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Berg-TypicalProperties-AdvancedComposites.pdf
TYPICAL PROPERTIES FOR
ADVANCED COMPOSITES
APPENDIX A
Kenneth R. Berg
A.I INTRODUCTION
For a company or institution that is designing
composite material structures, or embarking
for the first time into the application of
advanced composite materials for structural
purposes, it is imperative that material properties be available. Of course it would be
desirable to have a complete set of statistical
Design Allowables, such as the statistical '.A:
values for properties, or even the 'B' values,
(see Chapter 33 for detailed definitions of
these values and Neal and Spiridgliozzi, 1987).
Since complete statistical Design Allowables
are not available, the next sought after material properties would be 'typical' properties.
However 'typical' properties are not defined
statistically and may be defined in many different ways. Therefore it is important to
discuss typical material properties and also
discuss the means to achieve a set of typical
properties.
The purpose of having a complete set of
typical properties is to be able to design composite structures with a minimum of testing
confirmation. Having a complete set of typical
properties will allow design optimization, preliminary design, cost and weight optimization
and other trade-offs with a number of different
materials and candidate laminates with different fiber orientations. Once an optimum
Handbook of Composites. Edited by S.T. Peters. Published
in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0 412 54020 7
material and configuration is selected, a minimum test program would then be initiated.
Having a set of typical composite materials
has advantages and disadvantages. For example, if one were to design a structure utilizing
only typical material properties, without the
knowledge of the scatter that may occur in
those properties, structural failure may occur.
Perhaps not immediately, nor on every structure produced, but on an unknown statistical
basis, at some point in time. However, prior to
a final design for a structure, the normal engineering procedure is to initiate the test
program. The purpose of the test program is
threefold: one, confirmation of the design;
two, determine the scatter that occurs due to
variations in materials and the manufacturing
process; and three, over a period of time,
either to confirm the material properties database being used, or to accumulate test data for
a material properties database.
A.2 TYPICAL PROPERTIES - CONSTITUENTS
A.2.l FIBERS
One of the problems of determining typical
properties is the variations that occur in the
materials making up laminates. In the case of
glass fiber, the types of glass fiber and number
of manufacturers is considerably less than
with carbon fiber.
However, even with this limitation, there are
at least two major types of glass fiber, E-glass
1054 Typical properties for advanced composites
and 5-2 glass. Within each of these glasses are Table A.l 'TYPical products from carbon fiber manvariations in chemical composition, fiber diam- ufacturers (available in USA)
eter, fiber finish, fiber sizing, the number of
AMOCO (Thornel)"
Toho Rayon (Besfight)
individual fibers in a tow, roving, yarn, etc.
HTAWlOO
Manufacturers have different names for the P-100
IM600
similar type of glass, for example the higher P-75
HM35
strength, higher modulus glasses. These fiber T-300
T650/35
glasses are the older S-glass (no longer avail- T650/42
Toray (Torayea)
able commercially), 5-2 glass and the R-glass
T300
by a French manufacturer. Other countries fab- Toho (Celion)
T700s
ricate the same type of glass, but with only G30-500
T800H
G40-800
M40
minor differences in properties.
M46J
For carbon fiber, not only are there the same G40-600
variations as mentioned above for glass, but in Grafil (Grafil)b
AKZO (Fortafil)
addition, there are large variations in strength
34-700
F-5
and modulus and in manufacturers, see Tables 42-650
F-3
Al andA2.
42-750
Based on the large number of variations in
fibers, it would be virtually impossible to Hexeel (Magnamite)
obtain complete statistical material properties AS4
for each variation. Even to obtain typical prop- IM6
erties for each variation would not be IM7
IM8
practical.
To reduce this problem to a practical level, it • Typical product name
is necessary to analyze the usage of glass and b Grafil is a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Rayon Co. Ltd and
their fibers are called Grafil or Pyrofil.
carbon fibers (or other fibers). The usage of
advanced composite fibers by 'pounds used
per dollar expended', is estimated to be, in
order of highest usage: E-glass, high strength Table A.2 Torayca fiber types (Toray, 1991)
carbon (modulus of 227 GPa, (33 x 1()6 psi»
Fiber type
Number offilaments
and then 5-2 glass. With this list, it is possible
lK, 3K, 6K, 12K
T300
to develop typical properties for composites
3K,6K,l2K
T300J
fabricated from each of these fiber types. An
T400H
3K,6K
example of the determination of the strength
T700S
12K
and modulus of the typical high strength car6K,12K
T800H
bon fiber is shown in Fig. AI. The 'typical'
12K
TlOOOG
property becomes: Tensile modulus of 227 GPa
T1000
12K
6K,12K
(33 x 106 psi), and tensile strength of 4000 MPa
M35J
6K,12K
M40J
(580 ksi).
A.2.2 RESIN SYSTEMS
The matrix for fiber composites can be classified into two categories, metallic and
non-metallic. This discussion on typical properties involves only non-metallic resin matrix
systems.
M46J
M50J
M55J
M60J
M30
M30SC
M40
M46
M50
6K,12K
6K
6K
3K,6K
lK, 3K, 6K, 12K
18K
1K, 3K, 6K, 12K
6K
1K,3K
Typical properties - constituents 1055
300,---------~----------------_.
Typical PropertY -----'-~
H'~*~~H
H'8treiigii,H4GpaH
250
Data from vUlaus lber manufacturers
50················
5
• Epoxy/Amini
+ Epoxy/Anhydrld.
Po.,.....
I!!I 'J'tpIc.1 Pro...rty
I
OL---~----~----~----~----~
o
2
3
4
0
5
0
100
3DD
4DD
5DD
100
7ao
8DD
lao
1
I.ODO
Strength MPa
Strength OPa
Fig. A.l Typical strength and modulus for high
strength carbon fiber. (Courtesy of Riggs
Corporation.)
2ao
lIE Vlnyl ••t.r
Fig. A.2 Typical strength and modulus for E-glass
composite - flexural strength. (Courtesy of Riggs
Corporation.)
As was discussed for fibers, only the high
environmental considerations. Key among
usage matrix systems in advanced composites these characteristics are: temperature, fracare considered as candidates for typical prop- ture toughness, compression after impact,
erties. In addition, for typical properties of crack propagation, humidity, stress concenadvanced composites for structural applica- trations, interlaminar shear, mechanical
tions, only structural resin systems are fasteners in laminates, holes in laminates,
candidates. Structural resins are defined as creep, damage tolerance and compatibility
resins that have similar modulus and tensile with fiber finish. In determining typical propstrength as standard epoxy systems. For exam- erties, these characteristics are not included
ple, an applicable resin for structural but, as applicable, need to be considered for
composites would have a modulus of approx- the final design.
imately 3.5 GPa (0.5 x 1()6 psi) and a tensile
strength of approximately 100 MPa (15 ksi).
The more popular structural resins are
polyester, epoxy, vinyl ester and phenolic. For
800r----------------------------.
!'rvPIO.' Value 840 MPa ~
typical composite properties, the use of any of
700
." .
these resins will allow a single typical prop:.:I 800 ...
'.~" .
.
erty (Fig. A.2) (CertainTeed Corporation,
1989).
A comparison for composites with different
epoxy sizing from different manufacturers and
a typical value is shown in Fig. A3.
Figure A.4 shows a number of different
resin systems and the typical values for
strength and modulus (Lubin, 1987). This data
is for primarily fiber controlled properties.
There are properties in which the resin is
the significant factor. These characteristics are
associated with stress concentrations and
Isoo
!400 ................. .
j
1
~:::Ir-.-C-.I-I~-~-·~-~-~~-·PO~·-·_3----*-~--IIO~n-Q-30-~-_F-----.1
300
I
H.rcul•• AS-4/1'ype G
X Harcula. AS-4/Treated
o~--------------------------~
Fig. A.3 Typical compression strength for carbon
fiber fabric composites. (Courtesy of Riggs
Corporation. )
lOS6 Typical properties for advanced composites
ca
a.
CJ
en
::;,
'3
'tI
0
::IE
100
90
80
70
60
50
. Typical. VaLues .
Strength 608 MPa
0
\
.....
X"'~
40
30
20
10
0
......
.. ·Modulus 7c} GPa .
100
+H.rOUI •• A..1eap
*H.rcul•• A47D-8H
XC.llon W-11U
• Flbarlte HMF-1tSlM AFlb.rlt. HMF-.l41/34
200
300
.
!I
• Hereul•• A-170-5H
400
500
600
700
Tensile Strength MPa
Fig. A.4 Typical strength and modulus for carbon fiber fabric composites. (Courtesy of Riggs Corporation.)
A.3 TYPICAL PROPERTIES - COMPOSITES
A.3.l FIBER CONTROLLED TYPICAL
PROPERTIES
Fiber-reinforced composite materials are primarily used to take advantage of the high
strength and stiffness of the fiber. Therefore in
most applications, the laminate orientation is
designed so that the strength and modulus are
controlled by the fiber properties. For example,
for a typical fiber orientation in a laminate of
0° /±fP /90°, the 0° plies control the failure of
the laminate whenever the percentage of 0°
plies is greater than 10%, (with a () greater than
±l00). For () less than ±l0°, if the combined percentage of 0° and ±f)0 plies is greater than 10%,
then the laminate is also controlled by fiber
fracture. These limitations are approximate
and depend on the fiber strength and modulus,
but are valid for carbon, aramid fibers and
glass. For high () angles and for 90° laminates,
the tensile strength of the laminate is reduced
below the tensile strength of the resin due to
stress concentrations between the fibers (Berg,
1967). Figure A.S shows the tensile strength of
a carbon fiber laminate of 0°/ ±f)0/90° plies,
with the strength of the resin varying to influ-
ence the transverse strength and modulus of
the base unidirectional laminate (100% 0°
plies). The different strength resins shown on
Fig. A.S, are as follows:
Lower strength resin
Typical strength resin
Higher strength resin
Transverse
modulus
Transverse
tensile strength
(GPa)
(MPa)
41.4
8.6
10.0
11.4
55.2
69.0
=..::-;_=....=RMI=.
700 r--~La~m~l~n.~I.~1~5"~OOr<.~15:="-=±.::..8°.L'7!.::O-"'-"-"'9O""-r--:-:
.•.:7:
tow
soo
~lJpIcaI.lrength ItHln
... ,Fiber f.-ctu,. Cril cal (Ultimate) ....
*"
.. ,:::.:;:::;
..
Hlghwlnagth "-til
... La• .,8......
~
*'J\'pk:aI .....gtIII"...n
---------,=
100~~R••-m-c~--.I~(R~NP~~-~-IU~-)-------+_------__4
oL-________L -________L -______
o
15
30
~
45
Angle ±8°
Fig. A.S Effect of resin properties on tensile
strength of high strength carbon composites.
(Courtesy of Riggs Corporation.)
Selecting the use of typical properties lOS7
As can be seen in Fig. A.S, the typical fiber
fracture composite properties (ultimate failure) are not affected by large variations in the
properties of the resin. However, for resin sensitive properties, for example, the first ply
failure (limit) of the 90° plies, the resin property is influential.
For the fiber fracture controlled composites,
which are the main interest in structures, typical composite material properties are valid
over a wide variation in resin characteristics.
A.3.2 MATRIX CONTROLLED TYPICAL
PROPERTIES
The main interest in structural components is
the high strength and modulus obtainable
from the fiber reinforcing of the matrix.
Therefore in the design of the laminate, for
most of the applications, the resulting failure
modes are fiber fracture critical. Unfortunately,
there are cases where the matrix is the critical
element in the failure mode for all laminate
orientations. This does not mean that the fiber
does not contribute to reinforcing the matrix in
both strength and modulus, but only that the
ultimate failure is the result of failure in the
matrix.
Among the cases where the matrix is the
critical failure mode are laminates that are
subjected to shear, the first ply failure (limit
load) of a laminate (Fig. A.S, first ply failure
curves and Berg, 1982) and most cases of the
transverse strength property of a laminate
with no 90° plies. Even for these cases, a typical property can be determined utilizing the
typical set of unidirectional properties represented by most of the epoxy systems in use
by the prepreg manufacturers as well as most
of the structural epoxies sold. A typical set of
unidirectional properties for high strength
carbon composites, for example would be:
Strength
Tension
Compression
In-plane shear
Modulus
Shear modulus
0°
90°
2100 MPa
55 MPa
1380 MPa
190 MPa
55 MPa
138 GPa
9.7 GPa
6 GPa
A.4 SELECTING THE USE OF TYPICAL
PROPERTIES
AA.1 WHERE TYPICAL PROPERTIES ARE
ACCEPTABLE
The acceptability of material properties in the
design of structures is based on a number of
factors. If a design is being produced for a customer, the customer is often the final word on
the acceptability of the material properties utilized. An alternate possibility is that the
customer is not interested in accepting or
rejecting the material properties used, but
would rather accept the product against a
specification. Final acceptance is a qualification of the product through testing.
The third case is where a product is produced by the company itself and sold to the
consumer directly. Of course the consumer
(public) is not interested in accepting or rejection the material properties database. An
example of this is the automobile industry.
In the case of a company that subcontracts
the design and fabrication of composite structures, the company may either want to review
the subcontractor's material properties database, or be able to review the design of the
subcontractor with the use of the company's
typical properties database.
In each of the above cases, a typical material properties database can be used for cost
and weight trade-offs, selection of the best
materials, optimizations studies and preliminary design.
It is important to note that the final design
would always go through an extensive test
program to verify the material properties
selected, the final design, the manufacturing
process and to determine the variability of the
product.
Thus, a typical material properties database
is acceptable and useful to reduce the cost of
engineering design, reduce the cost of testing
and allow a more intelligent and less time consuming approach to the final design.
1058 Typical properties for advanced composites
A.4.2 WHERE TYPICAL PROPERTIES ARE NOT
ACCEPTABLE
In the above discussion, the customer requirements were mentioned as one of the criteria
for acceptance or rejection of a material properties database. There are cases where the
customer will insist upon enough testing to
develop a statistical property database. For
that requirement the typical material database
would not be acceptable. However in any statistical database, the applicability is confined
to the specific fiber, matrix and fabrication
process. The statistical testing process is
expensive and time consuming. In most cases,
the statistical database would be limited to the
laminate orientations tested, which would also
be very limited.
For applications where significant environmental conditions are present, the use of typical
material properties may not be applicable due
to large variations in the response of different
resins to these environmental conditions. These
conditions were summarized above and
included impact, humidity other corrosive fluids, stress concentrations, temperature, etc.
A.S SUMMARY
The design of composite material structures
~quires a knowledge of the material properties for all combinations of laminates. It is
cost-prohibitive to test all combinations of
laminates, even to obtain typical properties. To
obtain statistical design properties for a limited number of laminate configurations is also
expensive, but in some cases may be required
by a contract. Typical composite material
properties can provide useful data and be cost
effective for the design engineer. The data can
be generated by utilizing typical unidirectional data for each class of materials, (as
discussed above for high strength carbon composites). To generate all the laminate
configuration, both limit (first ply failure) and
ultimate, requires a comprehensive computer
program, including a failure criteria (Tsai,
1988; Hashin and Rotem, 1975) and utilizing
the composite transformations equations (Tsai,
1988). A typical property database for all orientations and selected materials is available
(Berg, 1993), but also a typical composite material database could be generated by a
company using composite engineering analysis as discussed above.
Although this discussion of typical properties has mentioned only static strength and
modulus, typical properties are also available
for fatigue, CTE and for elevated temperatures
(Berg, 1993). Fatigue typical properties include
all fatigue stress ratios. Fatigue statistical
properties, of course, would be prohibitively
expensive.
If users of typical composite material properties are aware of their limitations, typical
properties can be a very useful database for
cost effective design and analysis.
REFERENCES
Berg, K.R. 1967. The effect of fiber spacing on the
strength of composites laminates, Paper presented at AAWASME 8th Structures, Structural
Dynamics and Materials Conference, Palm
Springs, CA.
Berg, K.R. 1982. The effect of matrix strain limitations on composite design allowables. Proc. 27th
Nat. SAMPE Symp., May, 1992, San Diego, CA.
Berg, K.R. 1993. Composite Material Properties Data
Books - Sample Data Sheets. RIGGS Corporation,
Seattle, WA.
CertainTeed Corporation. 1989. Sales Brochure, Test
Data, Wichita Falls, TX.
Hashin, Z. and Rotem. A. 1975. Failure modes of
angle ply laminates. J. Composite Mater., Volume 9.
Lubin, G. (ed.) 1987. Handbook of Composites. New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Neal, D. and Spiridgliozzi, L. 1987. An efficient
method for determining the A: and 'B' design
allowables. Army Materials and Mechanics
Research Center, Watertown, MA.
Toray Industries, Inc. 1991. Torayca Sales Brochure,
Typical Fiber Properties.
Tsai, Stephen w. 1988. Composites Design. Dayton,
OH: Think Composites.
Tsai, Stephen w. and Hahn. H. 1980. Introduction to
Composite Materials. Westport, CT: Technomic
Publication.
I
SPECIFICATIONS AND
STANDARDS FOR POLYMER
COMPOSITES
APPENDIXB
Frank T. Traceski
B.l USES OF SPECIFICATIONS AND
STANDARDS
Material specifications and engineering standards for advanced composite materials have
a very broad applicability across the entire
spectrum of defense and commercial applications. From basic research, through engineering
and manufacturing development, in production, and for maintenance and field repair,
material and process specifications establish
requirements and procedures.
In research and development, testing standards are used for material characterization to
determine physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. In manufacturing
development, material specifications are used
to establish material quality and processability
requirements. In production, the material producer uses test standards and material
specifications for statistical process control
(SPC) to ensure batch-to-batch consistency.
Material testing standards are used extensively in design engineering to determine
material design allowables (i.e. strength and
stiffness limits beyond which catastrophic failure occurs) at various temperatures and
environments. Material testing to standards
enables one to quantify material performance
Handbook of Composites. Edited by S.T. Peters. Published
in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 041254020 7
limits. A list of typical composite material
qualification tests is provided in Table B.I.
These examples are representative of the material properties which are determined in a
typical material qualification program in
accordance with various test standards.
A concurrent engineering approach to composites engineering requires that material
selection (as part of the design process) be integrally linked with engineering and
manufacturing process development. In composite manufacturing development, material
process specifications are defined for a given
composite material and manufacturing process.
Once optimized, process specifications reduce
manufacturing risk and enhance producibility.
Another aspect of composites manufacturing is the nondestructive testing and
inspection (NOTI) of composite structures to
verify structural integrity during production.
Ultrasonic inspection, infrared thermography,
and a host of other NOTI methods are
employed to locate voids, delaminations,
cracks, and other types of structural defects.
Standards are also employed here to define
NDTI procedures and acceptance criteria.
In summary, engineering test standards and
material and process specifications are
employed extensively in composites research,
development and production. Appendix B
identifies specific material specifications and
test standards for polymer composites and the
1060 Specifications and standards for polymer composites
Table B.l Typical composite material qualification tests
Physical
Mechanical
Chemical
Resin content
Resin areal weight
Resin flow
Glass transition temperature
Tensile strength and modulus
Compression strength and
modulus
Short beam shear (SBS)
±45 In-plane shear
Open-hole tension
Open-hole compression
Compression after impact
(CAl)
Flexural strength and modulus
Fatigue strength
Creep
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Infrared spectroscopy (IR)
Liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Hydraulic fluid/solvent
resistance
Fuel GP-4) resistance
(T)
RhJological dynamic
spectroscopy (RDS)
Gel time
Volatiles content
Fiber density
Fiber mass per unit length
Fiber content
Prep reg tack
Laminate ply thickness
Laminate void content
Laminate density
Laminate fiber volume
Laminate flammability
(DMA)
Instrumented impact
(toughened resins)
Fracture toughness (toughened
resins)
Solvent sensitivity compression
strength,SBS
Bolt bearing
Thermal
Thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA)
Thermomechanical analysis
(TMA)
Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
Thermal oxidative resistance
Thermal expansion (CTE)
Thermal cycling
Thermal conductivity
Electrical
Dielectric constant
Dielectric strength
Dissipation factor
Volume resistivity
Dielectrometry
Some of these tests are specific to resin, fiber reinforcement, prepreg or laminate. There is no established universal set of
qualification test procedures which is widely adopted. See MIL-HDBK-17 for recommended guidelines.
organizations that develop them. It is limited
to consensus-type standards and does not
include private sector specifications which are
generally not available.
B.2 STANDARDS-DEVELOPING
ORGANIZATIONS
The two principal organizations which
develop test methods for composites in the
USA are the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) and the Suppliers of
Advanced Composite Materials Association
(SACMA). The Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) Polymeric Materials
Committee is the organization which publishes Aerospace Material Specifications
(AMS) for advanced polymer composites. The
Department of Defense (DoD) has also issued
several military specifications and standards
for polymer composite materials. Other private sector organizations, such as the
Aerospace Industries Association (AlA) and
Composite Materials Characterization (CMC),
Inc., are involved in the standardization of
composite materials and tests in order to reap
long-term economic savings.
Japan, Germany, France and UK are also
major players in composites technology. The
European
Association
of
Aerospace
Manufacturers (known as AECMA in Europe)
produces European Norm (EN) standards for
aerospace composites. Japanese Industrial
Standards GIS) serve as a basis for standardization of composites in Japan. Germany has
issued DIN standards for composite materials.
France has AFNOR standards and the UK has
British Standards.
Standards used in USA 1061
Engineering standards for polymer composites also promote international commerce.
In the global arena, the International
Standardization Organization (ISO) is the
body which develops international standards.
The ISO fTC 61 Subcommittee (SC) 13 on
Composites and Reinforcements Fibers is currently coordinating new standards for glass
and carbon fiber composites. USA participation with ISO not only promotes international
commerce but also enhances USA global competitiveness in the composites industry.
B.3 STANDARDS USED IN USA
B.3.1 ASlM STANDARDS
The AS1M Committee D30 on High-Modulus
Fibers and their Composites develops standard
test methods for advanced polymer composites. Table B.2 lists the principal AS1M
standards for determining the physical and
mechanical properties of polymer composites.
AS1M standards are developed by a consensus
process and are widely used. The ASTM
Committee D20 on Plastics also has developed
standards which may be used for testing plastic
resins and reinforced plastics.
B.3.2 SACMA METHODS
The SACMA has developed recommended test
methods for determining the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of composite
materials (Table B.3). Although SACMA is not a
standards-setting body, it works actively with
AS1M, SAE, ISO, DoD, AlA and others towards
standardization of composite test methods.
SACMA does not regard its SRMs to be 'standards' in the truest sense because they have not
been developed by a consensus process which
is typical of standard-developing bodies.
Table B.2 ASlM Standards for advanced polymer composites
ASlM C613
ASTM 0695
ASTM D790
ASTM D2290
ASTM 02344
ASTM 02734
ASTM 03039
ASTM 03171
ASTM 03379
ASTM 03410
ASTM 03479
ASTM 03518
ASTM 03529
ASTM 03530
ASTM 03531
ASTM 03532
ASTM 03544
ASTM 03800
ASTM 03878
ASTM 04018
ASTM 04102
ASTM D4255
ASTM 05229
ASTM 05300
ASTM 05467
ASTM 05528
Resin Content of Carbon and Graphite Prepregs by Solvent Extraction
Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics
Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics
Plastics, Ring or Tubular, Apparent Tensile Strength of, By Split Disk Method
Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength of Parallel Fiber Composites by Short-Beam Method
Void Content of Reinforced Plastics
Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
Fiber Content of Resin-Matrix Composites by Matrix Digestion
Tensile Strength and Young's Modulus for High-Modulus Single-Filament Materials
Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear
Loading
Tension-Tension Fatigue of Oriented Fiber, Resin Matrix Composites
In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a +/-45 Degree
Laminate
Resin Solids Content of Epoxy-Matrix Prepreg by Matrix Dissolution
Volatiles Content of Epoxy Matrix Prepreg
Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
Gel Tune of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
Reporting Test Methods and Results on High Modulus Fibers
Density of High-Modulus Fibers
Standard Terminology of High-Modulus Reinforcing Fibers and their Composites
Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Tows
Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers
In-plane Shear Properties of Composite Laminates
Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
Measurement of Resin Content and other Related Properties of Polymer Matrix Thermoset Prepreg by
Combined Mechanical and Ultrasonic Methods
Compressive Properties of Unidirectional Polymer Matrix Composites Using a Sandwich Beam
Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
1062 Specifications and standards for polymer composites
Table B.3 SACMA Recommended methods (SRM)
Compressive Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Compression After Impact Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Open-Hole Compression Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Open-Hole Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Compressive Properties of Oriented Cross-Plied Fiber-Resin Composites
In-plane Shear Stress-Strain Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Short Beam Shear Strength of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Tensile Properties of Oriented Cross-Plied Fiber-Resin Composites
Fiber Volume, Percent Resin Volume and Calculated Average Cured Ply Thickness of Plied Laminates
Environmental Conditioning of Composite Test Laminates
Lot Acceptance of Carbon Fibers
Printing and Applying Bar Code Labels
Determination of Mass Per Unit Length of Carbon Fibers
Determination of Sizing Content on Carbon Fibers
Determination of Density of Carbon Fibers
Tow Tensile Testing of Carbon Fibers
Determination of Twist in Carbon Fibers
Glass Transition Temperature Determination by DMA of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites
Viscosity Characteristics of Matrix Resins
High Performance Uquid Chromatography of Thermoset Resins
Fluid Resistance Evaluation of Composite Materials
Determining the Resin Flow of Preimpregnated B-Staged Materials
Determination of Resin Content and Fiber Areal Weight of Thermoset Prepreg with Destructive Techniques
Determination of Resin Content, Fiber Areal Weight and Flow of Thermoset Prepreg by Combined
Mechanical and Ultrasonic Methods
SRM25 Heat of Reaction, Onset Temperature and Peak Temperature for Composite System Resins Using Differential
Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
SRM26 Fiber/Matrix Adhesion of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
SRMl
SRM2
SRM3
SRM4
SRM5
SRM6
SRM7
SRM8
SRM9
SRMlO
SRMll
SRM12
SRPl
SRM13
SRM14
SRM15
SRM16
SRM17
SRM18
SRM19
SRM20
SRM21
SRM22
SRM23
SRM24
However, SACMA recommended methods
(SRMs) are being used as standards by various
organizations.
