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Sneddon1965.pdf
```Znt. J. Engng Sci. Vol. 3, pp. 47-57. Pergamon Press 1965. Printed in Great Britain.
THE RELATION BETWEEN LOAD AND PENETRATION
IN
THE AXISYMMETRIC
BOUSSINESQ PROBLEM FOR A
PUNCH OF ARBITRARY PROFILEt
IAN N. SNEDDON
Department
of Mathematics,
University of Glasgow, Scotland
Abstract-A
solution of the axisymmetric Boussinesq problem is &rived from which are deduced simple
formulae for the depth of penetration of the tip of a punch of arbitrary profile and for the total load which
must be applied to the punch to achieve this penetration.
Simple expressions are also derived for the
distribution of pressure under the punch and for the shape of the deformed surface. The results are illustrated
by the evaluation of the expressions for several simple punch shapes.
1. INTRODUCTION
THE problem of determining (within the terms of the classical theory of elasticity) the
distribution of stress within an elastic half space when it is deformed by the normal pressure
against its boundary of a rigid punch seems to have been considered first by Boussinesq [l].
Using the methods of potential theory Boussinesq derived a solution of the problem corresponding to the case of penetration by a solid of revolution whose axis was normal to the
original boundary of the half space, but the form of his solution did not lend itself to
practical computations and partial numerical results based on his solution were derived
only in the cases of a flat-ended cylindrical punch [2] and a conical punch [3].
After the publication of Boussinesq’s solution several alternative solutions were
derived, an excellent account of which is given in Galin’s book [4]. From among these
we may mention (because they are particularly relevant to the present paper) the solutions
due to Harding and Sneddon [5] and Segedin [6].
The solution due to Harding and Sneddon uses the theory of Hankel transforms to
express the axisymmetric solution of the equations of elastic equilibrium in terms of Hankel
transforms of an arbitrary function and then to determine this arbitrary function by using
a solution due to Titchmarsh [7] of the dual integral equations to which the mixed boundary
problem can be reduced. The solution can be derived for the general case in which the
equation of the punch in cylindrical coordinates with origin at the tip of the punch is
z=w(p). The solutions appropriate to the cylindrical punch and the conical punch have
been discussed in full in [8] and [9] respectively. In each case expressions are derived for D,
the total depth of penetration of the tip of the punch, and for P, the total load on the punch,
in terms of a the radius of the circle of contact between the punch and the elastic solid, but
any attempt to express D and P in terms of an arbitrary function f is made difficult by the
complicated form of the Titchmarsh solution of the dual integral equations.
t This work was sponsored by the U.S. Joint Services Advisory Group under contract No. AF 49(638)
-1159 with the Applied Mathematics Research Group, North Carolina State, Raleigh.
47
48
IAN
N. SNEDDON
In the present paper the solution of the Boussinesq problem is again derived in the form
of Hankel transforms of a function which is determined in terms of W(P) by the same pair
of dual integral equations, but, instead of using Titchmarsh’s solution, we make use of an
elementary solution [lo]. This enables us to derive the expressions
D=
s
l f ‘(x)dx
0J(1-x2)
1x ‘f +)dx
P=4W--tt)-’
OJ(1_x2)
s
where p and q are respectively the rigidity modulus and the Poisson ratio of the material
of the half space and the function f is defined by the relation w(p) =f(p/u).
Simple expressions
(equations (3.4) and (5.1) below) are also derived for the distribution of pressure under the
punch and for the shape of the deformed boundary of the half space.
In Section 6 the results corresponding to five special shapes of rigid punch are deduced
from the general formulae, and in Section 7 the results corresponding to the case in which
w(p)=Zc,,p” are deduced. The expressions obtained for D and P in the latter case are in
agreement with those derived by Segedin [6].
2. SOLUTION
OF THE BOUSSINESQ
PROBLEM
The Boussinesq problem can be solved by means of a systematic use of Hankel transforms and the theory of dual integral equations.
The boundary conditions are
a&9
0) = 0,
O<p<a
%(P9 0) = D -f(p/a),
(2-l)
and
o;,(P, 0) = 0,
p>a,
(2.2)
in which the functionfis prescribed by the fact that, referred to the tip as origin, the punch
has equation z=f(p/u) so that f(O)=O;a is the radius of the circle of contact and D is a
parameter (as yet unspecified) whose physical significance is that it is the depth to which
the tip of the punch penetrates the elastic half space.
