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Malburg-SurfaceFinsihMetrology.pdf
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Mark C. Malburg, Ph.D.
ASME B46.1
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
www.digitalmetrology.com
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
1
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Surface Measurement
• The most common
means of measuring
surface texture is
through the use of a
stylus.
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Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
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Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Surface Finish Measurement:
Parameters and Technology
Photo Courtesy PTB
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
2
1
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
• Skidded
– A radiused skid and
sharp stylus rest on the
surface.
• The skid follows the
“shape” of the surface.
• The sharp stylus detects
the “roughness” of the
surface.
Stylus
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Skid
3
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Two Flavors of Styli
• Skidless
– A sharp stylus is
traversed along the
surface.
• The stylus motion is
recorded as a profile of
the surface.
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Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Two Flavors of Styli
Stylus
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
4
2
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Traditional Surface Texture
Fitting
Filtering
Analysis
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
• Line, Arc, etc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
5
Fitting (Form Removal)
• The First Step in Surface Texture
Analysis…
– Remove the underlying geometry:
Measured Data
Reference Line
6
3
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010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Fitting (Form Removal)
Form-Suppressed
(Primary) Profile
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
7
Filtering
• Once the underlying form is suppressed,
we can now separate the common
wavelength domains:
Roughness
&
Waviness
8
4
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110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Filtering
• We have an intuitive “feel” for
wavelengths
– Roads, tables, walls, deserts, floors, etc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
9
Filtering
Books on a Table
10
5
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110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Filtering
• The wavelength content can be graphed
– Mathematical terms: Fourier Transform
Books on a Table
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
11
Filtering
Waviness Profile
Roughness Profile
12
6
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110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Filtering
• A Gaussian weighted average.
– The standard filter type.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
13
Filtering
“Cutoff” Implications:
14
7
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Plateau Honed Profile
0.500
0.000
-0.500
µm
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Reality Check!
-1.000
-2.000
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
mm
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
15
Aspect Ratio
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
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Digital
Metrology
Solutions
-1.500
• Consider the scales on the following
profile:
– Vertical:
-2.0 µm to 0.5 µm
(-0.000800” to 0.000020”)
– Horizontal: 4.0 mm (~0.160”)
Plateau Honed Profile
0.500
-0.500
µm
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
0.000
-1.000
-1.500
-2.000
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0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
mm
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
16
8
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Aspect Ratio
• Vertical Magnifications are different that
horizontal magnifications.
– In this example, about 500x
Plateau Honed Profile
0.500
µm
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
0.000
-0.500
-1.000
-1.500
-2.000
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
mm
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
17
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Reality Check
• Microscope images of the surface do not
have the aspect ratio problem.
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010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
0.0
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
18
9
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
• Extreme
– Rt, Rp, Rv, Rz, R3z, etc.
• Averaging
– Ra, Rq, Rsk, Rku, etc.
• Slope/Spacing
– Sm, lo, ? q, ?q, etc.
• Bearing Ratio
– Tp, Htp, Rk, Mr2, Rpq, Rvq, etc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
19
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
Analysis (Parameters)
• Extreme
Rp
Rv
Rt
Height of highest peak
Depth of deepest valley
“Total” (peak to valley) height
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010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Analysis (Parameters)
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
20
10
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Analysis (Parameters)
• Better extreme parameters (like Rz)
utilize averaging
…but be careful!!!
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
21
Analysis (Parameters)
• Average Roughness: Ra
– The average distance from each data point
to the meanline.
22
11
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Analysis (Parameters)
Ra: The average distance to the meanline.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
23
Analysis
Bearing Ratio: Where’s the material?
24
12
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Analysis
• Bearing Ratio Curve
– A representation of bearing ratio at various
depths of the surface.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
25
Modern Trends
26
13
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Robust Filtering
Spline-based Gaussian
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
Robust Spline-based Gaussian
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
27
Morphological Filtering
• Based on the interaction of a specific
geometry with the measured data set.
28
14
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
3D (Areal) Measurement
• Typically achieved via optical methods
– Rastered, stylus-based measurements can be
performed, but are typically much slower.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
29
Spectral (Fourier) Analysis
• Wavelength Content
30
15
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Scale Sensitive Analysis
• Fractal-Based Analyses
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
31
Wavelet-based Analyses
32
16
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
Nanometer Scale Metrology
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
33
Surface Finish Measurement:
Parameters and Technology
Mark C. Malburg, Ph.D.
ASME B46.1
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
www.digitalmetrology.com
34
17
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
010001000100
110101010011
Copyright 2004
Digital Metrology Solutions, Inc.
Copyright 1999 - Digital Metrology
Solutions, Inc.
35
18
Digital
Metrology
Solutions
September 26-30, 2005, Seattle, WA
ASME Bioprocess Technology Seminars
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