B.3.3 AEROSPACE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is
the primary organization in the USA which
issues material specifications for polymer
composites. Table B.4 lists some typical
Aerospace Material Specifications for polymer
composites. In general, the SAE has published
specifications for carbon, aramid, glass and
boron fiber composites.
B.3.4 MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS
The Department of Defense (DoD) has issued
several military specifications for polymer composite materials used in aircraft applications.
Table B.5lists military specifications for various
fiber reinforcements and composite materials.
The Military Handbook 17 effort is the most
widely recognized 000 standardization project. The purpose of this handbook is to provide
a standard source of statistically based mechanical property data for current and emerging
composite materials. The MIL-HDBK-17 government/industry coordination group meets
twice annually to develop this handbook.
B.3.5 NASA STANDARDS
The National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) has developed five
standard tests and a material specification for
carbon (graphite) composites. Table B.6 lists
the specific tests and the NASAl aircraft
industry specification for toughened epoxy
composite materials.
Standards used in USA 1063
Table B4 Aerospace material specifications (AMS) for polymer composites
Carbon/Epoxy Composites
AMS 3892B Fibers, Carbon Tow and Yam, for Structural Composites
AMS 3894E Carbon Fiber Tape and Sheet, Epoxy Resin Impregnated
AMS 3895B Broadgoods and Tape, Multi-Ply Carbon Fiber /Epoxy, Resin Impregnated, Uniform Fiber
Aramid/Epoxy Composites
AMS 3901B Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), Yam and Roving, High Modulus
AMS 3902C Cloth, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus for Structural Composites
AMS 3903A Cloth, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus, Epoxy Resin Impregnated
Glass/Epoxy Composites
AMS 3821B Cloth, Type 'E' Glass, 'B' Stage Epoxy-Resin-Impregnated, 7781 Style Fabric, Flame
Resistant
AMS 3828C Glass Roving, Epoxy-Resin-Impregnated, Type 'E' Glass
AMS 3831A Cloth, Type 'E' Glass, 'B' Stage Epoxy Resin Impregnated, 7781 Style Fabric, Flame
Resistant, Improved Strength
AMS 3832C Roving, Type '5-2' Glass, Epoxy Resin Impregnated
AMS 3906B Glass Tape and Flat Sheet, Non-Woven Cloth, Epoxy Resin Impregnated, For Hand and
Machine Layup
Boron/Epoxy Composites
AMS 3865C Filaments, Boron, Tungsten Substrate, Continuous
AMS 3867B Boron Filament Tape, Epoxy-Resin-Impregnated
B.3.6 FAA ADVISORY CIRCULARS (AC)
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
has issued Advisory Circulars (AC) to assist
commercial aircraft manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with the requirements of
the Federal Aviation Regulations in the design
and manufacture of composite material structures. Table B.7 lists two Advisory Circulars
issued by the FAA. As of this writing, AC
145-6 is a draft document undergoing coordination. AC 145-6 addresses requirements for
composite repairs, including materials,
processes, and quality control tests.
B.3.7 AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
(AIA)
The Aerospace Industries Association (AlA)
plays a lead role in composites standardization. Within the AlA Engineering Standards
Division is the Materials and Structures
Committee (AIA/MSC) which is responsible
for the coordination and review of proposed
specification requirements for materials,
processes and structures. To promote standardization AlA has initiated Project 340-1
Standardization of Advanced Composite
Materials and has issued two National
Aerospace Standards (NAS) for composites
manufacturing which are listed in Table B.8.
B.3.8 COMPOSITE MATERIALS
CHARACTERIZATION, INC. (CMC)
Composite Materials Characterization, Inc.
(CMC) is a joint enterprise funded by users of
advanced aerospace composite materials. CMC
was formed as a result of an Aerospace
Industries Association (AlA) initiative to promote industry research collaboration. CMC is a
Delaware corporation chartered in 1987 to
1064 Specifications and standards for polymer composites
Table B.S Military specifications and standards for polymer composite materials
MIL-Y-1140H
MIL-C-80730
MIL-S-9041 B
MIL-C-9084C
MIL-P-9400C
MIL-P-175490
MIL-C-19663D
11IL-T-29586 (J\S)
MIL-M-43248C
MIL-J\-46103D
MIL-J\-46165 (MR)
MIL-P-46166 (MR)
MIL-P-46169J\
MIL-P-46187
MIL-P-46190
MIL-PRF-46197J\
MIL-R-60346C
11IL-J\-62473B
MIL-F-64156
MIL-Y-8337M (J\F)
MIL-Y-83371 (J\F)
MIL-G-83410 (J\F)
MIL-R-8712M (J\F)
MIL-F-87121J\ (J\F)
MIL-Y-87125A (AF)
MIL-STO-368
MIL-STO-373
MIL-STO-374
MIL-STO-375
*MIL-STO-2031 (SH)
Yarn, Cord, Sleeving, Cloth, and Tape-Glass
Core Material, Plastic Honeycomb, Laminated Glass Fabric Base, For Aircraft Structural and
Electronic Applications
Sandwich Construction, Plastic Resin, Glass Fabric Base, Laminated Facings and Honeycomb
Core for J\ircraft Structural and Electronic J\pplications
Cloth, Glass, Finished, For Resin Laminates
Plastic Laminate and Sandwich Construction Parts and J\ssembly, J\ircraft Structural, Process
Specification Requirements
Plastic Laminates, Fibrous Glass Reinforced, Marine Structural
Cloth, Woven Roving, For Plastic Laminates
Thermosetting Polymer Composite, Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Prepreg Tape
(Widths Up to 60 Inches), General Specification For
Mat, Reinforcing Glass Fiber
J\rmor, Lightweight, Ceramic-Faced Composite
J\rmor, Woven Glass Roving Fabrics
Plastic Laminates, Glass Reinforced (For Use in J\rmor Composites)
Plastic, Sheet Molding Compound, Polyester, Glass Fiber Reinforced (For General Purpose
Applications)
Prepreg, Unidirectional Tape, Carbon (Graphite) Fiber Polyimide (PMR-15) Resin
Impregnated, 316 C (600 F)
Prepreg, Woven Fabric, Carbon Fiber Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Impregnated
Laminate: High-Strength Glass, Fabric-Reinforced, Polyester Resin Preimpregnated
Roving, Glass, Fibrous (For Prepreg Tape & Roving, Filament Wmding & Pultrusion
J\pplications)
J\rmor: J\luminum-J\rarnid, Laminate Composite
Fabric, Carbon (Graphite) Fiber, Nickel-Coated
Yarn, Roving, and Cloth, High Modulus, Organic Fiber
Yarns, Graphite, High Modulus, Continuous Filament
Graphite Fiber Resin Impregnated Tape and Sheet, For Hand Layup
Rods, Pultruded, Graphite Fiber Reinforced, Processing of
Fabric, Graphite Fiber
Graphite, 1000/3000 Filaments
HPLC of PMR-15 Polyimide Resin and Prepregs
Transverse Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Fiber/Resin Composite Cylinders
Transverse Compressive Properties of Unidirectional Fiber /Resin Composite Cylinders
In-Plane Shear Properties of Unidirectional Fiber/Resin Composite Cylinders
Fire and Toxicity Test Methods and Qualification Procedure for Composite Material Systems
Used in Hull, Machinery, and Structural J\pplications Inside Naval Submarines
• Military Standard
Table B.6 NASA Standards for composites
NASA RP 1092: Standards Tests for Toughened Resin Composites, July 1983
NASA RP 1092 defines five standard tests (STs) for graphite/epoxy composite laminates:
ST-l: Compression after impact
ST-2: Edge delamination
ST-3: Open-hole tension
ST-4: Open-hole compression
ST-5: Hinged double cantilever beam
NASA RP 1142: NASA/ Aircraft Industry Standard Specification for Graphite Fiber Toughened
Thermoset Resin Composite Material, June 1985
Non-US standards in use 1065
Table B.7 FAA Advisory circulars for composites
AC 20-10A Composite Aircraft Structures
AC 21-26 Quality Control for the Manufacture of
Composite Structures
AC 145-6 Repair Stations for Composite and
Bonded Aircraft Structure
Table B.8 National aerospace standards for
composites
NAS 990
NAS 999
Composite Filament Tape Laying
Machine - Numerically Controlled
Non-Destructive Inspection of
Advanced Composite Structures
conduct research and development on emerging
composite materials including characterization,
screening, fabrication, and inspection of materials or structures made from the materials.
The primary focus of CMC is on screening
testing of emerging composite materials. The
CMC effort generates a standardized database
of consistent properties for advanced composite materials which can be shared between
member companies (Table B.9). CMC subcontracts to third parties the material
procurement, test specimen fabrication, inspection, test, data analysis, and documentation of
results. All tests and data are conducted in
accordance with CMC-approved procedures to
produce a consistent and standardized database necessary for comparative assessment of
material properties. Physical and mechanical
properties testing is performed, including lamina and laminate evaluations under tensile,
compressive, and shear loadings at selective
hygrothermal test conditions. CMC also works
with other national organizations to promote
composites standardization.
B.4 NON-US STANDARDS IN USE
B.4.1 AECMA STANDARDS
The European Association of Aerospace
Manufacturers (known as AECMA in Europe)
is developing various standards for carbon
fiber composites for aerospace applications.
Table B.1O lists proposed European Norm (EN)
standards for determining the physical and
mechanical properties of carbon fibers and
their composites.
B.4.2 JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS (JIS)
Standardization efforts in Japan are managed
by the Standards Department under the
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
(MITI). The Japanese Standards Association is
in charge of publishing Japanese Industrial
Standards OIS). Table B.lllists Japanese standards for carbon fibers and their composites.
B.4.3 GERMAN (DIN) STANDARDS
German aerospace specifications for carbon,
aramid, and glass fiber polymer composites
are listed in Table B.12. The DIN specifications
and standards are published by the German
Institute for Standardization, which is the
'Deutsches Institut fiir Normung' (DIN) in
German.
Table B.9 CMC Member companies
B.4.4 INTERNATIONAL (ISO) STANDARDS
Dow Chemical
General Electric
Northrop Grumman
Lockheed Martin
UTC/Sikorsky
Loral Vought
Rohr Industries
The
International
Organization
for
Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 61
on Plastics, Subcommittee 13 on Composites
and Reinforcement Fibers is the body which is
developing international standards for polymer composites. The USA is represented at
international meetings through the American
1066 Specifications and standards for polymer composites
Table B.l0 AECMA Standards for carbon fibers and their composites
AECMA prEN2557
AECMA prEN2558
AECMA prEN2559
AECMA prEN2560
AECMA prEN2561
AECMA prEN2562
AECMA prEN2563
AECMA prEN2564
Carbon Fibre Preimpregnates, Test Method for the Determination of Mass Per
Unit Area
Carbon Fibre Preimpregnates, Test Method for the Determination of the
Percentage of Volatile Matter
Carbon Fibre Preimpregnates, Test Method for the Determination of the Resin
and Fibre Content and the Mass of Fibre Per Unit Area
Carbon Fibre Preimpregnates, Test Method for the Determination of the Resin
Flow
Unidirectional Laminates Carbon-Thermosetting Resin Tensile Test Parallel to the
Fibre Direction
Unidirectional Laminates Carbon-Thermosetting Resin Flexural Test
Unidirectional Laminates Carbon-Thermosetting Resin Test Method,
Determination of Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength
Carbon Fibre Laminates, Test Method for the Determination of the Fibre and
Resin Fractions and Porosity Content
Table B.ll Japanese standards for carbon fiber
composites
JIS R 7601
JIS R 7602
JIS K 7071
JIS K 7073
JIS K 7074
Testing Methods for Carbon Fibers
Testing Methods for Carbon Woven
Fabrics
Testing Methods for Prepreg,
Carbon Fiber and Epoxy Resins
Testing Method for Tensile
Properties of Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Plastics
Testing Methods for Flexural
Properties of Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Plastics
National Standards Institute (ANSI). Table
B.131ists draft and published (ISO) standards
for composites.
Table B.12 German specifications for polymer
composites
DIN 29965 Aerospace; Carbon Fibres, High
Performance Carbon Fibre Filament
Yarns, Technical Specification
DIN 29971 Aerospace; Unidirectional Carbon
Fibre-Epoxy Sheet and Tape Prepreg,
Technical Specification
DIN 65090 Aerospace; Textile Glass,
Preimpregnated Filament Glass Cloth
for E-Glass (Prepreg), Technical
Specification
DIN 65426 Aerospace; Aromatic Polyamide
Part 1:
(Aramid) - Preimpregnated Woven
Fabric, High-Modulus Filament Yarn
(Prepreg);Innnensions, Masses
DIN 65426 Aerospace; Aromatic Polyamide
Part 2
(Aramid) - Woven Filament Fabric
Prepreg from High-Modulus Filament
Yam and Epoxy Resin, Technical
Specification
B.5 PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS
This appendix does not include the many
composite material and process specifications
which have been developed and are used by
individual private sector companies (Le.
primes, fabricators and suppliers). Most, if not
all, of the companies which either produce or
use composites have some proprietary specifications for composite materials and processes.
It is known that proprietary specifications con-
stitute a substantial data base which cannot be
included herein. Please note that this appendix
addresses only polymer matrix composites.
Specifications and standards for other types of
composite materials (MMC, CMC, and C/q
are still in early stages of development and
may be either subject to export control or
proprietary.
Proprietary specifications 1067
Table B13 International (ISO) standards for polymer composites
CD 1268
Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Test Plates Manufacturing Methods -Part 1 - General Conditions
CD 3341
Textile Glass - Yams - Determination of Breaking Force and Breaking Elongation
CD 3374
Textile Glass - Mats - Determination of Mass Per Unit Area
CD 4605
Reinforced Products - Woven Fabrics - Determination of Mass Per Unit Area
CD 14127
with
Composites - Determination of Resin, Fiber and Void Content for Composites Reinforced
Carbon Fiber
CD 15024
Polymer
Determination of Mode I Delamination Resistance of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced
Laminate Using the Double Cantilever Beam Specimin
CD 15034
Plastics - Prepregs - Resin Flow
CD 15040
Plastics - Prepregs - Gel Time
CD 15310
Reinforced Plastics - Determination of In-Plane Shear Modulus by Plate Twist Method
DIS 3374
Reinforcement Products - Mats and Fabrics - Determination of Mass Per Unit Area
DIS 5025
Textile Glass - Woven Fabrics - Determination of Width and Length
DIS 14126
Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites - Determination of Compressive Properties in the InPlane Direction
FDIS 1889
Reinforcement Yarns - Determination of Linear Density
FDIS 1890 Reinforcement Yarns - Determination of Twist
FDIS 3344
Reinforcement Product - Determination of Moisture Content
FDIS 12114 Fiber-reinforced Plastics - Thermosetting Moulding Compounds and PrepregsDetermination of Cure Characteristics
FDIS 11667 Fiber-Reinforced Plastics - Moulding Compounds and Prepregs - Determination of Resin,
Reinforced Fiber and Mineral Filler Content - Dissolution Methods
FDIS 12115 Fiber-Reinforced Plastics - Thermosetting Moulding Compounds and Prepregs Determination of Flowability, Maturation and Shelf Life
ISO 2559
Textile Glass - Mats (made from Chopped or Continuous Strands) Basis for a Specification
ISO 3605
Textile Glass - Rovings - Determination of Compressive Properties of Rod Composites
ISO 8515
Direction
Textile Glass - Reinforced Plastics - Determination of Compressive Properties in the
Parallel to the Plane of Lamination
ISO 10119
Carbon Fiber - Determination of Density
ISO 10120
Carbon Fiber - Determination of Linear Density
CD - Committee Draft
DIS - Draft International Standard
FDIS - Final Draft International Standard
1068 Specifications and standards for polymer composites
REFERENCES
1. National Advanced Composites Strategic Plan,
National Center for Advanced Technologies,
September 1991.
2. Traceski, Frank T., Specifications and Standards for
Plastics and Composites, ASM International
(Materials Park, Ohio), August 1990.
3. Test Standards and Engineering Databases for
Advanced Composites, Draft Position Paper by
Aerospace Industries Association, January 1992.
4. Advanced Composites Standardization, "White
Paper," Prepared by the Committee for
Standardization of Advanced Composite
Materials, 4 November 1992.
5. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.03,
American Society for Testing and Materials
(Philadelphia, PA), 1991.
6. SACMA Recommended Methods, Suppliers of
Advanced Composite Materials Association,
(Arlington, VA), 1997.
7. SAE AMS Index, Aerospace Material Specifications,
Society of Automotive Engineers (Warrendale,
PA), July 1996.
8. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and
Standards (DoDISS), 1 January 1997.
9. Military Handbook 17, Polymer Matrix
Composites, Draft Volumes 1, 2 & 3, US
Department of Defense, 17 June 1991.
10. Communication with Mr. Joseph R. Soderquist,
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
4 September 1997.
11. Documentation from Mr. Cecil W. Schneider,
President
of
Composite
Materials
Characterization, Inc., 28 October 1991.
12. ISO/TC61/SCI3/WGI4 Letter Correspondence
from Mr. Junichi Matsui, Toray Industries
(Composite Materials Research Laboratories;
Japan), 5 August 1992.
13. ISO/TC61/SCI3 Report to ASTM 020.61, Gary
Williams, July 1997.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The following individuals reviewed and commented on this paper and are acknowledged
for their constructive comments: Mr. Jerome
Persh (retired), formerly Office of the Director
of Defense Research and Engineering; Dr.
Gary L. Hagnauer, US Army Research
Laboratory (ARL), Materials Directorate; Mr.
Gary Hansen, formerly Hercules Advanced
Materials & Systems Company; Mr. Jerome R.
Jaeb, Chief Engineer, Structures Technology,
Boeing Defense & Space Group; Mr. Samuel J.
Dastin (retired), formerly Director, Advanced
Materials, Grumman Aircraft Systems.