It is easily shown (see, e.g. [ll] p. 452 et seq.) that the field specified by the equations
u&, z) = 0 and
U,(P, 2) = -
%(P,z)= -
(2.3)
a %,[{2(1
2(1-I))
<-*PI.
-~)+Tz}5-‘~(~~)e-5”;
(2.4)
is a possible displacement field. In these equations rl denotes the Poisson ratio of the
material of the half space, the function + is arbitrary and we have used the notation
*y UK 2) ; <+PI =
; MC WY 63) dt
s
to denote the Hankel transform of order v of the functionf(&
z) with respect to the variable
Inserting this form for the displacement vector (u,, u+, u,) into the stress-strain relations
we obtain the equations
The relation between load and penetration in the axisymmettic Boussinesq problem
(2.5)
~pz(P*
4=
~,,(P,4 = for the z-components
In these equations p
of Young’s modulus
From equations
49
fJ--So[(l
+ SN4%>e-rz
; t--+pl
(2.6)
of the stress tensor; the remaining component a+=vanishes identically.
represents the rigidity modulus (second Lame constant) which in terms
E is given by the equation p=.E/2( 1+q).
(2.4), (2.5), (2.6) we obtain the boundary values
~,(P,O)=~,[s-l\$(I);
i-4
where x=p/u, so that the boundary conditions (2.1), (2.2) will be satisfied if we can find a
function +([) such that
~&-‘M);
&Q(r);
~~~l=~-.fW,
5-+x1=0,
O<x<l,
(2.7)
X>l.
These dual integral equations can be solved by an elementary method [lo].
J/(c) by a formula of the type
(2.8)
If we represent
Jl(C)=
~~t~~os(~~)dt
(2.9)
s
we find that equation (2.8) is automatically satisfied and that equation (2.7) is equivalent to
the Abel integral equation
x
I
xWdt
oJ(X2_t2)=D-f(X)Y
for the determination
06x<
1
of the function x(t). The solution of this equation is known to be
x(t)=;,
2D
2d
- ; z
’ \$(x)dx
(2.10)
I o&t2 -x2)
The solution of the Boussinesq problem is therefore given in terms off(x) and b by equations
(2.3), (2.4), (2.9) and (2.10). The constant D occurring in this solution is still arbitrary. We
now proceed to determine it by making an additional physical assumption.
3. FORMULA
FOR THE DEPTH
OF PENETRATION
OF THE PUNCH
We now determine D, the depth of penetration of the tip of the punch, from the physical
condition that if the punch has a smooth profile the normal component of stress Q,, must
remain finite round the circle of contact between the punch and the elastic solid.?
Since from equations (2.6) and (2.9)
t It should be noted that this condition is not satisfied in the case of a flat-ended cylindri~ punch
because the smoothness condition is vioIated on the circular base of the punch, a being equal to the radius of
the cylinder.
IAN N. SNEDDON
50
4P, 0)= -
1
L%l
41 -r>
x(t)cos(it)dt;
i+x
0
1
(3.1)
and since for any arbitrary function g(c) we have the relation
1 d
; dT;x~1C5-‘s(r);
x]=&&(S);
xl
we find that
1
x(t)[email protected])dt;
5-x
0
1
.
(3.2)
Now if we interchange the order of the integrations we find that
If we substitute this expression into the right hand side of equation (3.2) we have the formula
~,,(P,0) = L
d
ax(l-q)
-
s
l
k(t) dt
(p=xa),
dx x&2-x2)’
(3.3)
which can be written in the alternative form
HAP,0) = -’ -{ p
41-v)
x(1) 2 -J:,g!;2J.
