering volumes in which this sort of tool could be useful. The excel file has been included as a deliverable for this project. SAE AMS2460: Plating, Chromium The purpose of the summary is to provide the reader with a basis for the structure of AMS specifications. Specification exist for the majority of the processes listed in the AMS Handbook, and demonstrate the attention detail and the level of data that engineers need to access in order to make sounds technical decisions with regard to parts in tribological applications. This particular specification reviews the requirements for chromium plating for all materials. As chromium plating has multiple applications for steel (wear resistant coatings for tribological surfaces and decorative coatings), I felt that this was an appropriate specification to summarize. The summary of the spec’s content is below: 1. Scope 1.1. Purpose 1.2. Application 1.2.1. Restriction 1.3. Safety-Hazardous Materials 1.4. Classification 1.4.1. Classes 1.4.2. Appearance 2. Applicable documents 2.1. SAE Publications 2.2. ASTM Publications 2.3. Aerospace Industries Association Publications 3. Technical Requirements 3.1. Material 3.1.1. Basis Metal Quality 3.1.2. Parts dimensions shall be met after plating 3.1.3. Pening 3.2. Preparation 3.2.1. Stress Relief Treatment 3.2.2. Cleaning 3.2.3. Electrical Contact Points 3.2.4. Zincate treatment for aluminum alloys 3.3. Procedure 3.3.1. Parts shall be plated by electrodeposition onto a properly prepared surface. Procedures and parameters shall meet all requirements in this specification. 3.3.2. Underplating 184.108.40.206. Class 1 plating shall be applied over an intermediate nickel plating 220.127.116.11. Class 2 plating shall be applied directly onto the substrate material (with exceptions) 18.104.22.168. Underplate shall not be substituted for any of the chromium plate thickness 3.3.3. All plating re-start procedures shall have prior approval 3.3.4. Notes on Hydrogen Embrittlement relief 3.4. Properties 3.4.1. Thickness 22.214.171.124. Restriction on thicknesses for recessed surfaces 126.96.36.199. Class 1 minimum thickness (0.00001 in) 188.8.131.52. Class 2 minimum thickness (0.002 in) 3.4.2. Adhesion requirements and testing (knife-chisel or blend test) 184.108.40.206. Class 2 Adhesion evaluation – optional method 3.4.3. Hardness (Class 2 only) 3.4.4. Porosity (Class 2 only) 220.127.116.11. Class 2 plating, criteria for passing the testing in 18.104.22.168,. 22.214.171.124. Description of Potassium Ferricyanide (Ferroxyl) Porosity Test 3.4.5. Hydrogen Embrittlement 3.5. Quality 3.5.1. Surface texture and appearance requirements 126.96.36.199. Boundary requirements 188.8.131.52. Luster requirements 4. Quality Assurance Provisions 4.1. Responsibility for Inspection 4.2. Classification of Tests 4.2.1. Acceptance Tests include thickness, adhesion, and quality of samples from each lot. Hardness, porosity, and hydrogen embrittlement may also be acceptance test criteria 4.2.2. Description of Periodic Tests 184.108.40.206. Process Control Records 220.127.116.11. Interruption of production 4.2.3. Preproduction tests 18.104.22.168. Requirement to pass hydrogen embrittlement tests before plating production parts 4.3. Sampling - definition of “lot” 4.3.1. Nondestructive tests - description 4.3.2. Destructive tests – description 4.3.3. Sample configuration 22.214.171.124. Samples for thickness, adhesion and hardness tests 126.96.36.199. Samples for porosity tests 188.8.131.52. Samples for Hydrogen Embrittlement tests 184.108.40.206. Periodic and Preproduction Test Specimens for Thickness, Adhesion, Hardness, and Porosity 4.4. Approval 5. 6. 7. 8. 4.4.1. Approval of process and control factors 220.127.116.11. Records of test results 4.4.2. Test requirements and approvals for process changes 4.4.3. Description of control factors 4.5. Reports – requirements for shipment 4.6. Resampling and Retesting 4.6.1. Requirements for retesting parts after a failed test 18.104.22.168. Specification of stripping method and criteria 4.6.2. Definition of nonconforming process per test results and follow-on actions Preparation for Delivery 5.1. Packaging and Handling 5.2. Shipment preparation Acknowledgement of specification Rejections – definition Notes 8.1. Notes on document revision 8.2. Notes on compliance with dimensions 8.3. Notes on part delivery and processibility 8.4. Guidance 8.4.1. Guidance on shot peening 8.4.2. Guidance on hydrogen embrittlement 22.214.171.124. Control and testing 126.96.36.199. Alkaline cleaning 188.8.131.52. Acid dip 184.108.40.206. Final step in cleaning 220.127.116.11. Plating of nickel alloys 8.4.3. Class 1 Chromium Plating 18.104.22.168. Function 22.214.171.124. Deposition 126.96.36.199.1. Note on plating thickness 8.4.4. Class 2 Chromium Plating 188.8.131.52. Description 184.108.40.206. Designations 220.127.116.11. Plating by electrodisposition 18.104.22.168. Recommended maximum thickness 22.214.171.124. Note on grinding 8.5. Compliance with ARP4992 8.6. Test Specimen material – acceptance criteria 8.6.1. Transformation Hardening Steels 8.6.2. CRES 8.6.3. High Alloy Steels 8.6.4. Tool Steels 8.6.5. Heat Resistant Alloys 8.6.6. Aluminum Alloys 8.6.7. Titanium Alloys 8.6.8. Copper Alloys 8.7. Note on Hydrogen Embrittlement for certain alloys 8.8. Terms used for reference 8.9. Units of measurement SAE ARP1631 Manufacturing Sequence for Fabrication of High-Strength Steel Parts This final section of the project will provide true perspective on the amount of data that needs to be obtained in order to make just one part. The sheer number of processes in the ASM Handbook and having seen the summary of a specification for one of those processes, the reader should have grasped an understanding of just how much information is out there. Now – for all practical applications, how do we find it? While we will not be summarizing ARP1631 in its entirety, this section of the report aims to show the quantity of engineering information required to make one part. I intend to bring full circle the concept that in order to make a sound engineering decision, a large amount of data from multiple sources is required. A database to consolidate even a part of this data would be extremely helpful in assisting our engineers in streamlining their decision-making processes. The following is a summary of the flow chart listed as “Figure 1” in ARP1631: As the reader can see, there are many decisions that need to be made in order to properly process one component, along with several iterations and “do loops” in the process. This study has taught me two things. 1. There is a massive amount of data available for technical decision making, and; 2. A company’s ability to manage the available data and making sound technical decisions quickly will enable that company to find an advantage. I look forward to implementing these lessons as a M.Eng project that tackles (a portion) of the data listed herein in order to produce a useable database for tribological surface treatments. I have hope that a tool like this could be useful to a company like Sikorsky or others.