INDEX
Page numbers in bold type refer to figures; those in italics refer to tables
A-glass 134
Abrading, surface preparation 669
Abrasion
mechanical 668
particulate fillers 252
resistance, PET 224, 233
Abrasive water jet, see AWJ
Abrasives
machining 606
in slurry 607
types of 607
ABS
compressive strength 258
density 258
maximum service temperature
258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
Accelerators 59--{'1, 60-1
anhydride-cured system 72
Acceptance values 724
Accumulation, damage 797
Acids, Lewis 60-1
Acoustic
emission 849
honeycomb assemblies 849
fatigue testing 811
pressure vessel 472, 472
Acoustical properties, fiberglass 135
Acousto-ultrasonics 849
Acrylic acid, and polypropylene 251
ACTS, reflectors 1017, 1017
Acute toxicity 823-4, 824
measuring 824
Adaptability, adhesives 274
Additives
low profile 382
pultrusion 515-18
wetting agents 515-16
Adducts, thermoplastic polymers
526
Adherends
axial stress 644
bending failures 644
bending stresses 644
composite 630, 660, 662-3
deformable 633, 634
deformations 630
dissimilar 635, 660
ductility 630
equal thickness 650
failures 627-9,628,657
fully tapered 646, 647
identical 639
layered 646
loading stress 642
modulus 643
moisture absorbancy 630
rigid 632,633,634
stiffness 636
unbalance 629,648
stretching elongations 633
tapering 627,629,644-51,645,
647, 648, 649, 650, 653, 656,
658
thermal expansion 630, 661
thickness 627-9,628,628,656-7,
658
transverse shear 630
weaker matrix 630
Adhesion
aramids 26
failure 674-5
Adhesives 255,271,274-6,517-18
adaptability 274
aerostructural 651, 652
blisters 271
bond line control 274
bondWng 120255,727
aluminum alloy 683
pressure 271
brittle 651
cell-edge 276
co-curing 868, 870
cohesive failure 674-5
core 271
cure temperature 661
Cydeweld 255
damage to 656
ductile response 651--{" 652, 657
ductility 627-8,629-30,655--{'
elastic-plastic response 649
environmental conditions 630
epoxies 275
failure in 628
fillet forming 271
flow, sandwich 288
heavy liquids 275-6
high temperature 658
joints 61Q--{,3
bonded doubler 628
bonding techniques 611
double-lap 628
double-strap 628
durability 631-2
inspection methods 627
manufacturing deficiencies
611
poor bonding 611
scarf 628, 629
single-strap 628
single-lap 628
stepped-lap 628,629
stresses in 632
surface preparation 611
tapered single-lap 628
tapered-strap 628
unsupported single-lap 628
light liquids 275-6
mechanical 518
nylon 670
pastes 275-6
peel
strengths 274-5
stresses 628
phenolics 255
blended 275
Plycosite 255
putties 275--{'
Redux 255
repairs 869
reticulating films 276
scrim-supported 873
1070 Index
self-adhesive skins 276
shear stresses 632-7, 633, 634,
635,636
strain energy 629-30, 653
supported films 276
syntactic foams 275-6
test methods 630
thixotropic liquids 275-6
toughness 274-5
unsupported films 276
urea-formaldehyde 255
urethanes 275
water absorption 668
Adjusting, lamina properties 763
Advanced Communications
Technology Satellite, see ACTS
Advanced composites
applications 23
military 23
Advanced fibers, repairs 877
Advantages
AWJ 604
correlators 834
hand lay-up 352
injection pultrusion 497
machining 596
laser 605
ultrasonic 608
preform 438
pull winding 497
RTM 434-5
tapering 646
turning 597
twin-screw extruders 539
vertical pultrusion 495
AECMA standards 1065, 1066
Aerospace
applications, materials selection
1009
design 709
goal 712, 713
equipment 1004-21
Industries Association (AIA)
1063
industry
composite tools 593
facing material 255
prepregs 885
material specifications 1062, 1063
Aerostructural, adhesives 651, 652
AFR7ooB, chemistry of 81
AFR700B/S2Iaminates
air aging 94, 95
compression strength 93
flex strength 93, 95
shear strength 93
tensile strength 93
weight loss 94
AFRP 605, 1024
Agglomerates 313, 314
Aging
air 85,90
aircraft 860
thermoplastics 127
Air
aging 85,90
3F /36F polyimides 85
AFR700B/S2Iaminates 94,95
AvimidN 85
Skybond 85
release agents 516
Airbus A320, composite applications
1036,1038
Aircraft
aging 860
aluminum core removal 862
applications 1022-42
certification requirements 1022-3
components 1029-30, 1029
current prices 1024, 1026
damaged protective coatings
859~
design 878
process 1024-5, 1026
requirements 713, 1022-3
effect of contaminants 863
environmental exposure 860-1
face sheet materials removal 864
face sheets removal 862
fixed wing, current prices 1024,
1026
fluid contamination 859
flushing contaminants 864
honeycomb core removal 862
impact damage 858-9
interim repairs 859
leak paths 859-60
maintainability 1024
maintenance 878
metal face sheets removal 862
metal repairs 857
minor damage 859
moisture barrier removal 863-4
non-metallic core removal 862
open core evacuation 865
production 840-1, 841
costs 1024
reinforced plastics 1023
repairs 857-8,857-80,1024
planning 861
skin damage removal 861, 861
skin penetration 858, 859
speed tape repairs 859
stabilizer
design requirements 710
preliminary materials 711
structural applications 1027-8,
1027,1028
thermal cycling 818
through-the-face, sheet
evacuation 865
water evacuation 863
water ingestion 859
wet lay-up repairs 865-7
Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE)
1035
Alignment, graphitization 191
Aliphatic
amine-cured (TETA) 65
amines, health effects 832, 833
content 75
polyether triamine (APTA),
viscosity 54
system 70
Alkaline
cleaning, metal surfaces 871
degradation 1000
All purpose vehicles 908, 908
Alleo 59
Alternative, tooling 449-50, 449, 450
Altex 309, 309
Alumina 249-50
composites 325
grit, light grit-blasting 675, 676
silicate
boria modified 309,310
strength 309
Young's modulus 309
trihydrate 245
Aluminosilicate, staple 160
Aluminum
alloy
adhesive bonding 683
linear thermal expansion 705
core removal 862
CTE 558,589
density 170, 558
elastic modulus 170
fiberglass cloth repairs 877
foil 820
fracture elongation 170
oxide
fibers 27
particulate fillers 250
rivets 668
specific
modulus 1049
strength 1049
surface preparation 871, 876
tensile strength 170
tension-tension ratio 1049
thermal conductivity 558
America's Cup yachts 922
Amine curing 49-50,51
epoxy resins, aliphatic 70
Amines, aliphatic 53, 54
Amino resins, health effects 834
Index 1071
Aminolysis, degradation 888
Amoco 58
anhydride curing agents 56
Analysis
composites 736-57
cost of 736
equilibrium equations 737
Ancadride MHHPA (Ciba-Geigy) 57
Anchorage 987
grounded 986
prestressed concrete 985-6
Angle of impact, meteoroids 815
Angle ply 741
Anhydride
curing 50
agents 56-9,56-9
health effects 832, 833
high temperatures 50
Anhydride-cured system 72
accelerator 72
cure cycle 72
curing agent 72
heat distortion temperature 72
maximum stress 72
modulus of elasticity 72
pot life 72
solvent absorption 72
tensile properties 72
viscosity 72
Anisotropic
bodies, thermoelastic behavior
470-1
composites 797
materials 687,688
material constants 688
pitches, stabilization 178
Anisotropicity, PAN 185
Anisotropy
crystal 334, 335
GFRP 1006
PET 224
Annealing, and coating thickness
297
Anodizing 667
aluminum alloys 668
low voltage 871
non-tank 871
Antennas 932-3
Antimony oxide 244
high cost 244
synergism 244
Antistatic agents, fiberglass 146-7
Appliances, reuse 901
Applications 3,270,931-56
aircraft 11
antennas 932-3
aramid fibers 216,217-20,222-3
AS-4/PEKK 127--8
battery casings 941
biomedical, thermoplastics 127--8
boron 163,165,166
bridges 933-4, 933
business equipment 934, 934
cable cars 934-5
carbon fibers 196-7
casting 38
ceramic fibers 163,165,166
CMCs 935
consumer products 946
cooling towers 936-7
drive shafts 936-7
electrical 937, 937
electronics 937, 937
firefighter breathing apparatus
937--8
flywheel mechanical battery
systems 938, 938
fuel tanks 939-40
glulam beams 940-1
grating 936
health 943-4, 944
high silica 163, 165, 166
high-pressure tubing 941
high-speed train brakes 941
hydrogen fuel storage 941
industrial equipment 951
ladders 936
laptop computers 942
lighting poles 948-9, 948
loom components 942
maglev train guideways 942-3
marine 916-28
medical 943-4, 944
metal surfaces 871
MMCs 944-5
mobile storage 945
molding compounds 945-6
musical instruments 946
non-aerospace 935
O-rings 953
oil and gas 946-7, 947
POO fiber 238
PET 230
pick-up trucks 936-7
pipeline rehabilitation 947--8
piping 936
PMR-1596
ports and harbors 949
power poles 948-9,948
quartz 163, 165, 166
railways 950
rolling stock 949-50
rolls and air shafts 950-1, 951
safety 943-4, 944
seals 953
SMEs 952
structural 709
tunnels 950
uranium enrichment centrifuges
953-4
valves 954
wind turbine blades 954
Aramid 23, 26, 425
adhesion 26
composites 210, 210
compression 26
costs 717
density 26
fibers 202-22
applications 216,217-20,
222-3
athletic shoes 222
attributes 358
availability 216,217
by-products 222
chemical properties 213-15,
214
choice of resin 222
composites 207
compressive properties 221
costs 223
creep resistance 216, 222
cutting 222
definition 202
design of 216, 221-2
electrical insulators 215
electrical properties 215
environmental properties
213-15,214
equilibrium moisture content
215,241
failure 210
fatigue resistance 221, 222
flame resistance 205,207
forms 216
handling 222
health effects 835
length-to-diameter ratio 204
limitations 207
machining 222
manufacture 203-4
mechanical properties 207-13,
208-9, 209, 210, 211, 212
melting 205
point 204
microbuckling 207
moisture absorption 221
opaque 221
optical properties 215
physical properties 205-7, 206
pricing 216
properties 205-15
reinforced plastic, see AFRP
safety 222
sandwich construction 222
self-screening 215
solvents 204
1072 Index
specific
stiffness 207
strengths 207
strength 205
to weight ratio 223
structure 204-5
temperature resistance 205
tensile
modulus 715, 716
stiffness 209
strength 209
thermal
properties 205-7,206
resistance 205
thermoplastic matrices 222
toughness 221
treatments 215-16
twisted 215-16
UV absorption 215, 221
water absorption 215
weave 222
weight 222
mechanical properties 718
moisture absorption 26
paper honeycomb 269-70
applications 270
price 716
strength retention 230
strengths 718
tensile strength 26
Aramid/ epoxy, C1E 589
Aramid/fiberglass 359
Aramid/graphite 359
hybrids 354
Arc jet tests, carbon-carbon
composites 347
Archimedean screw 538
Architecture, microstructural 795,
796
Areas of transition 731-2,732
Armos
availability 220
elongation at break 208
initial tensile modulus 208
sources of information 221
specific gravity 208
tensile strength 208
Aromatic
amine-cured MPDA 65
amines, health effects 832, 833
polyamide fiber, see aramid fibers
polyester fibers 235--7,235,235
system 71
Aromatization, and carbonization
183
Articulation components 962-3
Artificial
blood vessels 963
joints 810
ligaments, PET 234
AS-4 carbon tiber 123
in-plane shear modulus 124
tensile modulus 123
tensile strength 123
AS-4/PEEK(APC)
observed life 806, 807
predicted life 806,807
residual strength 806, 807
strength 125
AS-4/PEKK, applications 127-8
Asbestos, health hazards 252
Assembly bowing, GFRP 1014,1014
ASTM
methods, cured epoxy resin
systems 72
numbers 66, 66
standards 1061, 1061
Atmospheric electricity 860
Atomic oxygen 813--14,814
destructiveness 813
erosion 814
fluence 813
reaction efficiency 814
Atomite 247, 247
ATOTech 61
ATR72
CFRP wing box 1038
composite applications 1038,
1937
Autoclave 22, 116,461
consolidation 298,577
cure cycle 84
definition 577
repairs 868
tooling 589-91, 590
Autoclave/oven, molding 361
Automated Real-time Inspection
System (ARIS) 842
Automated Tool Manufacture for
Composite Structures 566
Automation, cost savings 16
Automobiles, reuse 900-1
Automotive
body applications 909--10, 913
SMC 909
industry
design requirements 713
recycling 901-2
surface preparation 669
interiors 912, 913
market, GMT 127
suspension 911
Availability
aramid fibers 216, 217
Armos 220
Dyneema 231
glass fibers 24
Hoechst Celanese 231
Kevlar 217-18
PET 231
Spectra 231
SVM 220
Technora 220
Tekmilon 231
Twaron 219-20
Vectran 236
Aviation, price of 1024
Avimid N, air aging 85
AWJ
advantages 604
disadvantages 604
drilling 604
linear cutting 603,603
machining 600, 602
milling 604
process 602
traverse rates 603
turning with 603--4
without abrasives 600
AXAF orbiting observatory 970
Axial
compressive properties, Spectra
226,226
loading 745--7
orientation, PET 224
stress 613
adherends 644
tensile properties, Spectra 226,
226
Axisymmetric deformation
circular plates 752-3
cylindrical shells 753-4
disks 752-3
AZ epoxy N (AZS Corp) 63
Bag molding 352-77, 361, 362,
366-72,368,369,370,371
thermal cures 367
Bagging 577
Balance 9,10-11
Balanced laminates 693
Balls, tooling 565
Barcol hardness
recycled PET 894
testing 38
Barium ferrite, IDlers 527
Barium sulfate 249
fillers 527
Barrier
creams 829-30,830
layers, silicon carbide 292
materials 863-4
Bars
bending 785
testing 784
Bases, Lewis 60--1
Basic structural units, see BSUs
Index
Basketvveave 140,145
Bathtub manufacture, Japan 889
Battery casings 941
BeaDls 745-7,746,995-7,996
bending stiffness 997
curved 791
deflection 995,996
displaceDlents along 747
Dlodes of failure 997
properties of 283
shear deforDlation 748-9,995
strength analysis 308-9
stresses in 747
thin-vvalled 747-9, 748
types 283
sandvvich 281
Bearing
failure 616, 729
load 620-1,620
contact region 620-1
edge distances 621
joints 626
strength 624-5, 625
joints 618-19
tests 625
stress 619, 619
at fasteners 620
Beech Starship 472,627,1022,1039,
1040
Bell DlOUth 500-1
Bend radius 308
Bending 785,791-2
bars 785
deflections 637
fasteners 626
single lap joint 641
failures
adherends 644
joints 617, 617
fasteners 625, 625
longitudinal 747
nonlinear 747
rings 785, 792
skin fracture 751
stiffness 745
strength 791
Kulon 305
testing 446
VMN-4305
stresses
adherends 644
fOrDlulas 284
three-point 785, 791
and tvvisting 3
vvhole rings 785
3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride
(BTDA), Dlelting point 59, 76
BenzyldiDlethylaDline (BDMA),
Dlelting point 60
Besfight 1054
properties of 170
BF3MEA 59
Biaxial
fabrics, non-vvoven 504
plain-vveave 399
stretching 546
Bicycles 1050
carbon fiber fraDle 1050
fraDle tubes 1051
handlebars 1051
tube and lug designs 1050-1
Binders
fiberglass 147
organic 314
solutions, availability 82
Bioabsorbable cODlposites 961
biocoDlpatibility 962
Biological attack 810-11
Biomaterials 957--64
Bisaleimide resins 30
see also BMIs
BisphenolA
fuDlarates 36,39
hODlopolYDler property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade naDle 102
Bisphenol A-based, health effects
832
Bisphenol E
hODlopolYDler property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade naDle 102
BisphenolM
hODlopolYDler property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade name 102
Blast pressure 675--6, 676, 677
Bleed-out 367
Bleeder 577
perDleability 581
ply, Dlolding 584-6, 585
Blistering
CFRP 918
isophthalic polyesters 918
Dlarine applications 918, 918
orthophthalic polyesters 918
perDleation barrier 918
Blisters, adhesives 271
Blovv
Dlolding 529,532,549
accuDlulator 549
polYDler properties 550
Blovvn core, NDE 854
BMC 379-80,491-2
1073
cOffiDlercial 380
cODlpression molding 492
definition 379
fatigue properties 386, 387
flexural Dlodulus 386, 386
flexural strength 386,386
injection Dlolded 380
IZOD impact 386, 386
recycling 890-3
specific gravity expansion 386,
386
tensile Dlodulus 386, 386
tensile strength 386,386
therDlal coefficient 386, 386
BMI 30,99-114
CAl perforDlance 105
cODlpressive Dlodulus 111
dielectric properties 106-7
edge delaDlination 111
F-22 fighter 113, 113
filDl adhesives 114
galvanic corrosion 108-9
hODlopolYDlers of 99
hydrolysis 112
Dlatrices 106
DlechaniCal strength 111
Dlolding cODlpounds 114
DlonODlers 100,103
suppliers 112
therDlal properties 106,109
toughening, diepoxides 105
BMI-DAB 100-1
definition 105
BMI-MDA, definition 105
Boat hulls 1045
Boeing 777
cODlposite structure 1035, 1036
Bolt
hole 621
tensions, torque levels 626
Bolted
joints 728,728, 729, 1015
edge distance 617, 617
Bolting and riveting 517
Bond
defects 630-1
failures 627-9,628
layer 656-8,657
line control, adhesives 274
stresses 640
lateral deflections 640
thickness 631
to adherend, thickness 641
van der Waals 224, 226
Bonded
doubler, adhesive joints 628
joints 728,728,1015
cracking 659,659
creep failure 658
1074 Index
design 728
durability 658-9
environmental extremes 658
viscoelasticity 631
step lap joints 627
Bonding
adhesives 127, 255
agent 190-1
fiber and matrix 801-2
fusion 127
hydrogen PPTA 204
inspection 668
interfacial 149
and joints 374
metals 668
pressure 872-4
adhesives 271
skin/core 917-18
techniques, adhesive joints 611
Bondline
adhesive voids, NDE 854
thickness control 872-3
Bone cement 962
Boron 23
applications 163,165,166
continuous fibers 163
fibers 27
reinforced plastics (BFRP)
1023
forms 161-3
manufacture 156--7
properties 161
trifluoride (BF:J 59
trifluoride-monoethylene amine
(BFaMEA), melting point
61
Boron-aluminum, MMC 299
Boron-epoxy
CTE 589
stabilizer covers 1030-1
Bosses 392,392
mold making 390
Boundary conditions 588, 750
laminates 689
Bowing, GFRP 1013
Braiding 18, 33, 164, 402, 402,
413-18,413,414,415,417,436,
437
2-D 413
definition 415
2-step 416
3-D 413
geometric parameters 416
angle, and fiber volume fraction
417
cross section 417,417
definition 413
dry tows 418
horizontal 413,413
interlacing patterns 415, 415
Maypole machines 413, 414
multidirectional 473
prepreg 418
processing technology 413-15
rackets 1050
sporting goods 1045-6
structural geometry 415-16
tape 418
track and column 414, 414, 416
tubular 413
Break-out 597
Breakage 302,319
Breaking strength
fiberglass 139-40, 141-4
Kevlar 214
Technora 214
Breather 288
Bremsstrahlung radiation 816
Bridges 933-4, 933
deck 986,986
enclosures 992-3, 994
rehabilitation 988
Brittle
adhesives 651
composites 797
fiber breakage 291
materials, ultrasonic machining
605
solids 188-9
Broken fibers 803
buildup 803
Bromine, halogens 43
BSUs 169
Buckling 547,747,750-2,752
asymmetric 755
column-type 755
columns 997
cylindrical shells 755-7
flange 998
local 997-8
pressure 756
sandwich 282
Buffalo Color 58
Building
construction, recycling 901-2
systems 989,991
Buildup, broken fibers 803
Bulk molding compound, see BMC
Bumpers 815
Bundle theory 189-90
Buoys and floats 927-8
Bushings
fiberglass 138
platinum 133
tooling 562
Business equipment
applications 934, 934
shielding 936
Butt tensile test 638, 638
Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE), viscosity
61
By-products
aramid fibers 222
volatile 48, 78
Bypassload 616,619,620
definition 620
joints 626
pure 620,621
ratio 620
C-glass 134
C-scan
pulse-echo testing 842, 842
ultrasonic through-transmission
testing 841, 841
Cable cars 934-5
Cables 927
Calcium
aluminoborosilicate 24
carbonate 246--7, 247
abundance 243
fillers 527
low shrinkage 243
Mohs hardness scale 243
particulate fillers 243, 247
stiffness 243
Calcium-sodium metaphosphate 957
Calendering 532
Carbide, coating 296
Carbon
black 245
content 306
fiber 25-6,234,335-8,336,337
see also CF
aluminum interaction 297
applications 196--7
in carbon, matrix 337
compatibility of 295, 296
competitive prices 25
composites 190-1
ISO standards 1067
typical compression
strength 1055
cost of 196, 917
CVD 335
discontinuous 337-8
elastic modulus 169
electrical
conductivity 169
properties 184-5,185,186
ffiament directionality 335
from PAN 171, 335, 336
from pitch 171
health effects 835
heat treatment 335
high modulus 335
high strength 335
Index 1075
honeycomb 270-1
laminate, tensile strength
1056
MPa 425
nanoporous 183
noncircular 336
PAN-based 169
attributes 358
pitch-based 25, 353
attributes 358
production 25
pyrolysis 335
reinforced
composites 358-9
plastics, see CFRP
reuse 884
rovings 502
selection 90
shape 335,336,337
shear strength 295
tensile
modulus 335
strength 169
thermal
conductivity 169
decomposition 25, 25
properties 184-5,185,186
torsional strength 295
volwne fraction 335
Young's modulus 295
fiber-epoxy, drilling 599
fillers 527
specific modulus 1049
specific strength 1049
tension-tension ratio 1049
type T300 503
Carbon-aluminwn
infiltration 303
layer reinforced 304
magnesium evaporation 303-4
MMC, tensile strength 300
plate reinforced 304
producing 303
rolling 303
soldering 303
Carbon-carbon, rocket nozzles 712
Carbon-carbon composites 333--50
advanced 344
applications 341, 349-50
arc jet tests 347
coating 343-4
cure cycle 342
density 333
high temperatures 340, 344
impact damage 334
lay-up 342
linear thermal expansion 333
manufacturing 341-4
mechanical properties 344-5,345
melting point 333
modulus of elasticity 333
multiformity 333, 333
oxidation resistance 333
pistons 349
powders 343
pyrolysis 341, 342
reproducible strength levels 333
stiffness 333
strength efficiency 344
tensile strength 333
TEOS 349
thermal
conductivity 333, 349
expansion 333, 349-50
gradients 333
oxidation 345, 347-8
thermophysical properties 348-9,
349
Carbon-carbon part
2-D 340
in oxidizing atmosphere 340
Carbon-epoxy 1031
composites 27
laminates 669
prepreg 558
Carbon-fiberglass 359
Carbon-graphite, quasi-isotropic
laminates 13, 13
Carbon-matrix composites 333
Carbonic, properties of 170
Carbonization
and aromatization 183
chemical changes 181-3
and effluent loss 183
emissions during 181-2
microstructural changes 183-4,
184
stabilized PAN 181
Carbonized organic composites
339-41,340
curing temperatures 339-40
impregnation 340
pyrolysis 340
starting material 339
Carbonyls, thermal decomposition
293-4,294
Carcinogenicity 824
Cards combs 495
Carpet plots 718-20, 719
construction 719
laminate selection 720
lay-up sequence 719
shear modulus 720, 721
strength values 719
tensile
modulus 719
strength 720,720
Cartilage 958
Carving bits, honeycomb 289
Cast
aluminwn, tooling 442
boron, aluminum cable 299
ceramic, CTE 589
lamina, composites 299
Casting, applications 38
Catalysts 49,832
homopolymerization 49
metal coordination 104
Catalytic curing 50-I, 51
Caul plates 14, 288-9
design 591
tooling design 590
Cavity pressure 443
CDS 798,798
CE 99-114,104
adhesives 114
composition 108
compression 111
dielectric properties 106-7
edge delamination 111
galvanic corrosion 108-9
hot-wet performance 108
hydrolysis 112, 112
of cyanurate linkages 107
mechanical strength 111
moisture absorption 107
monomers 105
prepreg reinforced 113
property of casting 108
reinforcement 111
suppliers 112
tensile strength 108
thermal properties 106, 109
Young's modulus 108
Celion 1054
compressive strength 87
flexural strength 87
fracture toughness 87
shear strength 87
interlaminar 91
tensile
modulus 87
strength 87
weight loss 91, 93
Cell
configurations, honeycomb 262
size, honeycomb 263
Cell-edge, adhesives 276
Celluloid acetate
compressive strength 258
density 258
maximum service temperature
258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
1076 Index
Cellulosic, fillers 527
Central cylinder, satellites 375-6
Centred injection, ports 451, 451
Centreless
grinder 429
sander 429
Ceramics 307-29
applications 328-9,328
brittle 361
continuous unidirectional 317-18
cutting tool inserts 328, 328
densities 307
density 312
electrical conductivity 307
fibers 27
applications 163,165, 166
continuous 163
forms 161-3
health effects 835
manufacture 156-7
properties 161
fracture toughness 312
hardness 307
matrices, designing 317-23, 318,
319,320,321
matrix
composites, see CMCs
lamina, fiber fracture 799
materials 311-12
melting
point 312
temperatures 307, 311
modulus of rupture 312
Poisson's ratio 312
powder processing 312-14,313,
314
reinforcing 307-11,308,308,309,
310,311
strengthening 323-4, 323
thermal conductivity 307
thermal expansion 312
tolerance to flaws 307
unreinforced 328-9
Young's modulus 307,312