JO-X
>
(3.4)
If we now take p =a(1 + 6) where 6 is small and positive and change the variable of the
integral on the right from t to u = 1 -t we find that to the first order in
Now if x(t) is differentiable in the neighbourhood
written as
Hence if ~,,(a-~6,
of t= 1 we see that this result can be
&. -\$\$+O(&>*
0) tends to a finite limit as 6+0+
we must have
x(l)=0
(3.5)
t
s
We can use this criterion to determine the constant D by writing equation (2.10) in the form
\$x(t)=D-t
f’(x)dx
oJ(t2-x2
(3.6)
The relation between load and penetration in the axisymrnetric Boussinesq problem
and then putting
t= 1 to obtain
51
the relation
’ f’Wdx
f y/(1-x2)
D=
(3.7)
0
for the total depth of penetration of the tip of the punch.
4. FORMULA
FOR THE TOTAL
ON THE PUNCH
The total load P on the punch required to produce the above penetration is given by the
equation
P= -2~
“po,,(p,O)dp
s0
from which it follows that
If we use the representation
(2.9) and the integral
mcos(G)J&)
s
we
di = I>
O<t<l,
0
find that we can write this relation in the form
x(t)dt.
(4.1)
Now if we combine equations (2.10) and (2.7) we find that x(t) is given by the equation
’ f’(x)dx
(4.2)
o&-x2)
If we substitute this expression into equation (4.1) and carry out the integration we obtain
the formula
(4.3)
by means of which we can calculate the total load P necessary to produce the depth of penetration (3.8) by a rigid punch whose profile is defined by the function f.
5. SHAPE
OF THE DEFORMED
SURFACE
It is also of interest to know the form of u,(p, 0) when psa.
relation
1
5-l ~(~)~os(~~)d~; i-+x
t&O)=%',
t
s
0
We derive this from the
1
,
52
IAN
N.SNEDWN
and the integral
cc
J
o J,(~x)cos(~t) dC =(x2 - t2)-+H(x-
t) .
l xtt)dt
J
uz(ax,O)=
x>l.
oJ(X2_t2)>
(5.1)
If we substitute the expression (4.2) for x(t) into this equation and use the fact that
we find that
J
1
u,(ax,O)=:sin-‘(l/x)+fJ(x2-1)
YfWdy
0w -
Y2>J(1 - Y2) ’
(5.2)
where D is the depth of penetration of the tip given by the equation (3.7).
In any practical problem it may be easier to calculate the normal component of the
surface displacement from the pair of formulae (5.1) and (4.2) than from the single formula
(5.2).
6. RESULTS
FOR SPECIAL
SHAPES
OF PUNCH
We shall now consider some special cases of the application of these formulae.
(a) Flat-ended cylindrical punch
We begin by considering the case in which the half space z>O is deformed by the normal
penetration of the boundary by a flat-ended rigid cylinder of radius a. We suppose that the
punch penetrates a distance D. Since the profile of the punch is not smooth at p = a we do
not have the condition that o,,(a - , 0) is finite and must regard D as one of the data of the
problem. In equation (2.10) we take j(x)=0 and obtain the simple equation x(t)=2D/rr.
Substituting this expression into equation (4.1) we find that the total load required to
produce a penetration D is given by the equation
(6.1)
1-q’
Similarly from equation (3.4) we find that the distribution of pressure under the punch is
given b,y the equation
Orz(P,
0) = -
~)(a2--p2)+,
o<p<a,
and from equation (5.1) we find that the shape of the deformed boundary is given by the
relation
u,(p,O)=\$sin-‘(a/p),
p>a.
(6.3)
The relation between load and penetration
in the axisymmetric Boussinesq problem
53
These expressions are in agreement with known results; see, for example, [8] or (pp. 460461
of [ll]).
(b) Conical punch
For normal penetration by a cone of semivertical angle a we may take J(x) =6x where
E=a tan a.
From equation (3.7) we find that the vertex of the cone penetrates to a distance
D= \$~E=~Iw tan a and from equation (4.3) that the total load necessary to effect this
penetration is given by the equation
7t/lll2
P= -tancc,
(6.4)
1-V
which can be written in the alternative form
P=-
.
(6.5)
n(l -V)
From equation (2.10) we find that in this case
x(t)=+r).
Substituting this expression into equation (5.1) we find that the deformed shape of the free
surface is given by the relation
20
u,(p, 0) = G
{
a sin- ‘(a/P)-P+J(P2-a2)
9
p>a,
(6.6)
I
and substituting it into equation (3.4) we find that the distribution of pressure under the
punch is given by the relation
b&O)=
2crD
-(I _tl)na cash- ‘(alp) 5
O<p<a.
(6.7)
The equations (6.5), (6.6), (6.7) are in agreement with the results obtained by other methods,
see, for instance, [3], [9] or (pp. 462-466 of [l I]).
(c) Punch in the form of a paraboloid of revolution
If the punch is a paraboloid of revolution with equation p2 = 4kz we may take f (x) =&x2
where E= a2/4k. If we substitute this expression into equation (3.7) we find that the relation
between D and a is
a2=2kD,
(6.8)
so that the depth of penetration of the paraboloid is twice the distance that the circle of
contact lies below the original boundary of the half space.
In a similar way equation (4.3) leads to the expression
p=
16w
3(1--r])
for the total load. In terms of the total penetration
--!!.!- (2kD3)+
p= 3(1-r/)
D this may be written in the form
(6.9)
54
IAN N. SNEDDON
From equation (2.10) we find that
so that we find from equation (3.3) that the distribution of stress under the punch is given
by the equation
(6.10)
and from equation (5.1) that the shape of the free surface is given by the equation
r&,0)=
,
F (2-pz/~z)sin~‘(a/p)+\$i(l-nZpi2)
f
(6.11)
p>*
>
(d) Spherical punch
The case of a spherical indenter is of interest for practical applications. We assume that
the sphere is of radius R and (as in the previous cases) that it fits the elastic solid over a circle
of radius a. Hence we may take
f(x)=%J(RZ-(Z2XZ)
in equation (2.1).
For this function we have
xdx
s e J(t2 -x2> = s oJ~(t2-~2)(RZ-a2~2))’
if we change the variable in the integral on the right from x to u’= t-‘J(t’
t _f’Wdx
a2
’
s
’ f’(x)dx
t
-I-x2) we find that
R+at
1
(6.12)
,~(t2_~2)=~ut10gR_at’
Putting t= 1 in this result and then substituting into equation (3.7) we find that the relation
between a and D is given by the equation
D=ialog
R+a
-
R-a
.
(6.13)
Substituting from equation (6.12) into equation (3.6) we find that in this case
2D at
X(t)=~--pgRat.
R+at
(6.14)
Using the fact that
1
tiog-
s
0
R+atdt
R-at
2
2
we see from equation (4.1) that the total load P on the sphere necessary to produce the
penetration (6.13) is given by the equation
-aR
.
(6.15)
The relation between load and penetration
55
in the axisymmetric Boussinesq problem
(e) Punch in the shape of an ellipsoid of revolution
If the shape of the indenting punch is an ellipsoid of revolution with semi-axes a,
j?, fl (the axis of length 2a coinciding with the z-axis) then we may take
f(x)=a{l
+J(l +a’x’/P”)}.
Hence it follows from equation (3.7) that
2
1
xdx
Dcaa
fi2
s
oJ{(1-x2)(1-a2x2/j?2)}’
The integration is elementary and we find that
aa
/?+a
D=ZylogB_a
(6.16)
Similarly from equation (4.3) we find that
~~q)B
(a2+f12)logp
p=(l
[
7. DERIVATION
a
-2aj?]
OF SEGEDIN’S
(6.17)
.
FORMULAE
Segedin [6] has considered the case in which the profile of the punch has equation
z= 5 c,pn
n=l
(7.1)
in which case we have
f(x) = “zl c”a”x” .
If we substitute this expression into equation (3.7) we find that the appropriate formula for
the total penetration of the depth of the punch is
(7.2)
and if we substitute it into equation (4.3) we find that the total load P is given by the formula
m nT(+n+l)
pz2Jnpu
-lx
1-q “=I r(\$n++)
(7.3)
C”unY
in agreement with Segedin’s results.
Similarly from equation (2.10) we obtain the expression
(7.4)
Hence from equation (3.4) we find that the formula for the distribution of pressure under the
punch is
-c2P
azz(p~o)=-a(l-tj),=l
*
nWn+
[email protected]++)
1)
q&U4 ,
(x=pla,
O<x<l),
(7.5)
56
IAN
N.