Certification requirements
aircraft 1022-3
military aircraft 1023
CF/PEEK 115
CF/PPS 115
CF/PSU 115
CFRP 1023-4
blistering 918
cathodic 918
prepregs 1-23
Chain folding, PET 224
Channeling 443
Char yield, NR-I50 82
Characteristic damage state, see CDS
Characteristic temperatures
PET 121
polyamide 6, 6 121
polyamide 12 121
polybutylene-terephthalate 121
polyesters 121
polyolefin 121
polypropylene 121
Charge
pattern 384-5
preparation 384-5
Chassis application 910--11,913
Chemical
composition, fiberglass 147--8
contamination 860
degradation 299,888-9
name 121
oxidation, direct wet 191
precipitation 292-3
properties, aramid fibers 213-15,
214
resistance 38
and crystallinity 120
feldspar 243-4
fiberglass 134
Kevlar 214
nepheline 243-4
PBI 237
PET 224,230
Technora 214
thermoplastics 126
stability 214
vapor deposition, see CVD
vapor infiltration, see CVI
Chemically resistant, gloves 829
Chimneys 983
rehabilitation 988
Chlorendic 39
anhydride (CA), melting point
58
resins 36, 36, 43
Chlorinated solvents, health effects
836
Choice of resin, aramid fibers 222
Chopped strand, mat 155, 917
Chopped-fiber, reinforced
composites 355
Chopper gun 353
Chord, winding 462
Chromic acid anodized, aluminum
foil 820
Chronic toxicity 824
testing 824
CIC 381
modified 381
Circuit boards, fiberglass 136
Circular plates, axisymmetric
deformation 752-3
Circumferential, reinforcement 461
Civil aircraft
applications 1035-9, 1036, 1037,
1038, 1039
material weights 1027
Civil engineering, pultrusion 519-20
Clamping 501-2
levels 625
pressure 625
joints 618
loss of 626
Day
grades of 244
particle sizes 244
particulate fillers 244
Clearances, fasteners 624, 626
Cleavage 50
asymmetric 50
thermolytic 81
Climb, milling 596
Close packing 403, 403
Closure, of mold 442
CMCs 935
ultrasonic machining 605
CNC, lathes 597
CO2, gas laser 605
Co-poly-p-phenylene/3,4'oxydiphenylene
terephthalamide 203, 203, 205
Coarse fillers
silica 516
talc 516
Coating
aluminum foil 820
by precipitation 293, 294
carbide 296
carbon fibers 292-4,294,295
chemical precipitation 292-3
electroless deposition 292-3
in gas phase 294--8
in-mold 385
medical applications 957
metal, heating temperature 294
nickel 292
nickel vapor-deposited 819-20
nitride 296
polyurethane 813
protective 819-20,819
silicon carbide 294
thickness 293,294,297
and annealing 297
and deposition time 294
Kulon 306
VMN-4306
two-layer 300
Cockroft-Walton accelerator 848, 848
COD 124
Coefficient of thermal expansion
seealsoCTE
aluminum 558
carbon-epoxy prepreg 558
Index
glass-epoxy 558
high carbon cast steel 558
Invar 558
laminates 322
mahogany 558
monolithic graphite 558
steel 558
whiskers 308
Cohesive fracture 674, 675
Collision avoidance 484, 485
Color, stability 43
Columns 997-9,999
buckling 997, 999
crushing 997
failure mechanisms 997
properties 998,999
slenderness 997
testing 999
Commercial
resins 101, 102, 103
stabilization 178
Comminuted polymers, fillers 527
Compacted plies, Springer's model
588
Compaction 470
pressure 457
Compliance 195
Compliant ring method 788-9
Components
of composites 879
design 709
sizing 712
Composites 166
adherends 630, 660
AI-B-C 304
analysis 736-57
anisotropic 797
aramid
fibers 207
reinforced 716, 717
beam
cost 723
design example 722-3, 722,
723
design values 723
bolting and riveting 516-17
brittle 797
cast lamina 299
components of 879
coupling agents 250
damage
assessment 880
sources 838
definition 378
density, thermoplastics 534
environmental effects 879-80
fabrication 879
failure 193
analysis 880
fiber dominated 795
flywheels 474-5
glass-reinforced 716,717
graphite-reinforced 716, 717
health and safety 880
history 353-4
hybrids 353
inhomogeneous 797
inspection 880
layer, permeability 581
Materials Characterization, Inc
(CMC) 1065, 1965
panels 909
preventive maintenance 880
processes
health hazards 831
safety hazards 831
processing 879
preforms 397
times 353
protective coatings 879
pultruded, outdoor use 504
quality controls 880
reasons for using 3
repair methods 880
repairs, aircraft 857-8
sealants 879
sealing 302
standard tests 880
talc 246
testing 194-6
thermal properties 661
Ti-Al-C 303
tools 566-75
aerospace industry 593
ease of preparation 592
low density 592
prepreg 566,567-71
thermal expansion 592
thermal stability 592
wet lay-up 566
toxicological properties 831-7
tubes
curing 428-9
fishing rods 427
unidirectional 191
whisker-alumina 320-1
Composition
CE 108
continuous ceramic fibers 309
fiberglass 138-9
fibers 158
whiskers 158
Compound structures 456
Compression
aerospace applications 26
after impact (CAl) 105
ararnids 26
CE 111
1077
hot-wet 108
measuring in 195
molding 22,43,374,384,529,
532,545
composite parts 549
fiber orientation 548
GMT 117
one-dimensional flow 583-4,
584
polyimides 545
PTFE 545
and pultrusion 490
rackets 1049
thermoplastics 116,544-9
two-dimensional flow 584
UHMWPE 545
molds 394,395,395
properties 360
strength
AFR700B/S21aminates 93
marine laminates 920
normalization 721
strength after impact 125, see also
impact energy
and tension 786-9
TEOS 346
testing 781
buckling 787
flat specimens 787
rings 782, 788-9
transverse cracking 787
unidirectional composites 787
Compressive
fiber stress, and fiber volume
fraction 581
modulus
BMl 111
PMR-15 laminates 88
properties
aramid fibers 221
testing 38
strength
ABS 258
Celion 87
cellulois acetate 258
epoxies 258
fiberglass epoxies 153
honeycomb 264-5,266-7
Kulon 305
laminate 616
Nomex 272, 273
PBO fiber 238
phenolics 258
plied-yam 151
PMR-15 82,88
polyurethane 258
polyvinyl chloride 258
recycled phenolic 894
S-glass epoxies 152
1078 Index
single-yam 151
skinned molded foam 258
thermoplastics 124
thermosets 124
VMN-4305
yam distribution 154
stress, surface 321
Compton scattering 845
Computed tomography 846-7, 848
advantages 846-7
density map 846-7
Computer codes, joints 624, 630
Computer numerical controlled, see
CNC
Concrete
dilation 988
fonns 925
linear thermal expansion 705
polymer 984, 984
post-tensioning 986, 987
prestressed 985-6
rehabilitation 988
reinforcing 999-1000
Condensed core, NDE 854
Conductivity, and modulus of
elasticity 186
Consolidation 314,576-94
autoclave 298, 577
definition 576
equation 582
one-dimensional 584
equipment selection 577
fiber deformation 576
history 578-86
mechanisms involved in 576
mode~ 578-86,581-6
pressure 577
resin flow 576
techniques 576
temperature 577
thick composites 585
thin composites 585
time 585
window 588
tooling materia~ 577
Constituent
materi~ 22
properties 766-7
Constitutive equations 739,741
stiffness coefficients 743-4
Construction
applications 982-1001
materials selection 982
carpet plots 719
methods 1014-15
mold 447
pultrusion 519-20
Consumer products 946
Contact
areas 184
inverse method 611
region, bearing load 620-1
Continuity condition, resin flow
582-3
Continuous
casting 29&-9
ceramic fibers 163,309
dry jet wet spinning 204
fiber-reinforcement 22
fibers 156, 338, 338
alumina-based 156-7
density 162
description 162
diameter 162
elastic modulus 162
filament
directionality 338
winding 338
layer interlocking 338
manufacturers 162
multilayer locking 338
reinforced composites 355
specific strength 162
thermal expansion coefficient
162
trade names 162
filament, fiber architecture 401-2
glass, rovings 492
impregnated compound, see CIC
reinforcement 502
strand mat 436, 503
whisker 156
Contour, variation 372-3
Contoured tape, lay-up 16
Control surfaces, marine
applications 924
Coolants, drilling 600
Cooling towers 936-7, 993-4, 995
Coordinating partial plies, tooling
design 590
Copolymerization 34
Core
corrosion
adhesives 271
NDE854
edge treatment 277
fatigue, NDE 854
materi~ 256-7
movement, adhesives 271
node disbonds, NDE 854
plug repair 866
selection, sandwich 284
shaping 289,289
shear stress, formulas 284
size, sandwich 288
splitting, adhesives 271
Cores
density 276
splices 276,278,278
Comers
flexure, TEOS 346
injection, ports 451,451
preform 438
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
(CAFE) 907
Correction method, tooling 590-1
Corrective Optics Space Telescope
Axial Replacement, see
COSTAR
Correlation, ultrasonic 843--4, 844
Correlators
advantages 834
block diagram 844
P1FE 834
Corrosion
barrier 47
galvanic 10&-9
resffitance 38,42,303
construction 982,983
high-temperature 322
reinforced composites 387
Corrugated configuration, reinforced
composites 389
Corrugation process, honeycomb
257
Cortical bones 958
COSTAR 101&-19,1019
Costs
aramid 717
carbon fiber 917
E-glass 717
glass fibers 24
graphite 717
meta-aramids 205
metals 717
particulate fillers 242
PBOfiber 238
52-glass 917
Count
fiberglass 141-4
plied-yam 151
single-yam 151
Countersinking, and drilling 59&-9
Countersunk
fasteners 624,624,625,625
head 729
Coupling
agents 671
chemical functionability 147
commercial 148
composites 250
effect on mechanical
properties 149
fiberglass 146-7
polypropylene and acrylic
acid 251
resin interaction 149
Index 1079
silanes 147, 250--1
titanates 251
viscosity 250
zirconates 251
with diepoxides 105
eliminating 193-4
and stiffness 702-3
Coupon tests 195, 687, 688
Coupons
configuration 721
standard 721
Crack
bridgUng 320,323-4,323
deflection 320,323-4,323
formation 469
growth, fatigue 811
initiation 124, 632
opening displacement, see COD
propagation 124
Cracking
bonded joints 659, 659
matrices 319
Crashworthiness 3
Cratering 814
Crazing 343
Creel
bookshelf 492
horizontal feed 494
loaded multiple spindle 494
mat/fabric 494
package positions 493
pultrusion 492-5
Creep
effects 126
environmental 1000
failure
bonded joints 658
hot-wet conditions 659
fatigue 631
homopolymers 212
low temperatures BOO
para-aramids 212
resistance
aramid fibers 216, 222
PET 227
Spectra 227,228-9,230,232
rupture 797, BOO, 806
time-dependent BOO,800
viscoelastic 797
Cresyl glycidyl ether (CGE),
viscosity 62
Crimp 416
Critical
bend radius, continuous ceramic
fibers 309
energy, failure criteria 795
load, orthotropic plates 751
processing temperature 326
shear resistance, failure criteria
795
Crooked chain, meta-aramids 205
Cross section
constant 489
shape of 461
Cross sections, strength 613
Crosslinking 31, 48, 100
matrix 460
reversible 887-8
rotational molding 551
Crowfoot satin, weave 145, 145
Crushed core
NDE 854
sandwich 282
Crystal, anisotropy 334
Crystalline
polymers 118, 120
silica 250
Crystallinity
advantages of 126
and chemical resistance 120
PET 224
Crystallite melting point, Spectra 26
Crystallization kinetics
injection molding 540
rotational molding 551
CTE 698-9, 704
aluminum 589
aramid4epoxy 589
boron-epoxy 589
cast ceramic 589
compatibility 557
electroformed nickel 558
fiberglass-epoxy 589
graphite-epoxy 589
high-temperature cast epoxy 589
iron (electroformed) 589
M401/F854 704
nickel (electroformed) 589
shrink factors 557-8
silicone rubber 589
tool steel 589
tooling 556-7, 557-8
urethane board stock 558
Cupping 541, 541
polyoxymethylene 541
Cure
catalysts 104
control 586-9, 586, 587, 588
objective 588
cycle
anhydride-cured 72
aromatic system 71
autoclave 83-4
stepped 355
carbon-carbon composites
342
elements 67
no-bleed 673
and resin viscosity 354, 355
R1M 433
selecting 585,586
times, tools 559
degree of 587, 587
monitoring 67-9,67,68,69
in situ 69
infrared spectroscopy 68
off-line 67-9
part slippage 432
rate 509-10,509,510
epoxy resins 509
polyesters 509
shrinkage 48
temperature 105
adhesives 661
Cured epoxy resin systems, AS1M
methods 72
Curing 13,16,37,385
agents 49,513,813,832
amine 53-6, 54-6
anhydride 56-9,56-9
anhydride-cured system 72
epoxy resins 509
amine 49-50,51
anhydride 50
autoclave 33
composite tubes 428-9
cyclotrimerization 99-101
dicyanates 100
low temperature 567
non-autoclave 589
ovens 22, 428-9
press 22
reaction 49
R1M 445-6, 445
shrinkage 41
temperatures, carbonized organic
composites 339-40
thermal 499
time 385
Curved
beams 791
pultrusion 489-90
Cut-off
high pressure water jet 502
saw 502,502
station 502
wastage 502
Cut-outs, in cylinders, GFRP 1013
Cutting
aramid fibers 222
Kevlar 600
plies, surface preparation 870
speed 596-7,598,605
tools 329, 329
(;VI) 27,157,294,296,311,338-9,
339
carbon fibers 335
1080 Index
drawbacks 317
isothennal 338-9, 339
silicon carbide 157
temperatures 316
thermal gradient technique 339,
339
CVI 316,316,401
forced flow-thermal gradient
processing 317,317
isothermal processing 317
Cyanate
ester, see CE
resins 29-30
Cyanates 358
Cyanurate trimer 99,100
CYCAP 93
chemistry of 81
Cycle times, RTM 433
Cycles to failure, Kevlar 213
Cycleweld 255
Cyclic loading, microcracking 801
Cycloaliphatic amines, health effects
832, 832, 833
Cylinders
filament winding 467
Cylindrical shells 466, 752-3, 753
axisymmetric deformation 753--4
buckling 755-7
pressure 756
nonsymmetric deformation
754-5
shear defonnation 756
stiffnesses 756
Czochralski method 160
D-glass 134
Dagger drill 599-{)(}(), 599
Damage
accumulation 797
assessment
composites 880
wet lay-up repairs 866
drivers 801-3
inspection, NDE 854
low velocity impact 839-40
modes 797-800, 798, 799, SOO
protective coatings, aircraft
859-60
resistance 801-3
tolerance 107, 111, 794, 794-808
definition 794,794
Darcy's law 447,581
resin flow 578
OCB, tests 124
OCPD 37, 37, 39
low cost 37
maleate half ester 37
Debonding, moisture 811
Debris impacts 814-15,814,815
Debulking 567,569,592
periodic 574
Deburring 565
Decking 925
Decomposition temperature
Kevlar 206
Nomex 206
PBO fiber 238
Technora 206
Teijinconex 206
Twaron 206
Decontamination, PMC 863
Deep delamination, NDE 854
Deep submergence devices 474,475
Defective fibers 303
Defects, inspection methods 733--4,
734
Defibrillation 215
Definitions
ararnid fibers 202
autoclave 577
BMC 379
BMI-DAB 105
BMI-MDA 105
braiding 413
bypass load 620
composites 378
consolidation 576
damage tolerance 794, 794
denier 241
detailed design 710
durability 794, 794
electroforming 591
epoxide 48
equilibrium moisture content 241
extrusion 534
fiber 242
placement 476
hazard 823
heat capacity 532-3
hygrothermal 694
knitting 408
lamina 687
material properties 709
matrix 378
particulate fillers 242
preliminary design 710
prepreg 425
pultrusion 488
pyrolysis 888
reinforcements 378
rheology 527
risk 823
specific heat 532-3
specific modulus 715
steering 482
strength retention 241
tenacity 241
Tex 136,241
textile preforming 397
thermosetting reaction 49
tows 476
toxic 822
viscosity 527
weaving 404
Deflection
effect 640
equations 750
fasteners 624, 626
formulas 284-5
lateral 644
sandwich 284
Defonnable, adherends 633, 634
Deformation 398
adherends 630
degree of 448
laminates 691
point 302
Degradation 215, 796
aminolysis 889
chemical 888-9
factor 697
fiber length 536
glycolysis 889
hydrolysis 889
methanolysis 889
NDE 838
PET 889
products obtained 889
strength 796
Degreasing, metal surfaces 871
DEH 20 (Dow) 54
DEH 24 (Dow) 54
DEH 26 (Dow) 54
de Havilland Mosquito 686, 686
Delamination 548, 597-8, 598, 599,
615,798-9,799,801
atedge 798
helical winding 789
Delta Clipper experimental launch
vehicle 974-5,974
Demolding 443,446-7
precautions 446
DEN 431 (Dow) 52
DEN 438 (Dow) 52
DEN 439 (Dow) 52
Denier, definition 241
Denitrogenation 183
Densification 314
shuttle parts 343
Density
ABS 258
aluminum 170,558
aromatic system 71
carbon (Type T300) 503
carbon-carbon composites 333
carboni epoxy prepreg 558
cellulois acetate 258
Index
ceramic composites 312
ceramics 307
continuous ceramic fibers 309
continuous fiber 162
E-glass 503
electroformed nickel 558
epoxies 258, 511
glass/epoxy 558
high carbon cast steel 558
Invar 558
Kevlar 206, 503
Kulon 305, 306
mahogany 558
meteoroids 815
and modulus 23
monolithic graphite 558
Nomex 206
NR-150 82
PAN-based fibers 170
phenolics 258
pitch-based fibers 170
PMR-1582
polyester 511
polyurethane 258
polyvinyl chloride 258
recycled NBC 897
recycled phenolic 894
regrind RIM 895
resin, aliphatic system 70
S-glass 503
SiC/ AIP3 315
skinned molded foam 258
Spectra 503
staple 162
steel 170, 558
and strength 23
Technora 206
Teijinconex 206
titanium 170
Twaron 206
urethane board stock 558
vinylester 511
VMN-4 305, 306
whiskers 162, 308
Dental applications, hydroxyapatite
(HA) 958
Dentin 958
Deoxidizing, metal surfaces 871
Deposition
electrolytic method 293
time, and coating thickness 294
DER 330 (Dow) 51
DER 331 (Dow) 51
DER 332 (Dow) 51
DER 661 (Dow) 51
DER 732 (OOW) 63
DER 736 (OOW) 63
Derivatives, phenolic 382
Description
continuous fiber 162
staple 162
whiskers 162
Design 32
aerospace 709
allowables 709, 758-77
nomenclature 759,759
processing variables 762-3
testing 758
checklist 712, 714
components 709
of composites 18-20, 19
considerations 994-1001
data, using 724-7
detailed 710
laminates 686-708, 697-706
low strain 838
methodology
knitting 410-13
nonwoven textiles 419
preliminary 710
process 710
requirements
aircraft 713, 1022-3
stabilizer 710
automotive industry 713
helicopters 713
industrial pressure vessels
713
marine submersibles 713
recreational 713
rocket motors 713
sailboats 713
satellites 713
team 709, 712, 714, 715
materials supplier 715
values 720-2
verification 733-4, 733
Designations, continuous ceramic
fibers 309
Despooling 479
Detailed design 710, 723-34
definition 710
Determinable values 779
Diacids, and glycols 34-5
Diameter
continuous fibers 162
ceramic 309
low 160
staple 162
whiskers 162, 308
3,3' -Diaminodiphenylsulfone,
melting point 55
4,4' -Diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS),
melting point 55
Diaphragr.nforming 117
thermoplastics 116
Dibromoneopentyl glycol 43
Dicyanates, curing 100
1081
Dicyandiamide (DICY), melting
point 56
Dicyclopentadiene, see DCPD
Dicyclopentadienyl bisphenol
homopolymer property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade name 102
Dielectric
constant 95
E-glass fibers 231
PET 224
Spectra 231
thermoplastics 107
thermosetting 107
properties 106-7
strength, Skybond 95
Dielectrometry 68,69
bulk 68,69
Diels-Alder 101
reverse 80
Dies 497
chrome plated 501
forming 497
heating and curing 498-501
inspecting 501
internal profile 499-500
manufacturing 500
multi-cavity 491, 500
positioning 498
purging 514
steel 500
temperature
control 511-13,512,513
profile 511, 513
stability 514
Diethyl ester diacid derivative 80-1
Diethylaminepropylamine (DEAPA),
viscosity 54
Diethylenetriamine (DETA),
viscosity 54
Different thicknesses, sandwich
structures 744
Diffusion welding, solid stage
production 291
Diglycidyl ether of 1, 4-butanediol
(BDE), viscosity 62
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
(DGEBA)
crystallization 51
viscosity 51
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F
(DGEBF) 52
crystallization 52
Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol,
viscosity 63
Diglycidyl ether of polypropylene
glycol 63
Diluents 61-3,61-3
1082 Index
reactive 66, 66
Dimensional
stability, reinforced composites
387
tolerances 560-1
drawings 731
Dimensions, joints 612, 649
DIMOX 315-16,315,316
Dimpling, sandwich 282, 284
Direct wet, chemical oxidation 191
Direction dependence 698
Directional metal oxidation, see
DIMOX
Directionally reinforced molding
compotuld, see XMC
Disadvantages
AWJ
604
hand lay-up 352
injection pultrusion 497
laser machining 605
preform 438
RTM 434-5
turning 597
twin-screw extruders 539
ultrasonic machining 608
Disbonds
inspection 839
NDE 854
surfaces 677
Discontinuous
fiber 156
representative volume 804
whisker 156
Discrete, fiber architecture 401,401
Disks, axisymmetric deformation
752-3
Displacements, measuring 779
Disposal
see also recycling, reuse
nonrecyclables 899-900
and reuse 883-904
Dissimilar adherends 635
Dissipation factor 95
fiberglass 135
thermoplastics 107
thermosetting 107
Distortion temperature, testing 38
Diving equipment 926-7, 926, 927
Dixie Chemical 57
DMP 30 (Rohm & Haas) 60
DMTA 120, 120
Dodecenyl succinic anhydride
(DDSA), melting point 57
Domes, contours 467
Dornier 328
composite applications 1037,
1039
rear fuselage and fin 1039
Double
cantilever beam
see also DCB
specimens 124
head, pull winding 496-7
lap
adhesive joints 628
balanced 655
joints
stress distribution 654
thermal stress 662
shea~joints
624,625
strap
adhesive joints 628
joints, tapering 646, 647, 648
Doublers 279-80, 280
Draft 389, 390
zero 389
Drapability, preform 438
Draping simulation 448, 448
Drawings 730-3
construction 730-3
dimensions 731
tolerances 731
material description 731, 731
thickness 731
Drill
cutting parameters 600
dagger 599-600,599
fixtures, fabrication 573
fully fluted 600
geometry 599-600
performance 599
templates 573-4
twist 600
Drilling 597-600,598,599
carbon fiber-epoxy 599
coolants 600
and cotultersinking 598-9
damage 729
glass fiber-epoxy 599
machining 602
secondary 598
Drive shafts 911,936-7
Dry spots, eliminating 453, 453
Dry tows, braiding 418
Drying, of composite 811
Dual-shell reflector, Kevlar 1004,
1004
Ductile response 655
adhesives 651-6,652,657
Ductility, adhesives 627-8,629-30,
655-6
DuPont FP fiber 309
elastic modulus 309
Durability 794-808
bonded joints 658-9
definition 794,794
PET 233
predicting 796
Duramite 247,247
Dust particles, milling 597
Dy 023 (Ciba-Geigy) 62
Dy 027 (Ciba-Geigy) 61
DY 062 (Ciba-Geigy) 60
DY 064 (Ciba-Geigy) 60
Dyeing, PET 233
Dyes 516
Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) 816
Dynamic mechanical thermal
analysis, see DMTA
Dyneema 223
availability 231
elongation at break 225
fiber type 225
pricing 232
specific gravity 225
tensile modulus 225
tensile strength 225
E-glass 24, 134, 425
composite tanks 985
compression properties 360
constituent properties 766
costs 717
density 503
dielectric constant 231
elastic properties 764-7
elongation at break 503
fiber modulus 360
Kevlar, fiber modulus 360
polyester rods 985
references 774--7
reinforced concrete 984
reinforcement 383
specific
gravity 383
modulus 1049
strength 1049
strength properties 764-7
tensile
failure 383
modulus 360,383,503,716
properties 360
strength 24,383,503
tension-tension ratio 1049
thermal expansion 383
typical properties 1055
uniaxial strength 194
YOtulg's modulus 24
Ears 371
Earthquakes 197
Ease of preparation, composite tools
592
ECN 1273 (Ciba-Geigy) 52
ECN 1280 (Ciba-Geigy) 52
ECN 1299 (Ciba-Geigy) 52
Economics, land transportation
Index
905--6,906
Eddy current testing 849-50
Edge
definition, prefonn 438
delamination 111
distances
bearing load 621
bolted joints 617, 617
effects 780,789
turning, reinforced composites
390
Edge-defined film-fed growth, see
EFG
Effect of contaminants, aircraft 863
Effluent loss, and carbonization 183
EFG 160
Egg crate structure 569, 570, 572
Eight-harness satin, weave 145, 145,
436,436
Einstein coefficient 531-2
fillers 533
Ejection, part 385
Elastic
constants
graphite/epoxies 4
Kevlar 210
preform 449
displacement 195
modulus
aluminum 170
carbon fibers 169
continuous fiber 162
duPont FP fiber 309
Kevlar 205
Kulon 305
PAN-based fibers 170
pitch-based fibers 170
staple 162
steel 170
titanium 170
VMN-4305
whiskers 162
properties
E-glass 764-7
graphite epoxies 768-71
Kevlar 764-7
laminate 764-7
52-glass 764-7
Spectra 764-7
response 319,655
stress-strain, microcracking 798
symmetry, axis of 779
zone length 658
Elastomer, tooling 14
Elbows 464
Electric discharge machining (EDM)
605
Electrical
applications 937,937
conductivity
carbon black 245
carbon fibers 169
ceramics 307
equipment, pultrusion 519
insulators, aramid fibers 215
properties
aramid fibers 215
carbon fibers 184-5, 185, 186
fiberglass 135
resistance, reinforced composites
387
resistivity, and microtexture 189
Electrically conductive, particulate
fillers 250
Electroformed nickel
CTE 558
density 558
mandrel 591
thennal conductivity 558
tooling 591-2, 592
Electroformmg 591-2