SNEDDON
where the function i,(x) is defined by the equation
k(x)=
s
l t”-‘dr
xJ(tZ_x2)’
(n>l,
O,<x<l),
(7.6)
and from equation (5.1) that the shape of the deformed surface is given by the relation
u,cp,o)=2
with x=pJa>
mrW+l)
c
J~=mn+t)
‘(l/x) -j,(x)]
c&sin-
,
(7.7)
1 and
s
1
j,(x) =
t”dt
0 J(x”-- P)
(n>l,
x>l).
(7.8)
The integrals i,(x) can be determined by the recursion relation
-x2)-t(n-2)x2im_z(x),
(n+ l)i,(x)=J(l
(n&3)
with
iI
= cash-
I( l/x),
i,(x) = J( 1 - x2),
(O<xxl).
Similarly, the integrals j,(x) can be determined by the recursion relation
nj&K)= (n - l)x2j, _ 2(x) - J(x” - l),
(n 2 2),
with
j,(x) = sin- ‘( 1ix),
.&(x)=x-&x2-l),
(0
1).
REFERENCES
PI J. B~u=NE.w,Applications aks Potenticls d I’&& de l’&uiiibre et du Mouvement aks Soiidcs &stiques,
Gauthier-Villars, Paris, (1885); also see 1. TODHUNTERand K. PEARSON,History of the ?‘%eory of
Elasticity, 2,237 et seq. Cambridge University Press, (1893).
[2] A, E. H. LOVE,Phil. Tram. A. 22B, 377 (1929).
[3] A. E. H. LOVE,Qmt. J. Math. (Oxfod) 10, 161 (1939).
[4] L. A. GALIN,Ko~t~~‘e -&c&hi Teorii ~pr~osti. Gas. Izdat. Tech. -Tear. Liter., Moscow (1953).
[S] J. W. HARD~NQ
and I. N. SNED~, Proc. Cam. Phi/+ Sot. 41, 12 (1945).
[6j C. M. SEOEDIN,Mat~~ti~
4,156 (1957).
[7] E. C. TITCHMARSH,
Introduction to the 77reory of Fourier Integrals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1937).
[S] I. N. SNED~~N,P*oc. Cam. Phil. Sot. 44,29 (1946).
[9] I. N. SNEDDON,Proc. Cam. Phil. Sot. 44,419 (1948).
[IO] I. N. SNEDDON, Proc. Gfasgow Math. Assoc. 4, 108 (1960).
[ll] I. N. SNLDDON,
Fourier l’kmforms. McGraw-Hill, New York (1951).
R&m&---L’auteur a &abli une solution du prob&me axisym#rique de Boussirmq qui lti B penuis de
dtduire des form&s simples dormant la profon&ur de p&&ration d’uu p&&rateur de protil arb&raim
ainsi que la charge totale &eas&re pour assurer c&e caption.
11dome &galenxmtdes expm&ms
simples qui d&nis.snt la ~~~n
de la pression sous le p&trateur aiusi que la forme de la svrfaoe
&form&e.
Lea r&Bats sont i&&r& par l’application de tea expressions aux cas de pimieurs p&&trateursde
forme simple.
The relation between load and penetration in the axisymmetric Boussinesq problem
57
Zusammw&ssamg--Eme
Losung des Boussinesq’schen achsialsymmetrischen
Problems wird abgeleitet.
Von dieser werden dann weitere einfache Formeln abgeleitet, mit denen sich die Einschlagtiefe einer St&+
selspitze mit willktirlichem Profil, und die zur Erziehmg diesser Tiefe aufzubringende Gesamtlast bestimmen
l&t. Ausserdem we&n einfache Ausdrticke fur die Druckverteihmg unter dem St&se1 und die Form der
deformierten Oberflache angegeben. Die Ergebnisse werden durch die Auswertung der Ausdriicke fur
mehrere einfache Stosselformen erleutert.
Sommari+Si
deriva una soluzione de1 problema assisimmetrico de1 Boussinesq dalla quale si deducono
semplici formule per la profondita di penetrazione della punta di un punzone di protilo arbitrario e per il
carico totale the deve venire applicato al punzone per ottenere detta penetrazione.
Si derivano inoltre
semplici espressioni per la distribuzione della pressione sotto il punzone e per il prolilo della super6cie
deformata. I risultati sono illustrati con la valutazione delle espressioni per vari profili semplici di punzone.
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