definition 591
Electroless deposition, coating 292-3
Electromagnetic interference, see EMI
Electron diffraction 186
Electronics, applications 937, 937
Electroplating 820
Element tapering 624
Eliminating
dry spots 453,453
microcracking 1012
Elongation 26
epoxy resins 29
NR-150 82
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
PMR-1582
PP and granulated SMC 897
recycled NBC 897
recycled PP 895, 896
regrind RIM 895
Skybond 86
Elongation at break
Armos 208
carbon (Type T300) 503
Dyneema 225
E-glass 503
epoxy 511
Hoechst Celanese 225
Kevlar 205,208,503
Kulon 306
Nomex 209
particulate fillers 252-3
PHO 235
polyester 511
S-glass 503
Spectra 225, 503
SVM 208
Technora 209
1083
Teijinconex 209
Tekmilon 225
Twaron 208
Vectran 235
vinylester 511
VMN-4306
EMI
testing 982
buildings 989, 991, 991
EMI-24 (Air Products) 60
End effects 780
End grain balsa 917
End-capping 81
Energy
equation 586-7
fracture surface 320
release rates 632
Engineering
constants
IM6/epoxy 699,700,701
laminates 693
parameters, preforms 421
properties 22
Environmental
aspects, recycling 902-3
conditions, adhesives 630
effects 81G-20, 100G-l
composites 879-80
creep 1000
history 810
relaxation 1000
exposure 860-1
extremes, bonded joints 658
properties, aramid fibers 213-15,
214
resistance 3,49,65,564
Epi-Rez 5014 (Hi-Tek Polymers) 62
Epon 826 (Shell) 51
Epon 1001 (Shell) 51
Epotuf 37-053 (Reichold) 62
Epotuf 37-057 (Reichold) 61
Epoxides 51-3,51-3
curing agent ratio 64
definition 48
molecules 49
Epoxies
adhesives 275
compressive strength 258
density 258, 505
elongation at break 505
flexural modulus 505
flexural strength 505
heat distortion 505
laminates, tooling 562
maximum service temperature
258
nitrile rubber modified 275
pultrusion 511
reinforced 196, 442
1084 Index
resills 28-9,29,30,382,504,832
bismaleimides 6
cure rate 509
curing agents 509
cyanate ester 6
elongation 29
flexibility 63
formulation 63-4, 64
gel times 510, 510
glass content 510
modifiers 105
moisture absorption 29
phenolic triazine (PT) 6
polyirnides 6
pull loads 510
rigidity 63
selection of 5
viscosity vs. time 510, 510
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile modulus 505
tensile strength 258,505
thermal conductivity 259
Equations
of continuity 582
lamina material 760
of motion 738-9,740-1
illertia terms 739
straill-displacment 739
Equilibrium
crack spacillg 798
moisture content, definition 241
Equipment
selection, consolidation 577
wet lay-up repairs 867
ERL 4206 (Union Carbide) 63
Erosion 813
atomic oxygen 814
Ester formation 34
Esterification 35, 38
EtchUng 667
Ether linkages, Technora 210
2-Ethyl-4-methylimidazole (EMI),
melting poillt 60
Europe, recydillg 884
European retrievable carrier 971
Evacuation,P~C 863
Evaluation, strength 737
Exothermic reactions 827-8
Exotherms 68
Expansion process, honeycomb 257
Expendable materials 359--60
Exposed surface, voids 432
Exposure
alkaline 46
assessment 826
limits 824-5,826
terminology 826
preventing 827
routes 826
to moisture, PET 227
Extended
chaill
PET fibers 202, 223-34
manufacture 223-4
exposure,mechanicalproperties
215
Extruder die
extrusion 535, 535
shape 535
Extruders
sillgle screw 536
twill-screw 536
Extrusion 529
cf. pultrusion 488-9
definition 534
extruder die 535, 535
melt pumping 534-5,535
melting 534
orientation 538
plasticating 534,535
solid stage production 291
solids conveyillg 534, 535
thermoplastics 526, 534-8
Eye protection 830
3F dianhydride 77
3F/36F polyimides, chemistry of 77
FAA advisory circulars 1063,1065
Fabric formation 402
Fabrication 31, 33
composites 879
drill fixtures 573
first article 372
low cost 33
marille applications 919-20
methods 762
quality 33
techniques 13-18,14,15,16
Fabrics, orientation 504
Face
dimpling, formulas 285
sheet
materials removal 864
repair 866-7
wrUnklillg
formulas 285
sandwich 282, 284
Facing
failure, sandwich 282
material 255-6
Failure 193
adherends 627-9, 628, 657
analysis, composites 880
aramid fibers 210
bond 627-9,628
characteristics
joillts 659,660
lap joillts 643
criteria 193, 795, 802-3, 802
critical energy 795
critical shear resistance 795
laminates 695-7
envelopes 696
load, joillts 615
mechanisms, columns 997
modes 621, 622, 797-800, 798,
799,800,804
properties 194-5
stresses, joillts 626
Fairings 1024
marille applications 923-4, 923,
924
Fasteners
bendillg 625,625,729
deflections 626
clearances 624, 626
countersunk 624, 624, 625, 625
deflections 623,624,625,626
design issues 729
diameter 623-4, 625
illcreasillg 614
effects 612,624-6,624,625
joillt around 612, 612
loads 622
mechanical 517
multi-rowed 620
multiple arrays 612
parameters 517
protrudillghead 624,624
selection 729, 729
tension head 625
Fatigue 811
crack growth 811
low temperature 811
para-aramids 213
properties 386, 387
resistance
aramid fibers 221, 222
PET 230
Technora 213
thermoplastics 115
Feedrates 598
Feldspar 243-4
chemical resistance 243-4
particulate fillers 243-4
refractive illdex 243-4
Female toolillg, large power yachts
921
Femoral components 960-1
design 960
development 961
FEP 362
mold releases 362
Fiber
alignment 494
aluminum based 159
Index
architecture 398
continuous filament 401-2
discrete 401,401
infiltration 401
integrated 401, 401
interlooped 402
laminar 401, 401
linear 401,401
planar interlaced 402
areal weight 425
breakage,~E 838
breakout 599
breaks, NDE 854
bundles 403
coating 166, 802
composition 158
continuous 156
definition 242
deformation 580-1
consolidation 576
curve 580-1,581
diameter 156
structural hierarchy 778
direction, tensile strength 804
discontinuous 156
distribution 154, 154
preform 438
dominated, composites 795
flow 527-31
d. particulate flow 530
fracture 799, 799
fragments, inhaling 835
length, degradation 536
low risk 835
manufacturers 158
manufacturing processes 158
modulus 360
orientation 527-31
compression molding 548
injection molding 543, 543
preforms 421
packing fraction 412
placement 17, 476--87, 477
definition 476
head 476
inspection 486-7,487
machines 478,482
materials 478--9
steering 482
surface geometry 484--6
tooling 479-80
properties 400,400
pull-out 320, 323-4, 323
rayon-based 173
reinforced polymers, see FRP
reinforcement 22,23,216,435-6
for reinforcing 166
and resin 425
rovings 492, 503
separation 615
shape, carbon fiber 335,336,337
strength, degradation 806
tensioning 457
to resin ratio 509
trade names 158,225
type 225
volume 721
fraction 21,404,412,416,578
3-D fabric 416
and braiding angle 417
carbon fiber 335
and compressive fiber,
stress 581
Gutowski's model 588
high 585--6
and permeability 399-400,
400
processing window 412,
412
waviness 780
Fiberfrax 160
Fiberglass
acoustical properties 135
aircraft industry 136
antistatic agents 146-7
binders 147
breaking strength 139-40,141-4
bushing 138
chemical composition 147-8
chemical resistance 134
circuit boards 136
composition 133-4, 134, 138--9
continuous 131
strands 147
count 141-4
coupling agent 146-7
dissipation factor 135
electrical properties 135, 136
epoxies 153
fabric count 140
fibers
attributes 358
hollow 134
milled 146
filament designations 133
filament diameter 133
filling yarn 141-4
fire resistance 134
fluted core fabrics 146
heat resistance 134
laminates 356
lubricants 146-7
manufacturing 132
mat 137--8
mechanical properties 135
optical properties 135
platforms 989
proof testing 849
1085
rebars 999
reinforced plastics 23
reinforced polyesters, see FRP
reinforcing 38
rovings 136,146-7,353
specific gravity 135
spire 991
staple fibers 131
strand 131
suppliers 136
surface resistivity 135
tapes 146
Te glass 134
tensile strength 134
thermal properties 135
thickness 141-4
three-dimensional fabrics 146
volume resistivity 135
warp yam 141-4
water resistance 136
weave 141-4
weight 141-4
yarn 138
designation 139-40
yield 139-40
Fiberglass-epoxy, CTE 589
Fiberite 99
Fibrous
dust 835
reinforcement types 795,796
Filament
angle of 456
cross-section, PET 225
diameter 139,148--9
Kevlar 206
Kulon 306
Nomex 206
PET 225
Technora 206
Teijinconex 206
Twaron 206
VMN-4306
directionality, carbon fibers 335
equilibrium,equation 459
equilibrium 459-61
lay-up 457
shape 206
strength, S-glass 24
on surface 459-61
tension 457
winding 17,17,66,116,117,
456-75,762
applications 471-5
continuous fiber 338
cylinders 467
low costs 463
machine 463,464
marine applications 920
pressure vessels 471
1086 Index
rackets 1050
spherical shapes 466-7
sporting goods 1046, 1047
wet 762-3
Filed inspections, neutron
radiography 848
Fill,yarns 407,407
Fillers 382, 516
barium ferrite 527
barium sulfate 527
calcium carbonate 527
carbon 527
cellulosic 527
clay 516
coarse, disadvantages 516
comminuted polymers 527
effect on processing 552
Einstein coefficients 533
fine 516
functional 382
glass 527
ground limestone 382
ground petroleum coke 527
inorganic phosphate-based 957
medical applications 957
metallic oxides 527
mica 527
molybdenum disulfide 527
non-functional 382
pultrusion 516
shape of 531
silica products 527
silicon carbide 527
specific heat 533
Fillet forming, adhesives 271
Filling 301,301,302
mold 442
single-yam 151
yam 140
fiberglass 141-4
Film impregnation 8
Film-stacking 117-18,118
Filter cloths, PET 233
Finish 215
5-glass epoxies 152
Fire
prevention 367
resistance, fiberglass 134
retardance 36,42-5
halogen inclusion 43
retardants, particulate fillers 249
Firefighter breathing apparatus
937-8
Fishing poles 427, 1045, 1051
FIT-technology 117
Flags
bias 425,426
longitudinal 425
Flakes 248
impact strength 249
mica 249
silver 249, 250
Flame
polishing 157
spread 44
Flammability, evaluating 44
Flank wear 599
Flat
cylinders, filament winding 467
specimens
compression testing 787
testing 781, 786-7
tension 786-7
tape, lay-up 16
Flat-layer, microstructures 177
Flaws, planar 840
Flex modulus
NR-150 82
PMR-15 laminates 88
Skybond 86
Flex strength
AFR700B/S21aminates 93,95
Cellon 87
NR-150 82
PMR-15 laminates 88
Skybond 86
Flexibility 161
Flexible
backbone polyester resin 381
mold wall 444
Flexural
modulus
BMC 386,386
epoxy 511
LPMC 386, 386
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
polyester 511
polyetherirnide 545, 546
polysulfone 546
PP and granulated SMC 897
recycled NBC 897
recycled PET 894
recycled PP 895, 896
recycled SMC 890, 892, 893
regrind RIM 895
SMC 386,386
vinylester 511
ZMC 386,386
properties
Spectra 226, 226
testing 38
strength
BMC 386,386
epoxy 511
fibreglass epoxies 153
LPMC 386, 386
marine laminates 920
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
plied-yam 151
polyester 511
recycled PET 894
recycled phenolic 894
recycled SMC 890, 892, 893
5-glass epoxies 152
short fiber mat 401
single-yam 151
SMC 386,386
unidirectional tape 401
vinylester 511
woven laminates 401
yam distribution 154
ZMC 386,386
stress
PP and granulated SMC 897
recycled PP 895, 896
Flexure
TEOS 346
testing 195
Float 150
Floc 216
Flocking lay-up, short fibers 337, 338
Flow
measurements 357
and rigidity 67
Fluid contamination, aircraft 859
Fluids
aircraft 812
automotive 812
methylene chloride 812
Newtonian 527, 528
Fluorine, toxicity 362
Fluoroethylene propylene, see FEP
Flushing contaminants 864
Fluted core fabrics, fiberglass 146
Flywheel mechanical battery systems
938,938
Flywheels 474-5
Foam
adhesive voids, NDE 854
core materials 256-7
cores for fiberglass 256
injection 256
insulation 256
in place system 257
polystyrene 256-7
PVC 257
radar transparency 256
shear strength 257
Folding 547
low-cost 117
thermoplastics 116
Forced flow-thermal gradient
processing, CVl 317, 317
Foreign materials
NDE 854
X-ray imaging 844
Formability
Index
jamming angles 399
preforming 398-9
weft knitted fabrics 399
woven glass fabrics 399
yarn slippage 399
Forming dies 497
fabrication 497
materials used for 497
Forms
aramid fibers 216
boron 161-3
ceramic fibers 161-3
high silica 161-3
quartz 161-3
Vectran 236
Formulas
bending stress 284
core shear stress 284
deflection 284-5
face dimpling 285
face wrinkling 285
moment of inertia 285
safety factor 285
Formulation
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
hexahydrophdlalic
anhydride 64
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
triethylene diamine 64
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
triethylene tetramine 64
Fortafil 1054
properties of 170
Fountain flow, injection molding 542
Fractionizing plant 887
Fracture 597
effects, isolating 799
elongation 170
fixation devices 961-2
mechanics, joints 631-2
path 324, 324
strength 325
toughness
alumina composites 325
Celion 87
ceramic composites 312
high silica 156
moisture 811
NR-150 82
PMR-1582
Sliar 325
Tateho 325
thermoplastics 122, 124
Free radical generators 104
FRP 38,41
composites, pultrusion 517
corrosion resistant 44
corrosive attack 45
durability 959
fire retardant 42
flame resistant 44
low bending stiffness 960
orthopedic applications 959
permeability 959
pins 959
properties of 46
pultrusion 47
strength of 45
thermal performance 45
total hip arthroplasty 959
Fuel tanks 939-40
Fully fluted drill 600
Functional fillers 382
Fungal growth 810-11
Fusion 157
bonding 127
PEEK 127
Future directions, transportation 915
Galvanic, corrosion 108-9
Gap 487
Gas laser
applications 605
C02 605
Gas-spargmg 174-5
Gate 541, 542
fiber orientation 543
Gating 450-1
Gel
coat 567
spinning 223-4
time 37,66,357,446
aromatic system 71
zone 50S
Gelation
pressure during 508
resins 499
Gelstar Thermal Analyzer 515
General
aviation, applications 1039-40
equations 738-45
Geodesic
curvature 459
deviation, angle of 460
line 457
Geometry
joints 638-51
single lap joint 641
Germany
recycling 902
standards 1065,1066
GFRP 1004-21
aerospace applications 1007
anisotropic behavior 1012-14
anisotropy 1006
applications 1016
assembly bowing 1013, 1014,
1014
1087
cut-outs in cylinders 1013
development 1016
diffusivity 1008
economics 1020
hygroscopic nature 1006
impact damage 1006
joints 1012, 1012
material cost 1006
microcracking 1006
moisture effects 1007-10
new materials 1019-20
peel strength 1006
predictions 1019
properties 1005
undesirable 1006
springback 1013
temperature extremes 1004-21
warping 1013, 1013
woven broadgoods 1024
Gibbsite 245
Glass
bottle industry 97
content
epoxy resins 510
nylon 6/6 PCl 899
pP/PCI 898
fabrics, knitted 917
fiber-epoxy, drilling 599
fibers 24-5,25
alkaline environment 1000
applications 24
availability 24
cost 24
handling 24
health effects 835
history 131
processing 24
reinforced plastics (GFRP)
1024
reuse 884
S-glass 24
silane coupling 24
toxicity 24
fillers 527
history 131
length, recycled PP 895, 896
mat thermoplastics, see GMT
reinforced plastic, see GRP
rovings 502
to resin, ratio 150-4, 153
transition temperature
see also T
aromaticgsystem 71
moisture 811
RIM 440
Glass/epoxy
coefficient of thermal expansion
558
density 558
1088 Index
thermal conductivity 558
Gloves 828-9, 828
resistant 829
types 829
Glued laminated timber 991
beams 940-1
Glycidyl
amines, health effects 832
compounds 831-2,832
ethers, health effects 832
Glycol
and diacids 34-5
propylene 35
selection 39
Glycolysis, degradation 888
GMT 115
automotive market 127
compression molding 117
extrusion compounded 118
semi-finished 118, 118
Goland-Reissner 641
Golf shafts 429,463,465,698,1051
filament wound 1051
test methods 1051
Grafil 1054
Granulation
knife 886
recycling 886-7
Graphite 245, 334, 334
3-D lattice 334
composites, machining 599
compression properties 360
costs 717
epoxies
elastic properties 768-71
references 774-7
strength properties 768-71
fibers 25-6
competitive prices 25
health effects 835
modulus 360
price 716
production 25
reinforced plastics, see GFRP
reinforcement 353
specific gravity 383
tensile
failure 383
modulus 360,383,715,716
properties 360
strength 383
thermal expansion 383
turbostratic layers 184
Graphite/epoxies 4
CIE 589
elastic constants 4
physical properties 4
strains 4
strength properties 4
thermal data 818
weathering 813
Graphite/polysulfone, weathering
813
Graphite/wood, hybrids 354
Graphitization 169,183
alignment 191
large regions 170
Grating 936
Green form 314
Green strength 446
Grill opening panels, SMC 907
Grinding 600
accuracies 600
cryogenic 886
polymer matrix composites 600
silicon carbide wheels 600
surface speeds 600
Grit blasting, surface preparation
870-1
Ground limestone 382
Ground petroleum coke, fillers 527
Growth factors 558
GRP 839
Grumman F-14 1030
Grumman X-29 aircraft 698, 698
Guide pins 442
compression molds 395
Gutowski's model 578,580,581,582,
583,585
fiber volume fraction 588
numerical schemes 586
GY 281 (Ciba-Geigy) 52
GY 6010 (Ciba-Geigy) 51
Gypsum 564
Half-discs, testing 782
Halogens 44
bromine 43
Hammer handles, pultrusion 491
Hand lay-up 352-77, 762
advantages 352
applications, aerospace 375
disadvantages 352
large power yachts 921
marine applications 376, 919-20
precautions 363
Handling
aramid fibers 222
glass fibers 24
PET 233
Hardeners 49, 832
Hardness
ceramics 307
regrind RIM 895
tooling materials 577
HarrierVTOL 1031-2
Hazard 823
definition 823
fibrous dust 832
HDPE
glass-fiber reinforced 549
graphite filled 549
mica flake reinforced 549
HDT 126,126
recycled PET 894
Health
applications 943-4, 944
effects
aliphatic amines 832, 833
amino resins 834
anhydride curing agents 832,
833
aramid fibers 835
aromatic amines 832, 833
bisphenol A-based 832
carbon fibers 835
ceramic fibers 835
chlorinated solvents 836
cycloaliphatics 832, 832, 833
glass fibers 835
glycidyl amines 832
glycidyl ethers 832
graphite fibers 835
imides 834
ketones 836
phenolics 834
polyamides 832, 833
polyaminoamides 832, 833
polyurethanes 834
thermoplastic resins 834
hazards
asbestos 252
beryllium oxide 252
composite processes 831
particulate fillers 252
and safety, composites 880
Heat
application
heating blankets 874
repairs 874-7
risks of 875,877
capacity
definition 532-3
thermoplastics 532-4
cleaned, reinforcements 898-9
deflection temperatures, see HDT
distortion 41
epoxy 511
polyester 511
vinylester 511
distortion temperature 38
aliphatic 70
anhydride-cured 72
aromatic 71
lamps, wet lay-up repairs 865,
866
resistance, fiberglass 134
Index
treatment, carbon fibers 335
Heated curing dies 500-1
design 500
Heating
blankets
repairs 869
wet lay-up repairs 865
radio frequency 499
rate 181, 499
single zone 511, 513
Heavy liquids, adhesives 275-6
Heel blocks, compression molds 394
Helical winding 460
delamination 789
reinforcement 461
Helicopters
applications 1040
current prices 1026
design requirements 713
rotor blades 1024
Heloxy WC-63 (Wilmington
Chemical) 62
Hercules
3501-6 epoxy resin 579,579
IM7 fiber, thickness 478
HETacid 36
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, see HET
Hexafluorobisphenol A
homopolymer property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade name 102
Hexafluoroisopropylidene, bridging
77
Hexahydrophthalic anhydride
(HHPA), melting point 57
High
carbon cast steel
CTE 558
density 558
thermal conductivity 558
local stresses 729
modulus, carbon fibers 335
pressure water jet, cut-off 502
silica
applications 163, 165, 166
continuous fibers 163
forms 161-3
fracture toughness 156
manufacture 156-7
properties 161
strength
carbon fibers 335
molding compound, see HMC
PET 233
reinforced composites 387
temperature
adhesives 658
applications 818
carbon-carbon composites
344
cast epoxy, CTE 589
resins 818
sandwich 288
High-pressure tubing 941
High-speed train brakes 941
Higher temperatures, and tensile
strength 182
History
consolidation 578-86
pultrusion 488
recycling 883-4
HMC 381
Hoechst Celanese
availability 231
elongation at break 225
fiber type 225
pricing 232
specific gravity 225
tensile modulus 225
tensile strength 225
Hole fittings, tooling 562
Hollow fiber, fiberglass 134
Holography 851-3,852
laser interferometric 852
phase locked loop 852
Homopolymerization 40,50-1,51,
511
catalysts 49,59, 60-1
Homopolymerized BF3MEA 65
Homopolymers, creep 212
Honeycomb 257, 260-71
aluminum 268
alloy
compressive strength
264-5
plate shear modulus
264-5
plate shear strength 264-5
alloys 268
thermal resistance 260
aramid paper 260, 269-70
assemblies, acoustic emission 849
carbon fiber 270-1
carving bits 289
cell configurations 262
cell shape 261-3,262
cell size 263
compressive strength 264-5,
266-7
core shear strength 261
corrugation process 257
defects, X-ray imaging 845
density 261, 261, 262
expansion process 257
glass-reinforced 268
applications 268
compressive strength 266-7,
1089
269
plate shear modulus 266-7,
269
plate shear strength 266-7,
269
Kevlar 271, 272, 273
paper 271
metal, roll-forming 289
non-metallic, thermal resistance
260
panels, repairs 871-7
paper 263, 268
plate shear modulus 264-5,
266-7
plate shear strength 264-5, 266-7
specimen geometry 263
stainless steel based 257
test method 263, 263
thickness 263
titanium based 257
Hoop
stresses 621
winding, reinforcement 461
wound, rings 789
Horizontal
drawing 299
tape wrapper 428, 428
Hot
air blowers, wet lay-up repairs
865
extrusion
compression 298
MMC 291
oil jackets 499
pressing 314
spots, particulate fillers 242
Hot-wet service 99
HRDI optical bench 1017, 1018
HS carbon composites
shear modulus 1057
tension 1057
HT 972 (Ciba-Geigy) 55
HT 976 (Ciba-Geigy) 55
HT 9720 (Ciba-Geigy) 55
Hubble Space Telescope 967, 969
Humidity 3
Humphrey Chemical 57
HY 906 (Ciba-Giegy) 57
Hybridization, PET 233
Hybrids 795
aramid/graphite 354
composites, reuse 883
graphite/wood 354
materials 359
Spectral graphite 354
Hydraulic
ejection, part removal 446
system, testing 782
test technique 782, 788
1090 Index
liydrocarbons 37
liydrocodes 815
liydrogen
fuel storage 941
reduction 161
liydrogenation 179
liydrolic stability 38
liydrolysis
BMI 112
CE 112
degradation 888
resistance 41
liydrophobic, PET 230
liydrous aluminosilicate 244
liydroxyapatite (lIA) 958
dental applications 958
glass-reinforced 958
liygroscopic nature, GFRP 1006
Hygrothermal
definition 694
effects 694-5
load 695
properties 96
Kevlar 212
Hypersonic vehicles, materials for
973
ICBM equipment 375
Identical adherends 639
IM6/epoxy
engineering constants 699, 700,
701
longitudinal
CTE 699
extension 701
strain 701
tensile modulus 699
Poisson's ratio 699
shear modulus 699
stiffness coefficients 702, 703
strength ratio 701
transverse
CTE 699
extension 701
modulus 699
strain 701
volume fraction 699
IM-7/PEEK, strength 125
Imidazoles 104
Imides, health effects 834
Impact
damage
aircraft 858-9
carbon-carbon composites
334
GFRP 1006
tap testing 858
energy, thermoplastics 125
resistance, moisture 811
strength
aliphatic system 70
flakes 249
testing 38
TEOS 346
Imperfections 780
Implants, biologic response 960
Impregnation
carbonized organic composites
340
powder 118
prepolymer 118
Impregnators, marine applications
919-20
In-mold coating (IMC) 385
In-plane shear
Kevlar 212
methods, testing 783
modulus, AS-4 carbon fiber 124
Incineration 888
nonrecyclables 899-900
Inclination angle, yarns 407
Inclusion of particulates, polymers
528
Inconel329
Industrial
equipment 951
hygiene 825-30, 827, 828, 829
order of priorities 828
pressure vessels, design
requirements 713
Indm.try, pulp and paper 45
Inert, PET 230
Inertia 3
Infiltration
carboni aluminum 303
fiber architecture 401
improving 300
isothermal gradient 338
of preforms 299
pressure gradient 338
pressure pulsation 338
spontaneous 300
technology 300
under pressure 299-300
vacuum 299-300
Inflatable bladders 874
Infrared thermography 850--1, 850,
851, 1059
aerospace 851
marine applications 851
Inhalation, measure by 824
Inhibitors, and initiators 382
Inhomogeneities, NDE 838
Inhomogeneous, composites 797
Initial rise 646,647
Initial tensile modulus
Armos 208
Kevlar 208
Nomex 209
SVM 208
Technora 209
Teijinconex 209
Twaron 208
Initiators, and inhibitors 382
Injection
cycle 442
gate 452
molded 380
molding 22,529,532
cavity filling 542
clamp 539-44, 540
crystallization kinetics 540
fiber orientation 543,543
fountain flow 542
particulate fillers 242
plasticating 538, 538
polymer 540
pumping section 538
rackets 1050
resins 122
screws 539
thermoplastics 116,526
ports 442-3
centred 451, 451
comer 451,451
pressure 444
RTM 433
pultrusion 497, 498
sensor controlled 452-3
Inplane shear 374
Inspection
bonding 668
composites 880
criteria 487, 838
disbonds 839
fiber placement 486-7, 487
first article 486
in-service 839
methods
adhesive joints 627
defects 733-4, 734
and nondestructive testing 1059
on-aircraft 849
paint surfaces 839
part 733
post cure 572-3
speeds 842
subsurface damage 839
times 839
ultrasonic 1059
visual 839, 839-40
Insulation
foam 256
resistance, Skybond 95
Integrated, fiber architecture 401,
401
Inter-yam slip 448
Index
Interaction, constituents 801-2
Intercontinental ballistic missile
program 353
Interface, fiber/matrix 123
Interlacing patterns, braiding 415,
415
Interlaminar
fracture 682
shear 790-2
TEOS 346
shear strength
Celion 91
PMR-15 laminates 88
stresses 738
eliminating 801
tension, TEOS 346
Internal
bone fixation 957
friction background 296, 296
mold release 383
International Organization for
Standardization 1066, 1067
Interphase, toughening 802
Invar
CTE 558
density 558
linear thermal expansion 705
thermal conductivity 558
Inverse method, contact 611
Ionic spraying 300
Ionizing radiation 816
Iosipescu shear test 790
Iron (electroformed), CTE 589
ISO standards, carbon fiber
composites 1067
Isophthalics 39
polyester
blistering 918
marine applications 916
resins 504
resins 35,36
Isothermal
processing, CVI 317
thermal gradient, infiltration 338
Isotropic
casting, short fibers 337, 338
layers, different moduli of
elasticity 744
materials 687
metallic tape, winding 468
nonwoven fabric 164
plates 614
Italian, talc 248-9,248
Izod
impact
BMC 386,386
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
PP and granulated SMC 897
recycled
NBC 897
PET 894
phenolic 894
PP 895,896
SMC 892,893
SMC 386,386
LPMC 386, 386
recycled, SMC 890
ZMC 386,386
Jamming 412, 417
angles 399
Japan
bathtub manufacture 889
recycling 887,888,903
Japanese Industrial Standards 1065,
1066
Jeffamine T 403 (Texaco) 54
Joining 727-30,728,729
selection process 727, 728
thermoplastics 127
thermosets 127
Joints
adhesive 517-18,610-63,627-63
bearing load 626
bearing strengths 618-19
bending failures 617, 617
bolted 611, 617, 617, 1015
bonded 658-9, 1015
step lap 627
and bonding 374
bypass load 626
clamping pressure 618
computer codes 624, 627, 630
design 728
dimensions 612, 649
disassembly 611,728
double shear 624
failure 615,618,618,626,659,660
fracture mechanics 631-2
geometry 613-17,613,628,629,
638-51
GFRP 1012, 1012
load magnitude 728
materials 618-19,618,619
mechanical response 630
mechanically fastened 610-63
advantages 517
d. adhesive 610-11
metallic 613
multi-fastener 612, 613, 619-24,
620, 621, 622, 623
multi-row 616
open hole coupon strength 626
predicting peak stresses 613
pure bearing load 626
scarf 611,623
selecting design 627
single fastener 612,612,613
1091
single lap 626, 627, 729
single shear 624
bending moments 624, 625
step lap 645-6,645,649,650,651,
652,659
strength
experimental 616
predicting 615
tests 626
stress analysis 611
structural performance 613
test methods 626
two fastener 623
untapered 624
Kaolin
calcined, hardness 244
particulate fillers 244
Kapton 820
Kardos' model 578, 583
Kerf
cutting 604, 606
width 606, 695
Kerimid 99
Ketones, health effects 836
Kevlar 108,472,598,761,1024
availability 217-18
breaking strength 214
charring 815
chemical
resistance 214
stability 214
colored 216
constituent properties 766-7
cutting 600
cycles to failure 213
decomposition temperature 206
density 206,503
dual-shell reflector 1004, 1004
E-glass 360
elastic
constants 210
modulus 205
properties 764-7
elongation at break 205, 208, 503
filament
diameter 206
shape 206
hygrothermal properties 212
in-plane shear 212
initial tensile modulus 208
linear thermal expansion
coefficient 206
longitudinal compression 212
longitudinal tension 212
machining 600
marine applications 917
melting 815
temperature 206
1092 Index
milling 600
modulus and temperature 210,
211
moisture content 206
properties 205
references 774-7
refractive index 215
reinforcement 383
sources of information 221
specific
gravity 208, 383
heat 206
modulus 1049
strength 1049
strength retention 205, 215
stress rupture 212-13,213
tensile
failure 383
modulus 383,503
strength 208,383,503
and temperature 210, 211
tension-tension ratio 1049
thermal
coefficient 383
conductivity 206
transverse
compression 212
tension 212
trimming 600
turning 600
twist 215-16
ultimates 210
weight loss 205
Kevlar / epoxy
thermal data 818
weathering 813
Kinel99
Kinematics, laminates 690-1
Kinking 302
Kneaded molding compound 381
Knitted
glass fabrics 917
reinforcements 916-17
Knitting 402,402,408-13,409,410,
411,412
3-D fabrics 409
definition 408
design methodology 410-13
machines 409
multiaxial warp knit, see MWK
stitch formation 409
unit cell geometry 411
warp 408, 409
weft 408,409
Kortex 108, 271
Kozeny constant 579
Kozeny-Carman equation 400, 422,
422,579
Kraft paper 268
Kulon 300
bending strength 305
carbon content 306
coating thickness 306
compressive strength 305
density 305, 306
elastic modulus 305
elongation at break 306
filament diameter 306
longitudinal CTE 306
specific modulus 305
strand properties 306
tensile modulus 306
tensile strength 305, 306
Labour requirements, pultrusion 489
Ladder polymer 178-9,178
Ladders
applications 936
pultruded 518
Lamina 687-9,688
allowables 759-62
definition 687
macromechanics 192-3
material
equations 760
properties 760
properties
adjusting 763
estimating 761-2
references 772-3, 774-7
three-dimensional 761
two-dimensional 760-1
thickness, structural hierarchy
778
Laminar
discontinuities 843
fiber architecture 401,401
Laminated
plate theory 689, 690-2
structures 585
Laminates
advantages of 322
allowables 762
analysis of 11
balanced 194, 693
bending 730
boundary conditions 689
carbon-epoxy 669
coefficient of thermal expansion
322
compressive strength 616
cross-ply 322
deformation 691
design 686-708
elastic properties 322, 764-7
engineering constants 693
failure criteria 695-7
failure in tension 696
fiberglass 356
D\16/epoxy 699,700,701
kinematics 690-1
linear bending 749-50
load carrying capability 696
loads on 689, 693
macromechanics of 193-4
mechanical properties 717
nonsymmetric 752
off-axis stiffness 689-90
with plies 697
ply angle 689,689
ply stacking sequence 692
quasi-isotropic 9-11,697
reinforced 321-3,321,619
resulting strain state 693-4
selection, carpet plots 720
skin 694
stacking sequence 616,630
stiffness matrix 693
strength 695,696,764-7
ratio 696
stress
patterns 322
resultants 691-3
symmetric 194,692,749
thermal stresses 322,589
void free 588
Land transportation 905-15
economics 905-6,906
history 906-8, 907
market growth 905-6,906
Landfill, nonrecycIables 899-900
Lap joints 638-44
abrasive cleaning 872
failure characteristics 643
peel stresses 637-8,637,638
single 640, 641
symmetric 639
Laptop computers 942
Large Area Composite Inspection
System (LACIS) 842, 842
Large diameter, PAN 180,181
Large power yachts
blister protection 921
displacement hulls 922
female tooling 921
hand lay-up 921
marine applications 921-2
variable mold 921
Laser
beam 601
heated floating zone, see LHFZ
machining 605
shearography 853, 853
immunity to vibration 853
Lateral
cohesion 184
compression tests 449
Index
deflections 642
bond stresses 640
Lathes, CNC 597
Lattice
fringe imaging 186
structures 743,744
Lay-up 15, 16
carbon-carbon composites 342
contoured tape 16
cornertechrUques 373
filament 457
flat tape 16
manual 16
molds 566-7
operation 576
sequence, carpet plots 719
wet 353,355
Layer reinforced, carboni aluminum
304
Layered, adherends 646
Layers
coordillates 740,746
orthotropic 742
LOEF 970-2, 970, 971, 972
composite specimen testbed
970-1
orientation ill orbit 971
Lead powders 249
Leaf springs 910,910
Liteflex 910
Leak paths, aircraft 859--60
Leakage 456
Legal aspects, recycllllg 902-3
Length
to diameter ratio, aramid fibers
204
whiskers 308
LEO 813-17
Lewis
acids 50-1,60--1
bases 50-1,60--1
LHFZ, directional solidification 160
Life expectancy, tools 559
Light
aircraft 1024
grit-blasting 668, 670, 671
alumllla grit 675, 676
machllle 677, 677
liquids, adhesives 275-6
weight, reinforced composites
387
Lighting poles 948-9, 948
Lightweight fillers, particulate 249
Limitations, aramid fibers 207
LIMS 447, 453
Lilldau 59
Lille source 453
Linear
bendlllg 745-7
lamillates 749-50
cutting, machllllllg 602
elastic response to failure 615
fiber architecture 401,401
thermal expansion
aliphatic system 70
alumillum alloy 705
aromatic system 71
concrete 705
Invar 705
steel 705
titanium alloy 705
thermal expansion coefficient
carbon--carbon composites
333
Kevlar 206
Nomex 206
Technora 206
Teijillconex 206
Twaron 206
yarns,lllsertion 410,410
Llllkages, flexible 75
Liquid
illjection moldlllg simulation, see
LIMS
processillg 314-16
stage, MMC 291
waste 889
as fuel 889
Lithium alumino silicate (LAS) 318
LMOs 179, 182
size of 179--80
Loading
conditions 736
history, remallllllg strength 804
levels, particulates 528
methods 779
selecting 787
sections, test specimen 786
slow cyclic 627
stress, adherends 642
Loads
bypass vs. bearillg 620,620
carryillg capability, lamillates 697
direction of 779
distribution 621
enhancement 655
fastener, variable 622
hygrothermal 695
measuring 779
path eccentricity 637, 637
sillgle lap joillt 637, 637
transfer 610
Local molecular order, see LMOs
Localised, microbuckllllg 800
Logging 3
Long Duration Exposure Facility; see
LOEF
Long-term
1093
loadillg 213
microcrackillg 801
use temperature 206
Longitudlllal
bendillg 747
compression, Kevlar 212
CTE
IM6 I epoxy 699
Kulon 306
M401/F854 699
PBO fiber 238
extension, IM6/epoxy 701
ply wavilless 432
straill, IM6/epoxy 701
tensile modulus 699
tension
Kevlar 212
test 688
Loomcomponents 942
Lot-to-Iot variation
tensile modulus 725
tensile strength 725
Low
bendillg stiffness, FRP 960
cost parts, RTM 433
density
composite tools 592
polyethylene, viscosity 528
K-glass 134
pressure
grit blasting 631
moldlllg compound, see
LPMC
temperature, fatigue 811
toxicity; thermoplastics 115
viscosity, ZMC 380
void, composites 79
voltage anodizillg, metal surfaces
871
Low-earth-orbit, see LEO
LPMC 381
flexural modulus 386, 386
flexural strength 386, 386
formulation 384
IZOO 386, 386
shelf life 381
specific gravity expansion 386,
386
tensile modulus 386, 386
tensile strength 386,386
thermal coefficient 386, 386
Lubricants, fiberglass 146-7
M60Jtape
mechanical properties 718
strengths 718
M401/F854
CTE 704
longitudillal 699
1094
Index
transverse 699
longitudinal tensile modulus 699
Poisson's ratio 699
shear modulus 699
transverse modulus 699
volume fraction 699
m-phenylenediamine (MPD) 55, 76
McDonnell Douglas
Bea AV-8B, material usage 1032
C-17A, composite applications
1033
F/ A-18E/F, material usage 1031
MD-11, composite structure 1036,
1037
Machinery, marine applications
925-8
Machines
caterpillar type 502
dual mandrel stations 477, 478
fiber placement 478
light grit-blasting 677, 677
tools 363-5
MachWning 363-5,364,596-608
abrasives 606
advantages 596
aramid fibers 222
characteristics 596
closed loop 364--5, 364
drilling 602
electric discharge 605
graphite composites 599
Kevlar 600
linear cutting 602
milling 602
PET 233
requirements 602
turning 602
ultrasonic 605-8
Macromechanics, of laminae 192-4
Maglev 979
train guideways 943
Magnamite 1054
Magnesium oxide, particulate fillers
250
Magnetic transparency 983
Mahogany
CTE 558
density 558
thermal conductivity 558
Maleic anhydride 35
isomerization 35
melting point 58
Mandrels 429,459,464--6, 46S
basic requirements 465
collapSible 466
cone-shaped 482, 483
dissolvable materials 465
electroformed nickel 591
fusible materials 465
graphite 464
instrumented 468
low cost materials 464
metallurgy 429
pressure on 468
puller 428
removable 464-5
removal 466, 467
selection 465
spider/plaster 466
surface 591
table rolling 429
tensometric 468
water-soluble sand 465-6
Manufacturers
continuous fibers 162
ceramic 309
fibers 158
PAN-based tow 198
pitch-based tow 199
staple 162
whiskers 158, 162
Manufacturing 6
aramid fibers 203-4
boron 156-7
ceramic fibers 156-7
deficiencies, adhesive joints 611
extended chain PET fibers 223-4
fibreglass 132
high silica 156-7
options 22
quartz 156-7
SMC 381
Marine
applications 916-28
adhesives, paste 918
America's Cup yachts 922
blistering 918, 918
buoys and floats 927--8
cables 927
concrete forms 925
control surfaces 924
cores 917-18
decking 925
diving equipment 926-7, 926,
927
environmental effects 918-19
fabrication 919-20
fallings 923-4, 923, 924
filament winding 920
future developments 928
hand lay-up 919-20
impregnators 919-20
isophthalic polyester 916
Kevlar 917
large power yachts 921-2
machinery 925--a
microbial degradation 919
mine counter measure vessels
920-1
oil platforms 924-5, 925
phthalic anhydride 916
piping systems 926
pressure hulls 922
propulsion shafting 925
reinforcements 916-17
resins 916
transfer molding 919-20
shipboard armor 925
small boats 921
sonar domes 922
Spectra 917
vacuum bag processing
919-20
vinyl esters 916
bacteria 919
construction 994
fouling 810-11
laminates 920
submersibles, design
requirements 713
Market growth, land transportation
905-6,906
Mass transit applications 914
Master models 563-6, 592
fabricating materials 563
storing 563
Mat 164
chopped strand 138, 155
continuous strand 138
fiberglass 137-8
surface 138
Matched die, molding 361
Materials
anisotropic 687, 688
cost, GFRP 1006
definition 731
density, X-ray backscattering 846
description 731, 731
difficult to roll 430-2
fabrication 786
isotropic 687
monolithic 460
preliminary design 715-22
procurement costs 722
properties 736
definition 709
T50 graphite 724, 724
T50/F584 epoxy 726, 726
property, equations 760
quality 780
quasi-isotropic 687
selection 45, 712
applications
aerospace 1009
construction 982
tools 559
specification 722
Index
table rolling 429-30
weights 1027
wet lay-up repairs 867
for winding 458-9
Matrix 28
adhesion 215
cracking 319,798
rate of 806
cracks
NDE 854
X-ray imaging 844
crosslinking 460
definition 378
formulation 101-5
materials 356--8
ceramic composites 311-12
polyester 28
systems 4--6
moisture absorption 5
thermosetting 28
transfer molding 315
vinyl ester resins 28
Maximum
bond
peel stress 642,642-3,644
shear stress 642-3, 644
service temperature 258
stress
anhydride-cured system 72
aromatic system 71
Maypole machines, braiding 413,
414
Measuring
displacements 779
loads 779
strains 779
Mechanical
fastening 727
joints, design process 729
pressure 874
properties
aramid 207-13,208-9,209,
210, 211, 212, 718
carbon-carbon composites
344-5,345
extended exposure 215
fiberglass 135
laminates 717
M60J tape 718
P100 tape 718
T300 fabric 718
and weave pattern 152
strength 111
tests 778-92
Mechanically
fastened
joints 610--63
disadvantages 517
repairs 877
resistant, gloves 829
Mechanics 18,18
Median lethal dose 824
Medical applications 943-4, 944,
957--M
coatings 957
fillers 957
polylactids 957
polyorthoesters 957
strength retention 957
Melt
extrusion, PET 224
flow index, see MFI
impregnation 117,118
infiltration 315
pumping, extrusion 534-5,535
spun, Vectran 235
stretching 529-30
Melting
aramid fibers 205
extrusion 534
point
carbon-carbon composites
333
ceramic composites 312
4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone
(DDS) 55
PET 225
recycled NBC 897
S-glass 24
temperature
see also Tm
ceramics 307, 311
Kevlar 206
Nomex 206
Technora 206
Teijinconex 206
Twaron 206
Vectran 235
Mesophase
injection 176
pitch, precursors 335,336
Meta-aramids
cost of 205
crooked chain 205
manufacture 203-4
Metal
matrix composites, see MMC
molten 812
repairs, aircraft 857
surfaces 871
Metallic
devices, total hip arthroplasty
960
joints 613
oxides, fillers 527
Metallurgy, mandrels 429
Metals, costs 717
Meteoroids 814-15
1095
density 815
impacts
angle of 815
space 814-15,814,815
Whipple-type shield 814-15,
814
size of 815
velocity 815
Methacrylic acid 40
Methanolysis, degradation 888
Methylene chloride 812
4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) 55,
76
Methyltetrahydrophthalic
anhydride, melting point 59
MFI 529
Mica 245--6
fillers 527
Microbial degradation, marine
applications 919
Microbuckling 799-800, 800
aramid fibers 207
localised 800
Microcracking 323-4,323,797-8,
798,801,1011-12,1012
cyclic loading 801
elastic stress-strain 798
eliminating 1012
GFRP 1006
long term loading 801
minimizing 1012
stiffness changes 796
Micromechanics 191-2,796-7
Microspheres 246, 248
hollow 246
particulate fillers 246
types of 246
Microstructures 803
flat-layer 177
onion-skin 177
radial 177
random 177
Microtexture
and electrical resistivity 189
and tensile strength 188
and Young's modulus 189
Microwaves
radome wall 113
testing 853
transparency 109
Migration 577
Military
aircraft
certification requirements
1023
components 1030-5
applications 914-15
specifications 1062, 1064
Milling 596-7
1096 Index
AWJ 604
ball or hammer 886
climb 596
disadvantages 597
dust particles 597
Kevlar 600
machining 602
with polycrystalline diamond
596
recycling 886-7
square pockets 604
Mine counter measure vessels 920-1
Minimizin~ microcracking 1012
Minor damage
aircraft 859
dent fillers 859
Minor impact resistance, reinforced
composites 387,388
Mix viscosity, resin 441
~C 27,291-306,944-5
alumina/ carbon 291
applications 1005
boron/aluminum 299
by hot extrusion 291
carbon reinforced 291
continuous casting 298-9
cross sections 298, 298
liquid stage 291
production 291
recyclability 944
solid stage production 291
solution sedimentation 291
Mobile storage 945
Modulus
adherends 643
and density 23
of elasticity
aliphatic system 70
anhydride-cured system 72
aromatic system 71
carbon-carbon composites
333
and conductivity 186
fiberglass epoxies 153
plied-yam 151
S-glass epoxies 152
single-yam 151
yam distribution 154
quasi-isotropic 12
of rupture, ceramics 312
5-glass 24
transverse 12
Mohs ratings 251-2
Moisture 811-12
absorbancy
adherends 630
RTM 440
absorption 695,811
aramids 26, 221
CE 107
epoxy resins 29
PET 224
PMR-1582
resins 440
tooling 561
barrier removal, aircraft 863-4
contamination, X-ray imaging
858
content 206
debonding 811
desorption 817
detectors 858
diffusion, GFRP 1007-8
effects 96
fracture toughness 811
glass transition temperature 811
impact resistance 811
prebond 670
regain, PBO fiber 238
resistance, PBO fiber 238
transverse strength 811
vs. time, P755/cyanate 1010
Moisturizers 829-30, 830
Molded surfaces 392
Molded-in
color, reinforced composites 388
threads 392
Molding
autoclave 367
autoclave/oven 361
bag 366-72,368,369,370,371
bleeder ply 584--6, 585
blovv 529-30,529,532
compounds
applications 945-6
BMI 114
compression 127, 365, 384, 545
enclosed 366
matched die 361
matched metal compression
378-88
negative draft 366
oven/press cure 366
preparations 361-2
pressure 385, 545
bag 367
resin transfer 374,492
see also RTM
sheet 374
thermal expansion 365-6, 365,
366,593
vacuum 385
bag 361,366,577
waste 374
Moldless construction 257
Molds 441
aluminum 361
backing up 442
cavity design 442
closing 385,442
speed 385
construction 447
design 362
dual steel 361
elements of 541
filling 385,442,444-5
pressure during 452, 452
simulation 450-1
graphite-epoxy 590
maintenance 361
making 390,390
materials 441-2
metal 441
polymeric composite 441
preparation 442
release 361,362,428,429-30,514
problems and solutions 568
secondary 430
RTM design 441
sealing 443
shrinkage
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
recycled NBC 897
steel 442
selection 393
stops, compression molds 395
stresses 392-3
temperature control 541
Molecular
arrangement 133
characteristics, rotational
molding 551
orientation 27
vveight, thermoplastics 116
Molybdenum disulfide, fillers 527
Moment of inertia, formulas 285
Monobands, sealed 304
Monofilaments 164, 307
reinforcements 311, 311
Monolithic
graphite 559,561,562-3
coefficient of thermal
expansion 558
density 558
low CTE567
thermal conductivity 558
material 460
Monolithicity
loss of 469
thick-walled structures 456
Monomers
BMI100
ratios 79
reactive 34, 37
Montana talc 248-9, 248
Morphology, resins 505
MPDA/MDA, viscosity 56
Index
313,314,318
heat treatment 310
~ulti-fastener joints 619-24, 620,
621, 622, 623
Multi-rowed, fasteners 620
Multifilament, continuous 28
~ultilayer locking, continuous fiber
338
~ullite
~ultiple
gates 444
ply angles 19-20
stage drawing, PET 224
~ultiwarp, weaving 406
~usical instruments 946
~utagenicity 824
~WK
3-D 409,410
LmA system 411
MY 0510 (Ciba-Geigy) 53
MY 720 (Ciba-Geigy) 53
Mylar
film sheet 574
template 487
N, N, N', N'- tetraglycidyl
methylenedianiline 53
N/C ratio 182
Nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) 57
Nanoporous, carbon fiber 183
NASA standards 1063, 1064
NASP 972, 972, 974
National Aerospace Plane, see NASP
Natural composites
cartilage 958
cortical bones 958
dentin 958
wood 958
Nd-YAG
applications 605
solid state laser 605
NDE 733,838-55
blown core 854
bondline adhesive voids 854
condensed core 854
core 854
damage inspection 854
deep delamination 854
degradation 838
disbonds 854
fiber breaks 838,854
foam adhesive voids 854
foreign material 838, 854
inhomogeneities 838
matrix cracks 854
porosity 854
records 733
shallow delamination 854
test methods 733-4, 734
water intrusion 854
Neat polymers, shrinkage 541
Nepheline 243-4
chemical resistance 243-4
oil absorption 244
particulate fillers 243-4
refractive index 243-4
syenite 244
Neutral hydrolysis 887
Neutron radiography 847-9, 848
field inspections 848
military aircraft 849
New York, talc 248-9, 248
Nextel 309, 309, 310, 316, 403
312
fiber 159
Nibbling 601
Nicalon 310-11,311,316,318
Nickel 249
coating 292
electroformed, CTE 589
powder 250
vapor-deposited coating 819
Nitride, coating 296
Nitrogen release, and tensile
strength 182
Nomex 203-4,269
compressive strength 272, 273
cores 270
decomposition temperature 206
density 206
elongation at break 209
filament 206
initial tensile modulus 209
linear thermal expansion
coefficient 206
long-term use temperature 206
melting temperature 206
moisture content 206
plate shear
modulus 272, 273
strength 272, 273
specific gravity 209
specific heat 206
tensile strength 209
thermal conductivity 206
Nominal thickness, reinforced
composites 390, 391
Non-aerospace, applications 935
Non-functional, fillers 382
Non-metallic core removal 862
Non-symmetric
bending, testing 783
deformation, cylindrical shells
754-5
laminates 752
Noncomposites 166
Nondestructive
evaluation, see NDE
testing, and inspection 1059
1097
Nonlinear, bending 747
Nonrecyclables
disposal of 899-900
incineration 899-900
landfill 899-900
Nonwoven
fabrics 402, 402
textiles 418-20
3-D technology 418
design methodology 419
orthogonal 3-D 418,419, 420
processing 418
structural geometry 419
Normalization 721
compression strength 721
Notation, stacking sequence 619
Notched fatigue behavior 802
Novolac resin
homopolymer property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade name 102
Novoltex 418, 418
NR-150
char yield 82
chemistry of 77, 78
density 82
elongation 82
flex modulus 82
flex strength 82
fracture toughness 82
neat cured 82
Rockwell hardness 82
tensile strength 82
T 82
t6ermal expansion 82
Nuclear magnetic resonance (~R)
982
Nylon 6/6 PCI-glass
elongation 899
flexural modulus 899
flexural strength 899
glass content 899
izod impact 899
mold shrinkage 899
tensile strength 899
Nylon
modulus and temperature 210,
211
peel plies 673
imprint 682
tensile strength and temperature
210,211
weld line strength 544
O-rings 443, 953
nitrile rubber 443
Observed life, AS-4/PEEK(APC)
806,807
1098 Index
Octyl, decyl glycidyl ether blend,
viscosity 61
Off-axis tension, testing 781
Oil
absorption
nepheline 243
number, particulate fillers 251
containment, Spectra 233-4
and gas
applications 946-7,947
industry, pultrusion 521
platlo~ 924-5,925
One-dimensional
consolidation equation 584
flow, compression molding
583-4,584
stress analysis 627
One-sided, pulse-echo testing 842
Onion-skin, microstructures 177
Opaque, aramid fibers 221
Open core evacuation, aircraft 865
Open hole coupon strength, joints
626
Open packing 403, 403
Open unloaded holes 614
Openings 373,373
Operational requirements 737
Optical properties
aramid fibers 215
fiberglass 135
Organic solvents, thinning 65
Orientation angle, yarns 412
Orifice plates 495
Orthogonal nonwoven fabrics 163,
164
Orthopedic applications 95~
FRP 959
hydroxyapatite (HA) 958
PMMA 962
Orthophthalics 35,39
polyester, blistering 918
Orthotropic
layers 742
nonzero stiffness 742,743
thermal coefficients 742
plates, critical load 751
Outgassing
measuring 817
and vacuum 817
Oven/press cure, molding 366
Ovens, with thermocouples 429
Overheat, environmental exposure
860-1
Overshoots 531
Oxidation
PAN-based fibers 818
resistance 818
carbon-carbon composites
333
4,4'-oxydialinine (ODA) 75,76
P75S/cyanate, moisture vs. time
1010
Pl00 tape
mechanical properties 718
strengths 718
p-t-butyl phenyl glycidyl ether,
viscosity 62
PA6, 6, water absorption 127
Packages
style of 493-4, 493
weight 494
wound 493
Packing
fraction 531-2
interfiber 403
powder processing 313
pressure 539
Paintsurface~Unspection 839
PAN 25,169,171-3,172
anisotropicity 185
cyclization 172
cyclized 179, 181
dry spinning 175
large diameter 180, 181
modified polymers 175
molecule structure 172
spinning 175
stabilization 172, 177-80, 178, 179
stabilized, thermal degradation
181
wet spinning 175
PAN-based fibers
density 170
elastic modulus 170
fracture elongation 170
oxidation 818
tensile strength 169, 170
PAN-based tow
manufacturers 198
trade names 198
Para-aramids
available 203
creep 212
fatigue 213
stress rupture 212
Para-phenylene terephthalamide 26
see also aramids
Parallel axis theorem 694
Part
consolidation 386
ejection 385
geometry 526,530
inspection 733
methods used 733-4
removal 446
hydraulic ejection 446
system 541
shape, and tooling 589-94
slippage, during cure 432
Particle
accelerators 976-9,977,978
size
clay 244
distribution, rotational
molding 551
Particulate fillers
abrasion 252
alumina trihydrate 245
aluminum oxide 250
antimony oxide 244-5
calcium carbonate 243, 247
carbon black 245
clay 244
common 243-6
cost 242
definition 242
electrically conductive 250
elongation at failure 252-3
end uses 253
feldspar 243-4
fire retardants 249
flakes 248
orientation 252
graphite 245
hardness 251
health hazards 252
high
density 249
hardness 249-50
thermal conductivity 250
hot spots 242
injection molding 242
kaolin 244
lightweight fillers 249
low density 243
low friction 250
magnesium oxide 250
mica 245-6
microspheres 246
natural 246
nepheline 243-4
oil absorption number 251
organic 243
packing 252
production 246-8,247
shrinkage 242, 252
silica 244
specific 243
surface
properties 250-1
treatments 250
synthetic 246
talc 246
thermal conductivity 242
toxicity 252
types of 242-3
Index 1099
use of 242
Particulates 307
flow, d. fiber flow 530
inhaling 827
rrregularshaped 249
loading levels 528
radiation 816
Parts, RTM process 762
Pastes, adhesives 275--6
Patterns 362-3
control 463-4
PBI 237,237
chemical resistance 237
chemical warfare applications
237
solvent resistance 237
structural formula 237
PBu\ 203,203,205
PBU\-based fibers, SVM 210
PBO 26-7
elongation at break 235
fiber 236,237-8,237
specific gravity 235
structural formula 237
tensile modulus 235
tensile strength 235
PDI fibers, sources of information
236
Pedestrian bridges 991-2, 992, 993
PEEK 31,120
glass transition temperature 812
Peel
plies 668, 669
bonded joints 669
dry 672
evaluation 670
imprint 678
nylon 682
sanding 680
nylon 673
polyester 681, 681
preimpregnated 672
removing 683
silicon transfer 670
surface preparation 683, 870
strengths
adhesives 274-5
GFRP 1006
stress 629,631,637-8,637,638,
647,655,662
adhesives 628
eliminating 644-5
lap joints 637-8, 637, 638
linear variation 643
maximum bond 642
reducing 644-5
tapering 646
PEKK 31
PEL 825,826
Penetration 814
Percolation 547
matrix 548
Perlite 249
low cost 249
Permeability 399-400, 1000
axial 579
bleeder 581
composite layer 581
and fiber volume fraction
399-400,400
preforms 438, 439, 449, 578-9
Permeation barrier 918
Permissible exposure limits, see PEL
Peroxides 382
Personal protective equipment 828
PET 35,120
ability to float 225
abrasion resistance 224, 226, 233
anisotropy 224
applications 230,233-4
artificial ligaments 234
availability 231
axial orientation 224
chain folding 224
characteristic temperatures 121
chemical resistance 224, 230
cleaning 230
creep resistance 227
crystallinity 223, 224
degradation 889
design 232-3
dielectric constant 224
durability 233
dyeing 233
energy to break 227
exposure to moisture 227
fatigue resistance 230
fibers, extended chain 202
filament 225
filter cloths 233
forms 231
gel-spun 225--6
handling 233
high strength 233
hybridization 233
hydrophobic 230
inert 230
machining 233
melt extrusion 224
melting point 225
moisture absorption 224
multiple stage drawing 224
non-conductive 231
non-woven 234
processing temperatures 233
recycling 883
for reinforcing 234
resin penetration 233
scrap 36
seawater resistance 233
shear modulus 120, 120
sources of information 232
specific
gravity 224
modulus 224
strength 224
stiffness-to-weight ratio 223
strength retention 227
strength-ta-weight ratio 223
structure 224,224
surface treatments 231-2
sutures 234
use temperature 225
UV
resistance 224,230,233
stability 233
Phase locked loop, holography 852
Phenolics 504-5
adhesives 255
compressive strength 258
density 258
health effects 834
maximum service temperature
258
polypropylene, density 258
pulling 504-5
pultrusion grades 505
resins 268, 504
resistance to fire 505
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
SMC 382
spall liners 914
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
Phenoxides
allyl functional 101
propenyl functional 101
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE),
viscosity 62
Phosphoric acid anodized,
aluminum foil 820
Phthalic anhydride 35
chemical resistance 35
marine applications 916
melting point 57
thermal stability 35
Physical properties
aramid fibers 205-7,206
graphite/epoxies 4
Pick-up trucks 936-7
Pigments 516
inorganic 516
titanium oxide 516
zinc sulfide 516
Pins, FRP 959
Pipelines 466
1100 Index
rehabilitation 948
Piping 936
systems 926
Pitch 175-7, 176
fibers 169,352
graphitized 183
flow through spinneret 177
forming coke 173
mesophase 176
precursors 173
carbon yield 197
treatments 173-5,174
pretreatments 173, 197
softening 197
spinning conditions 175-7, 176
stabilization 177
stirring 177
Pitch-based fibers 170
density 170
elastic modulus 170
fracture elongation 170
tensile strength 170
Pitch-based tow
manufacturers 199
trade names 199
Placement, on mold 384-5
Plain
strain 801
weave 140,145,405,406
biaxial 399
fiber volume fraction 408, 408
triaxial 399
Planar flaws 840
Plane
source 453
stress, stiffness 689
Plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) 316
Plasma spraying 300
Plaster masters 564-{;, 564
follow board method 565, 565
NC machining 566
sweep method 565-6
template method 564-5
Plasters, breakout/washout 465
Plastic faced plaster 567, 573
preparing 573
Plastic zones 654
Plasticating 538
extrusion 534, 535
injection molding 538, 538
Plasticization 107
moisture 112
Plastics, recycling 883
Plate
elements 621
reinforced, carbon/aluminum
304
shear modulus
honeycomb 264-5,266-7
Nomex 272,273
shear strength
honeycomb 264-5,266-7
Nomex 272, 273
stiffness 622
thickness 790
structural hierarchy 778
Platelets 307
Platens, heated 499
Platforms 989
fiberglass 989
well bay 989,990
Pleating 547
Plied-yam
compressive strength 151
count 151
flexural strength 151
modulus of elasticity 151
tensile strength 151
warp 151
weave 151
Plugs 362-3
Ply
alignment 689
angle 699-700
boundaries 481-2,481
locating, templates 574--5
orientation 9,10-11,374
interspersing 19
properties 8,737
reinforcement 730,730
sequence, table 732
shape 481-2,481,482
generating 481
stacking sequence 692
strength 745
Plycosite 255
PMC
decontamination 863
evacuation 863
PMDA/ODA polyimide 76
PMMA
fatigue resistance 959
orthopedic applications 962
PMR-1580
air aging 89
chemistry 79-80, 79
compressive strength 82
density 82
elongation 82
fracture toughness 82
laminates 88, 89
moisture absorption 82
neat cured 82
processing 84
tensile modulus 82
tensile strength 82
T 82
~ermal expansion 82
PMR-ll
d. PMR-15 90, 93
chemistry of 80-1,80
processing conditions 84-5
PMR-ll-50
flex strength 92
PMR-ll-30 90
reinforced 90
Poisson's ratio 19,698
ceramic composites 312
IM6/epoxy 699
M401/F854 699
Polar backscatter, ultrasonic 843
Polar winding 461-2,462
Poly (p-phenylene benzobisoxazole)
seePBO
Poly (p-phenylene benzobisthiazole)
see PBT
Poly-2, 2' -m-phenylene-5, 5'benzimidazole, see PBI
Poly-m-phenylene isophthalamids
203,203
Poly-p-phenylene terephthalamide,
seePPTA
Poly-p-phenylene-benzimidazoleterephthalamide, see PBIA
Polyacrylonitrile, see PAN
Polyaluminoxane 159
Polyamide 6,6, characteristic
temperatures 121
Polyamide 12, characteristic
temperatures 121
Polyamide-imides
chemical name 121
processing temperature 121
structure 121
suppliers 121
T 121
121
trade name 121
Polyamides
characteristic temperatures 121
health effects 832, 833
Polyaminoamides, health effects
832,833
Polyarylene ether
chemical name 121
processing temperature 121
structure 121
supplier 121
T 121
121
trade name 121
Polybutylene-terephthalate,
characteristic temperatures
121
Polycarbonate, weld line strength
r:.
r:.
544
Polycrystalline diamond, milling
Index 1101
596
Polyester 28, 34--9
characteristic temperatures 121
chemical name 121
cure rate 509
density 505
elongation at break 505
flexural modulus 505
flexural strength 505
glass fiber reinforced 28
heat distortion 505
linear 34, 34
modulus and temperature 210,
211
peel plies 681, 681
polyarylate 235
processing temperature 121
reinforced 442
resins, shut down 515
shrinkage 507
structure 121
supplier 121
tensile modulus 505
tensile strength 505
and temperature 210, 211
T 121
r:, 121
trade name 121
unsaturated 35
Polyether ether ketone, see PEEK
Polyether ketone ketone, see PEKK
Polyetherimide, flexural modulus
545,546
Polyethylene
recycling 883
terephthalate, see PET
Polyglycidyl ether of o-cresolformaldehyde Novolac
melting point 52
viscosity 52
Polyglycidyl ether of phenolformaldehyde Novolac
viscosity 52
Polyimide
addition chemistry 78-81
aromatic 75
binder solutions 76
chemical name 121
compression molding 545
condensation 78
epoxy resins 6
precursor solutions, see binder
solutions
processing temperature 121
structure 121
supplier 121
T 121
r:,121
trade name 121
Polymers
composites 378
properties 385-6,386
resin 382
compound grades 525
crystalline 118, 120
economics 525
extrudate swell, injection
molding 540
fire retardant 42-5
frictional coefficients, injection
molding 540
inclusion of particulates 528
major processes 526
matched metal dies 546
matrix composites
see PMC
grinding 600
matrix lamina, fiber fracture 799
melt compressibility, injection
molding 540
melt fracture potential, injection
molding 540
polymerization
condensation 75-6
shrinkage at 515
pressure dependent shrinkage,
injection molding 540
processes 529, 532
unit costs 532
processing 525
properties, blow molding 550
rheological concerns 525
selection 525
semi-crystalline 534
processing temperature 120
shear sensitivity, injection
molding 540
thermal properties, injection
molding 540
thermoplastic, adducts in 526
thermoset 34
viscosity, injection molding 540
Polymethylmethacrylate, see PMMA
Polyolefin 549
characteristic temperatures 121
Polyorthoesters 957
Polyoxymethylene
cupping 541
shrinkage 541
warping 541
Polyphenylene sulfide, see PPS
Polypropylene
see also PP
and acrylic acid 251
characteristic temperatures 121
mica-reinforced 253
phenolics 258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
thermal conductivity 259
viscosity 530, 531
weld line strength 544
Polysulfone
see also PSU
chemical name 121
flexural modulus 546
processing temperature 121
structure 121
supplier 121
T 121
r:, 121
trade name 121
weld line strength 544
Polytetrafluoroethylene, see PTFE
Polyurethane
coatings 813
compressive strength 258
density 258
health effects 834
maximum service temperature
258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
Polyvinyl chloride
compressive strength 258
density 258
maximum service temperature
258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
Pontoon pier 995
Poor bonding, adhesive joints 611
Porosity 90,300,630-1
bond layer 656
NDE 854
preform 439
X-ray imaging 844
Ports and harbors 949
Post-curing 84--5,385,446-7,589
Post-fabrication 732-3
Post-processing 446-7
Post-tensioning 986, 987
anchors 987
Pot life 66,510,510
anhydride-cured system 72
NMA 66
resins 440,513
Potassium
alurninosilicate 245-6
metaphosphate 957
Powder
alloys 300
consolidation of 343
1102 Index
impregnation 118
processing
ceramic composites 312-14,
313,314
packing 313
sintering 343
Powdered amorphous
thermoplastics (TPs) 105
Power
poles 948-9,948
shears 426
trowels 461
Powertrain applications 911-12, 911,
913
PP and granulated SMC
elongation 897
flexural modulus 897
flexural stress 897
izod impact 897
tensile modulus 897
tensile stress 897
PP IPCI-glass
glass content 898
strain at break 898
tensile modulus 898
tensile strength 898
yield stress at break 898
PPD 81
PPS 31
weld line strength 544
PPTA 203,205
chemical stability 213
hydrogen bonding 204
structural formula 203
Prebaking 871
Precarbonization 180
Preceramic polymer chemistry 157
Precured patching 867-8
limitations 867-8
Precursors 335
fiber, pyrolysis 157
materials 173
mesophase pitch 335, 336
PAN 335,336
pitch 173
polymeric 157
rayon 335
treatments, pitch 173-5, 174
Predicted life, AS-4/PEEK(APC)
806,807
Predicting
durability 796
joint strength 615
peak stresses, joints 613
Preform
advantages 438
ceramic 314
comers 438
designing 438
disadvantages 438
drapability 438
edge definition 438
elastic constant 449
engineering parameters 421
fabricated 438
fiber distribution 438
fiber orientation 421
heating 458
infiltration 299
permeability 438, 439, 449, 578-9,
578
porosity 439
prefabricated 438
processing parameters 421
Rlld 436-9,437,438
textile 401-2
thickness 438-9,438
uncured 456
winding 458
Preforming 397-422,448
3-D 398
formability 398-9
Preliminary
design 710-11,715-23
definition 710
materials 715-22
support data 711
materials, aircraft stabilizer 711
Preload relaxation 729
Prepegging 6-7,7,32-3
advantages of 7
hot melt 7
roving 7
thermoset matrices 7
Prepolymers 105
Prepregs
aerospace industry 885
availability 82
braiding 418
co-curing 868, 870
combining 117
composite tools 566, 567-71
consolidation 117
definition 425
dry 425,430
facing material 255
lay-up 576
low tack 425
over metal substrates 870
ply kits 374
repairs 868-70,869
resins 352
matrix 577
reuse 884-5
shredding 885
suppliers 109
tapes 430
thermoplastics 357
tooling 562
unidirectional 118
waste 885
hazardous 885
wet 355
Pressing
temperature, SiC I A403 315
time, SiC I AlP3 315
Pressure
compliant ring, testing 782
consolidation 577
damage 874,875,876
gradient, infiltration 338
hulls, marine applications 922
pulsation, infiltration 338
vessel, acoustic 472, 472
vessels 471
X-ray backscattering 846
PRESTEK 992
Prestressed concrete 985-6
anchorage 985-6
bridge deck 986, 986
bridges 987
steel tendons 985
Preventive maintenance, composites
880
Pricing
aramid 216, 716
Dyneema 232
graphite fiber 716
Hoechst Celanese 232
Spectra 232
Primary Adhesively Bonded
Structures Technology
(PABST) 667-8,669
Principle strengths 803
Processing 64-9
composites 879
glass fibers 24
parameters, preforms 421
polymers 525
speeds
d. pull loads 506, 506
pultrusion 514
technology, braiding 413-15
temperature
PET 233
polyamide-imides 121
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polyimides 121
polysulfones 121
thermoplastics 115,525-52
time, terephthalic resins 36
window 176
Procurement costs, materials 722
Producing, carboni aluminum 303
Production
costs, aircraft 1024
Index
MMC 291
particulate fillers 246-S, 247
Profile extrusion 532
Programmed winding 469-70
Propeller shafts 911
Properties
aramid fibers 205-15
boron 161
casting, CE 108
ceramic fibers 161
elastic 194-5
high silica 161
Kevlar 205
lamina material 760
polymer composites 385-6, 386
quartz 161
Technora 205
thermoplastics 115
Twaron 205
using recyclate 892
Vectran 235-6
Proprietary specifications 1066--7
Propulsion
shafting 925
systems 1041,1041
Prostheses 963
Protective coatings 292
composites 879
Protruding head, fasteners 624, 624
Pseudoisotropic laminates, CMEs
1011
PTFE 362
see also Teflon
compression molding 545
velocity cf. temperature 843-4,
844
Pull
forming 490-2,490
automation 492
cf. pultrusion 490, 491
curved 490,491,491
straight 490,491-2
loads 512
cf' processing speed 506, S06
epoxy resins 510
winding 489,490,496--7
Pullers
continuous belt SOl
intermittent 501
Pulling SOl-2,501
continuous SOl
Pulp molding, short fibers 337, 338
PuIse-echo testing
advantages 842-3
C-scan 842, 842
one-sided 842
ultrasonic 842-3, 842
Pultrusion 17-18,33,117,488-521,
529,532
additives 515-18
advantages 489
applications 518-21
basic process 489
cf. extrusion 488-9
cf. pull forming 490, 491
civil engineering 519-20
and compression molding 490
construction 519-20
continuous production 489
creel 492-5
curved 489-90
definition 488
dies 497
electrical equipment 518-19
epoxy 511
fibers used 503
fillers 516
FRP 47,517
hammer handles 491
history 488
injection 497, 498
labour requirements 489
machine 488
oil and gas industry 521
pigments 516
processing speeds 514
products 489
pull-winding 496--7
resins 504
impregnation 495
shapes 989
shut down 515
sloughing 514
sporting goods 1045-6
start-up 514-15
surface finish 514
thermoplastics 116
three zone model 505, 505
transportation 520-1
tubular structures 496--7
vertical 495-6
wastage 489
and winding 496--7
windmills 521
Pure bearing load, joints 626
Purging 515
Putties, adhesives 275-6
PVC
foam 257
crosslinked 917
linear 917
Pyrex 318
Pyrolys~ 159,182,888
carbon fibers 335
carbon-carbon composites 341,
342
carbonized organic composites
340
1103
definition 888
precursor fiber 157, 159
recycling 896--8
tooling 341
yields from 895
Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA)
75,76
Quadratic failure 695-7
criteria 707-8
Qualification tests 1060
Quality controls, composites 880
Quartz
applications 163, 165, 166
drawing 157
fibers 24-5
fused 163
forms 161-3
fused rods 157
manufacture 156--7
properties 161
Quasi-~tropic
laminates 9-11,697
materials 687
modulus 12
Quaternary ammonium salts 382
R-glass 134
Race tracking 443
pattern 461-2
winder 462
Racing yachts 353-4
Rackets 1049-SO, 1050
braiding 1050
compression molding 1049
filament winding 1050
injection molding 1050
resin transfer molding 1050
Radar
signals, trans~sion 472
transparency, foam 256
Radial
microstructures
folded 177
with wedge 177
Radiation 3,816
Bremsstrahlung 816
ionizing 816
particulate 816
solar 816
thermal 816
ultraviolet 817, 817
Radio frequency
seealsoRF
heating 499
Radius of curvature 459
sheets 186, 187
Radius of tw~t 459
1104 Index
Radomes 1024
composites, quartz reinforced
110
Rail shear, testing 783
Railroad
applications 912-14
rolling stock 949-50
Railways 950
Random, microstructures 177
Rapid cure, resins 440
Rate of relaxation, water absorption
811
Ratio, glass-to-resin 150-4, 153
Raw materials, falling cost 838
Rayon 25
RD-1 (Ciba-Geigy) 61
RD-2 (Ciba-Geigy) 62
Reaction efficiency, atomic oxygen
814
Reactive rubber, tougheners 106
Reactivity, resins 440
Reaming 598
Rebars 984--5, 984
fiberglass 999
placement 985
pultruded 999
Recreation, design requirements 713
Rectangular plates 749-53,749,751
in-pane loading 750-1, 751
Recyclability, MMCs 944
Recycled
materials 889-99
NBC 897
PET 894
phenolic 894
PP 895,896
S~C 890,892,893
Recycling
see also reuse, disposal
automotive industry 901-2
B~C 890-3
building construction 901-2
electrical parts 902
environmental aspects 902-3
Europe 884
Germany 887, 902
glass-filled PP 893
granulation 886-7
heat cleaning 889
history 883-4
Japan 887,888,903
legal aspects 902-3
mechanical 886-7
milling 886-7
organizations 903
PET 883
phenolic composites 893
plastics 883
polyethylene 883
polyurethane composites 893
pyrolysis 896-8
reinforced composites 388
5~C 890-3
5weden 887
thermoplastics 893-5
Redux 255
bonding 667, 669
Re-entry temperatures, spacecraft
816
References
E-glass 774-7
graphite epoxies 774-7
Kevlar 774-7
lamina property 772-3,774-7
52-glass 774-7
Spectra 774-7
Reflectors 1015
ACTS 1017
Refractive index
feldspar 243-4
Kevlar 215
nepheline 243-4
Regrind RIM
density 895
elongation 895
flexural modulus 895
hardness 895
tensile modulus 895
tensile strength 895
Rehabilitation
bridges 988
building construction 988
chimneys 988
concrete 988
steel 988
wood 988
Reinforced
composites 712, 713
applications 386-8
carbon fiber 358--9
chopped-fiber 355
continuous-fiber 355
continuously 358
corrosion resistance 387
corrugated configuration 389
dimensional stability 387
edge stiffening 390,391
edge turning 390
electrical resistance 387
high strength 387
inserts 392
light weight 387
minor impact resistance 387,
388
molded-in color 388
nominal thickness 390,391
non-structural requirements
388
recycling 388
ribs 389,391,391
shell and plate construction
389,389
size and shape 388
spray-up 355
structural requirements 388
surface quality 387
concrete 983-8
beams 1000
cracking 1000
E-glass 984
steel reinforced 983
epoxies 442
polyester 442
reaction injection molding, see
RRIM
Reinforcement
CE 111
circumferential 461
composites
continuous unidirectional
318--20,318,319
discontinuous 320-1, 320
configurations 461-4
continuous 308--11,309,310,502,
762
definition 378
E-glass 383,916
geometry 797
glass fibers 378,383
graphite 353
heat cleaned 898--9
helical winding 461
hoop winding 461
Kevlar 383
knitted 916-17
local 730,730
marine applications 916-17
materials 832, 835, 835
RN 435
monofilament 311, 311
multi-directional 718
plies 730, 730
polar winding 461-2,462
52-glass 383
spatial 471
specific heat 533
thermoplastic polymers 526
three-dimensional 456, 801
two-dimensional 456
types
fibrous 795, 7%
unidirectional 438
volume 510-11,510
woven 361,916-17
Reinforcing
bars, see also rebars
ceramics 307-11,308,308,309,
Index
310,311
load carrying capabilities 307
Relaxation, environmental effects
1000
Release agents 362
Releases 429-30
fluorocarbon 361,362
molds 361, 362
silicon 429-30
Remaining
life 804-7,804,805,806,807
strength 797,804-7,804,805,806,
807
estimating 797
loading history 805
normalized 805,805
predictions 806
Removal of peel ply 631
Repairs
adhesives 869
advanced fibers 877
aircraft 857-80
autoclave 868
heat application 874-7
heating blankets 869
honeycomb panels 871-7
joint preparation 871
mechanically fastened 877
metal bondments 871-7
methods 880
non-autoclave 868-9
prepreg 868-70,869
resins 869
skill requirements 878
standardization 878
surface preparation 870-1
technical training 878
vacuum pressure 869
Repeatability 8
turning 603
Representative volume 796, 804, 804
discontinuous 804
Reproducibility 3
Reproductive toxicity 824
Residual
strength, AS-4/PEEK(APC) 806,
807
stresses, control of 470, 472
Resins 382
bath life 496
bleed sequence 367
catalyzed 507
changing 497
chemistry 99-1,382
comparing 505-7, 505, 506
consumption 513
content 425
by volume 503
fibreglass epoxies 153
marine laminates 920
minimizing 673
epoxies 382, 504
and fibers 425
flow 578-80
consolidation 576
continuity condition 582-3
Darcy's law 578
gelation 499
high performance 122
high temperature 818
impregnation 495
ingredients 513
injection 117
molding 122
system 433,434,440-1
thermoplastics 116
isophthalic polyester 504
matrix 504
prepreg 577
mixing 513-14
temperature 441
viscosity 441
moisture absorption 440
morphology 505
penetration, PET 233
phenolic 504
polymerization 499
potlue 440,496,513
pultrusion 504
rapid cure 440
reactivity 440
recycling 515
removing excess 576, 673
repairs 869
replenishing 513
safety 831-2
selection 45,440, 504
solvent based 431
T point 440
~ermoplastic
matrix 496
mechanical properties 122
toughness 440
transfer
molding 17,374,492
see also RIM
marine applications
919-20
rackets 1050
transverse
modulus 1056
tensile strength 1056
uncatalyzed 506
unsaturated polyesters 382
used
RIM 440
selecting 440
vinyl esters 382, 504
1105
viscosity 64,440,578,579,579
and cure cycle 354, 355
volume fraction 478
weather resistant 813
Young's modulus 440
Resistance
chemical 39
to fire, phenolics 505
water 39
Resonance, ultrasonic 843
Respirators, filter 830
Respiratory protection 830
Restoration of coatings 867
Resulting strain state, laminates
693-4
Reticulating films, adhesives 276
Reusable bags, silicone rubber 371,
371
Reuse
see also recycling, disposal
appliances 901
automobiles 900-1
carbon fiber 884
cutting 885
and disposal 883-904
glass fiber 884
hybrid composites 883
prepregs 884-5
sheet molding compound 883
shredding 885
technologies 885-9
RF preheating 513, 513,515
Rheology 527-31
definition 527
Ribs
designing 391
geometry 391
mold making 390
parameters 743
reinforced composites 391, 391
Rigid
adherends 633,633,634
fiber 802
tool, thickness 450,450
Rigidity, and flow 67
Ring specimens
bending 785
testing 782, 784
Rings
compression testing 782, 788-9
hoop wound 789
thick-walled 789
thin-walled 789
Risk 823
definition 823
Rivets, aluminum 668
RK, properties of 170
Rocket
motor
1106 Index
cases 23,465
X-ray backscattering 846
design requirements 713
nozzles, carbon-carbon 712
Rockwell hardness, NR-150 82
Rods, testing 784
Roll
fomting 117, 289
wrap process, sporting goods
1045
Roller press 426, 427
Rollers 461,495
Rolling
carboni aluminum 303
compaction 477
rate of 302
solid phase 302
solid stage production 291
table 427,427
in vacuum 300-6, 301, 302, 305
temperature conditions 300
Rolls and air shafts 950-1,951
Rotational molding 529, 532, 550,
551
crosslinking 551
crystallization kinetics 551
molecular characteristics 551
particle size distribution 551
polymer properties 551
thermal properties 551
zero-shear viscosity 551
Router speeds 289
Routing 601
Rovings 163, 164
carbon fiber 502
for chopping 146
continuous glass 492
fiber 492
fiberglass 136
glass 502
harder 146
nonwoven 164
5-glass based 147
single strand 136,146
woven 136-7,137,164,917
reinforced 137
yields 136
RRlM 907
RTM 433-54, 762
advanced technology 447
advantages 434-5
cavity design 441
compounds, rheology 101
cure cycle 433
curing 445--6,445
cycle times 433
disadvantages 434-5
gate and vent 441
glass transition temperature 440
heating/ cooling 441
injection pressure 433
low cost parts 433
moisture absorbance 440
mold sealing 441
optimum viscosity 440
reinforcement materials 435
resin 440
Tl!.446
sporting goods 1046
tensile elongation 440
tensile modulus 440
vacuum assisted 433, 453
viscosity 440
Rubbery sheet deformation 526
Rule of mixtures 150, 318, 588, 697
Runner system 444
52-glass 134
compression properties 360
constituent properties 766
cost of 917
elastic properties 764-7
references 774-7
specific gravity 383
strength properties 764-7
tensile failure 383
tensile modulus 383
tensile strength 383
thermal expansion 383
5 twist, yarn 138
5-glass 23, 24, 425
based, rovings 147
density 503
elongation at break 503
epoxies 152
fibers, stress rupture 212-13,213
filament strength 24
melting point 24
modulus 24
tensile modulus 503
tensile strength 503
5-S2-glass
reinforcement 383
specific modulus 1049
specific strength 1049
tensile modulus 360
tension-tension ratio 1049
5-S2-giass, fiber modulus 360
5-triazine ring 99,100
SAAB JAS39 Gripen, composite
applications 1034
SACMAstandards 1061-2,1062
Safety
applications 943-4, 944
aramid fibers 222
epoxy resins 831-2,831
factor, fonnulas 285
hazards, composite processes 831
resins 831-2
Saffil 159
grades of 155Hi0
Sailboats, design requirements 713
Same materials, sandwich structures
744
SAN, weld line strength 544
Sand bags 874
Sanding 672,672,678-80,679,683
peel-ply imprint 680
scuff 679
Sandwich
adhesive flow 288
beam type 281
buckling 282
construction 694
aramidfibers 221
conversion to 255
core
crushing 282
selection 276, 278, 279, 284
size 288
deflection 284
limitations 281, 284
design 281, 284
compressive modulus 281
core 281
facings 281
notation 280-1
designing 276-80,277,278,279
dimpling 282, 284
fabrication 276
face wrinkling 282, 284
facing failure 282
high temperatures 288
manufacturing 287-9,289,290
modes of failure 282, 282
shear crimping 282
skin materials 284
structures 467--8
design 467--8
different thicknesses 744
elements of 254, 254
same materials 744
space vehicles 254
thickness 284
transverse shear failure 282
wall 742,743
transverse shear defonnation
743
Satellites
central cylinder 375--6
design requirements 713
Satin weave 405, 406
Saturated acids 37
Sawing 601
Scarf
adhesive joints 628, 629
joints 611, 623, 645
Index
shear stress 649
distributions 647-8, 648,
649
Scarfing 623-4
Scientific applications 967-80
Screws, injection molding 538
SCRIMP 919
Scuff sanding 679
Sealants, composites 879
SeaIing577
composites 302
Seals 953
Seawater resistance, PET 233
Secondary, drilling 598
Section
failure curves 615-16,615
load, last fastener 620
stress 615
Secured Modular Automotive Rail
Transport (SMART) 914
Selection process, joining 727, 728
Self-adhesive skins 276
Self-screening, aramid fibers 215
Semifabricated composite, winding
468
Sensitization 824
cross 824, 825
equations 825
Sensors
pressure 499--500
temperature 499-500
Separation 597
Shallow delamination, NDE 854
Shear 394, 395
coupling, coefficient 193
crimping, sandwich 282
deformation 448
cylindrical shells 756
edges 394
failure 195
in-plane 783,789-90
interlaminar 790-2
knife edge 394
lag analysis 633-4
modulus
ABS 259
cellulois acetate 259
epoxies 259
IM6/epoxy 699
M401/F854 699
PET 120
phenolics 259
polypropylene 259
polyurethane 259
polyvinyl chloride 259
skinned molded foams 259
properties
aliphatic system 70
aromatic system 71
rail test 789
strength
ABS 259
AFR700B/S2laminates 93
carbon fibers 295
Celion 87
cellulois acetate 259
epoxies 259
interlamina 196
phenolics 259
polypropylene 259
polyurethane 259
polyvinyl chloride 259
skinned molded foams 259
stress 636,636
5-step 649, 650
10-step 649,651
adhesive 632-7, 633, 634, 635,
636
distribution 636
scarf joints 647-8, 648, 649
maximum bond 642
peak-to-average 648
scarf joints 649
TEOS 346
test 688
in-plane 196
Shearing, weave 439
Shearoutfailures 618,619
Sheet
extrusion 532
molding 374
molding compound
see also SMC
reuse 883
radius of curvature 186, 187
Shelf life, before molding 31
Shell and plate construction,
reinforced composites 389,
389
Shells, netted-ribbed 473
Shims 570,572
Shipboard armor 925
Shipments 955
Short
beam shear properties, Spectra
226,226
fiber mat, flexural strength 401
fibers 337,338
term exposure limit, see STEL
Shredding
mobile 887
prepregs 885
Shrink factors 557-8
Shrinkage 5,179,506,507-9,507,
508
fillers 508
following gelation 508
neat polymers 541
1107
particulate fillers 242, 252
polyester 507
polyoxymethylene 541
rate 509
recycled SMC 892, 893
volumetric 507
Shut down, pultrusion 515
Sialon 329
SiC/A1P3
density 315
pressing
temperature 315
time 315
SiC/SiC composites 401, 401
Signal-to-noise ratio, ultrasonic 834
Silanes 250-1
coupling agent 147
organofunctional 147
Silar
fracture
strength 325
toughness 325
work of 325
Young's modulus 325
Silica
crystalline 249
fillers 527
flocculated varieties 244
fumed 247-8
fused 244
natural 244
particulate fillers 244
surfaces 244
thixotropic effect 244
Silicates, fillers 527
Silicon
carbide 27, 319
coating 294
CVD 157
fillers 527
wheels, grinding 600
nitride, whiskers 161
releases 429-30
Silicone rubber 365, 366
CTE 589
reusable bags 371, 371
Silver flake 250
Simple twist 138
Single
head, pull winding· 496-7
lap
joints 626, 627, 628, 729
bending deflections 641
load path eccentricity 637,
637
shear, joints 624
strand, rovings 146
strap, adhesive joints 628
yam
1108 Index
compressive strength 151
count 151
filling 151
flexural strength 151
modulus of elasticity 151
tensile strength 151
warp 151
weave 151
Size, meteoroids 815
Sizing 802
agent 495
fiber reinforcement 435
Skill requirements, repairs 878
Skin
core, bonding 917-18
creams 829-30,830
grafts 963
materials, sandwich 284
penetration
aircraft 858, 859
foil tape repairs 858
protection 828-30
Skinned molded foam
compressive strength 258
density 258
maximum service temperature
258
shear modulus 259
shear strength 259
tensile strength 258
thermal conductivity 259
Skybond 76-7, 77
dielectric strength 95
electrical properties 95
elongation 86
flex modulus 86
flex strength 86
insulation resistance 95
processing conditions 84
surface resistivity 95
tensile strength 86
volume resistivity 95
weight loss 86
Skylab oxygen tank 471, 471
Slip forming 547, 547
Slot camera, X-ray backscattering
846,846
Sloughing 508, 510
Slurry-spinning 159
Small boats 921
SMC 380-1,890-3,892,893,895-6,
897
automobile industry 381
current use 381
early applications 380
fatigue properties 386, 387
flexural modulus 386, 386
flexural strength 386, 386
formulation 384
grill opening panels 907
IZOD impact 386, 386
lower density 381
manufacturing 381
molding 384
phenolics 382
recycling 890-3
regrinding 890,891
specific gravity expansion 386,
386
tensile modulus 386, 386
tensile strength 386, 386
thermal expansion 386, 386
SMEs 952
Snowflake P.E. 247, 247
Sodium-calcium-aluminumpolyphosphate 957
Soft gauge, machine tools 364
Soft tissues, composites for %3-4
Sol-gel technology 156-7
Solar
absorptance 816
array
backing 820
panels 353
radiation 816
Soldering, carboni aluminum 303
Solid
conveying, extrusion 534,535
phase, rolling 302
rubber, tooling 670
stage production 291
state laser, Nd-YAG 605
Solution sedimentation, MMC 291
Solvents 812, 835-7, 836
absorption,anhydride-cured
system 72
aramid fibers 204
impregnation 117, 118
polar 175
removal 159, 175
resistance
PBI237
thermoplastics 115, 127
toxicity 361, 362
trichloroethylene 64
Sonar domes, marine applications
922
Sonotrode
material 607, 608
non-rotating steel 608
Sources of information
Armos 221
Kevlar 221
PBO fibers 236
PDI fibers 236
SYM 221
Technora 221
Twaron 221
Vectran 236
Sources of pressure 460
Space 813-17
atomic oxygen 813-14
composite systems 814
debris impacts 814-15,814,815
meteoroid impacts 814-15,814,
815
shuttle 344,345,347,472
tooling development 1015-16
Spacecraft 968-72,969,970,971
heat sources 816
LDEF 970-2,970,971,972
re-entry temperatures 816
thermal cycling 818
truss structure 968-70
Spall liners, phenolic 914
Spallation 814
Sparging 174-5
gas 174-5
Spatial reinforcement 471
Spatially sewn structures 456
Special tests 792
Specific gravity
Armos 208
Dyneema 225
E-gIass 383
expansion 386, 386
fiberglass 135
graphite 383
Hoechst Celanese 225
Kevlar 208,383
Nomex 209
PBO 235
PET 224
recycled SMC 890, 892, 893
S2-g1ass 383
Spectra 225
SYM 208
Technora 209
Teijinconex 209
Tekmilon 225
Twaron 208
Vectran 235
Specific heat
aromatic system 71
definition 532-3
fillers 533
Kevlar 206
Nomex 206
reinforcements 533
Teijinconex 206
Twaron 206
Specific modulus 715, 716
aluminum 1049
carbon 1049
definition 715
E-glass 1049
Kevlar 1049
Index 1109
Kulon 305
PET 224
S2-glass 1049
Spectra 1049
steel 1049
titanium 1049
VMN-4305
Specific stiffness, aramid fibers 207
Specific strength
aluminum 1049
aramid fibers 207
carbon 1049
continuous fiber 162
E-glass 1049
Kevlar 1049
metals, vs. composites 1047,1048
PET 224
S2-glass 1049
Spectra 1049
staple 162
steel 1049
titanium 1049
whiskers 162
Specifications
materials 722
and standards 1059--67
Specimen geometry, honeycomb 263
Specimen width 780
Spectra 23,26,223,228,229,761
attributes 358
availability 231
axial compressive properties 226,
226
axial tensile properties 226, 226
carbon 359
constituent properties 767
creep resistance 227,228-9,230,
233
crystallite melting point 26
density 503
dielectric constant 231
elastic properties 764-7
elongation at break 225, 503
fiber type 225
flexural properties 226, 226
graphite, hybrids 354
marine applications 917
for oil containment 233-4
pricing 232
references 774-7
short beam shear properties 226,
226
specific
gravity 225
modulus 1049
strength 1049
strength retention 230
tensile modulus 225,503
tensile strength 225, 503
Spectra Shield 234
Spectroscopy
fluorescence 69
infrared 69
Raman 69
Speed sensitivity 463
Speed tape repairs, aircraft 859
Spherical shapes, mament winding
466-7
Spherulites 120
Spin process, Technora 213
Spinning 175-7
conditions, pitch 175-7, 176
PAN 175
temperatures 175
Spirit of Australia 354, 376-7, 376,
377
carboni epoxy mast 377
Split rings, testing 784
Sporting goods 1044-52
braiding 1045--6
mament winding 1046, 1047
manufacturing techniques
1045-9
pultrusion 1045--6
roll wrap process 1045
RTM 1046
Sports cars 910
Spray lay-up, short fibers 337,338
Spray metal, tooling 442
Spray-up 436,437
Spraying
ionic 300
plasma 300
Springback 557
GFRP 1013
Springer's model 578,581, 582, 585
compacted plies 588
numerical schemes 586
Sprue and runner 541,542
Square packing 403, 403
Squeeze flow 548
SRlM433
machine 434
Stability
color 43
PBO fiber 238
and temperature 49
thermal-oxidative 75,92
Stabilization
anisotropic pitches 178
commercial 178
oxygen addition 173
PAN 172,177-80,178,179
rate of 180
Stabilizers
covers, boron-epoxy 1030-1
UV 43
Stacking sequence
laminate 616, 630
notation 619
Stackup, laminate pre-bleed 569
Stainless steel, thermal data 818
Stamping 545
Standard tests, composites 880
Standards, organizations 1060-1
Staple 159--60,216
alumina 159
alumina-silica 160
density 162
description 162
diameter 162
elastic modulus 162
green 159
manufacturers 162
specific strength 162
thermal expansion coefficient 162
trade names 162
unfired 159
Static mixers 441
Steel
CTE 558
density 170, 558
dies 426-7,429,430
thermal expansion 507
elastic modulus 170
fracture elongation 170
linear thermal expansion 705
rehabilitation 988
selection, mold 393
specific modulus 1049
specific strength 1049
tendons, prestressed concrete 985
tensile strength 170
tension-tension ratio 1049
thermal conductivity 558
Steering 482, 483
definition 482
radii 482
Stefan-Boltzmann law 850
STEL 826
Step lap
joints 628,629,645--6,645,649,
650,651,652,659
design 652
Stiffness
adherends 636
carbon-carbon composites 333
changes
microcracking 796
with time 800
coefficients
constitutive equations 743-4
determining 737
~6/epoxy
702,703
and coupling 700
cylindrical shells 756
matrix, laminates 693
1110
Index
plane stress 689
to weight ratio, PET 223
tooling materials 577
unbalance, adherends 629
weight ratio 21
Stitched fabric 436, 436
Stitching 801
Storage 357--8
freezer 425
Strains
at break, PP /PCI-glass 898
displacment, equations 739
energy, adhesives 653
graphite/epoxies 4
measuring 779
to failure 319
Strand mat
continuous 503
fiber structure 503
Strand properties
Kulon 306
VMN-4306
Strands 164
Strap joints, tapering 645
Strength
alumina silicate 309
aramid 718
bending 791
and density 23
efficiency, carbon-carbon
composites 344
envelopes 802, 802
evaluation 737
M60J tape 718
P100 tape 718
properties
E-glass 764-7
graphite/epoxies 4,768-71
laminate 764-7
predicting 318, 318, 319
S2 glass 764-7
T50/F584 epoxy 726,726
ratio
lM6/epoxy 701
laminates 696
retention 213
aramids 230
definition 241
Kevlar 205, 215
medical applications 957
Spectra 230
Technora 205
structural 795
T300 fabric 718
tests, joints 626
three-dimensional 489
tooling materials 577
values
carpet plots 719
T50 graphite 724, 724
weight ratio 21
aramid fibers 223
PET 223
Stress
analysis
joints 611
one-dimensional 627
concentration 610,613,614,788
distribution, double lap joint 654
interlaminar 738
patterns, laminates 322
residual 466
resultants, laminates 691-3
rupture
failure 24
Kevlar 212-13,213
para-aramids 212
5-glass fibers 212-13, 213
strain curve 319
thermally induced 640
thermoelastic 466
transfer 149
Stretching elongations 633
Strip heaters 499
Structural
applications 709
aircraft 1027--8,1027,1028
formula, POO 237
geometry
braiding 415-16
nonwoven textiles 419
hierarchy 778
reaction injection molding see
SRIM
testing 792
Structure
aramid fibers 204-5
PET 224,224
polyamide-imides 121
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polyimides 121
polysulfones 121
Styrene
addition 34
polyester 382
Submarines 473
Substrates 157
heating 293
Subsurface damage, inspection 839
Succinic anhydride (SA), melting
point 58
Superconducting
magnetic energy storage systems,
see SMEs
SupeM:ollidermagnets 978,978
Supennite 247, 247
Suppliers
polyamide-imides 121
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polyimides 121
polysulfones 121
prepreg 109
thermoplastics 119
Supported films, adhesives 276
Surface
area 607--8
compressive stress 321
crusting 339
of curvature 479
damage 322
defect healing 295
disbonded 677
energies 316,316
finish
pultrusion 515
tools 597
flaws 840
geometry
concave surface 484
fiber placement 484--6
radii of curvature 484, 486
types of 484
ply, veil 503
polish, compression molds 395
preparation 630-1,667--84
abrading 669
adhesive joints 611
aerospace industry 669
aluminum 871, 876
automotive industry 669
cutting plies 870
grit blasting 870-1
history of 667-71
non-autoclave 871-2
peelplies 683,870
removal 631
repairs 870-1
testing 669
properties, particulate fillers
250-1
quality, reinforced composites
387
resistivity
fiberglass 135
Skybond 95
roughness, tooling materials 577
slick 682
speed~grinding 600
treatment 190-1
waviness 603
weave, yarns 407,407
Sutures, PET 234
SVM
availability 220
elongation at break 208
Index 1111
initial tensile modulus 208
PBIA-based fibers 210
sources of infonnation 221
specific gravity 208
tensile strength 208
Sweden, recycling 887
Sweep method, plaster masters
565-6
Swelling stresses, water absorption
811
Symmetric, laminates 692, 749
Symmetry 9,1(}-11
Synergism 43
Syntactic foams, adhesives 275--6
Synthetic marble 253
T50 graphite
material properties 724, 724
strength values 724, 724
TSO/F584 epoxy
material properties 726,726
strength properties 726,726
T300 fabric
mechanical properties 718
strengths 718
Table rolling 425-32
equipment, suppliers 431
mandrels 429
materials 429-30
Tabs 787
Tack 356-7,479
controls 356-7
desired 479
excessive 357
heavy on prepregs 357
requirements 357
Tactical aircraft, material weights
1027
Talc 246
composites 246
impact strength 246
Italian 248-9,248
low cost 246
110ntana 248-9,248
New York 248-9, 248
polypropylene filled 246
Tank solution processing 871
Tap test 840
laminar type flaws 840
Tape 164
braiding 418
collimated 359
fiberglass 146
non-woven 359
placement 456
reinforcement 15
slit 478
unidirectional 298,359
Tapered
adherends 653
adhesive joints 628
Tapering
adherends 627, 629, 644-51, 645,
647,648,649,650,656,658
advantages 646, 647
peel stresses 646
strap joints 645, 647, 648
double 646, 647, 648
Tappers, mechanical 840
Tateho
fracture strength 325
fracture toughness 325
work of fracture 325
Young's modulus 325
Te glass 134
Technical training, repairs 878
Technology
reuse 885-9
winding 458-66
Technora 204
availability 220
breaking strength 214
chemical resistance 214
chemical stability 214
decomposition temperature 206
density 206
elongation at break 209
ether linkages 210
fatigue resistance 213
filament diameter 206
filament shape 206
fonns of 216
initial tensile modulus 209
linear thennal expansion
coefficient 206
long-tenn use temperature 206
melting temperature 206
modulus and temperature 210,
211
moisture content 206
properties 205
sources of infonnation 221
specific gravity 209
spin process 213
strength retention 205
tensile strength 209
and temperature 210, 211
thennal conductivity 206
Teflon 250,360,834
Teijinconex 205
decomposition temperature 206
density 206
elongation at break 209
filament diameter 206
filament shape 206
initial tensile modulus 209
linear thennal expansion
coefficient 206
long-tenn use temperature 206
melting temperature 206
moisture content 206
specific gravity 209
specific heat 206
tensile strength 209
thenna! conductivity 206
Tekmilon 223,228
availability 231
elongation at break 225
fiber type 225
specific gravity 225
tensile modulus 225
tensile strength 225
Telescopes 1014-15
Temperature 817-19
consolidation 577
control, dies 511-13,512,513
cryogenic 817
modulus 212
decomposition 76
elevated 817
extremes, GFRP 1004-21
glass transition 75
gradients 470-1
profile, dies 511, 512
resistance, aramid fibers 205
spinning 175
stability 49
dies 514
and viscosity 173-4, 174
Template method, plaster masters
564-5
Templates
ply locating 574-5
trim and router 574
Tenacity, definition 241
Tennis rackets 463
Tensile
elongation 41, 42
recycled PET 894
RN 440
failure 383
forces, transmission 787
load, fibreglass epoxies 153
modulus
aramid fiber 715, 716
AS-4 carbon fiber 123
B11C 386, 386
carbon fibers 335
carbon (Type BOO) 503
carpet plots 719
Celion 87
continuous ceramic fibers 309
Dyneema 225
E-glass 360,383,503,715, 716
epoxy 511
graphite 360,383,715,716
Hoechst Celanese 225
1112 Index
Kevlar 383, 503
Kulon 306
lot-to-lot variation 725
LPMC 386, 386
marine laminates 920
PBO 235,238
PMR-1582
laminates 88
polyester 511
PP and granulated SMC 897
PP IPCI-glass 898
recycled NBC 897
recycled PP 895, 896
recycled SMC 890,892, 893
regrind RIM 895
RTM 440
52-glass 360,383,503
SMC 386,386
Spectra 225, 503
and strength 21,21
Tekmilon 225
thermoplastic resins 122
Vectran 235
vinylester 511
VMN-4306
ZMC 386,386
properties
aliphatic system 70
anhydride-cured system 72
E-glass 360
graphite 360
testing 38
stiffness, aramid fibers 209
strength
ABS 258
AFR700B/S21aminates 93
aluminum 170
aramid fibers 209
Armos 208
AS-4 carbon fiber 123
BMC 386,386
carbon fibers 169
carbon (Type T300) 503
carbon-carbon composites
333
carboni aluminum MMC 300
carpet plots 720,720
CE 108
Celion 87
cellulois acetate 258
continuous ceramic fibers 309
Dyneema 225
E-glass 24, 383,503
epoxies 258, 511
fiberglass 134
epoxies 153
graphite 383
and higher temperatures 182
Hoechst Celanese 225
Kevlar 208, 383,503
Kulon 305, 306
lot-to-lot variation 725
LPMC 386, 386
marine laminates 920
and microtexture 188
and modulus 21, 21
and nitrogen release 182
Nomex 209
NR-150 82
nylon 6/6 PCI-glass 899
PAN-based fibers 169, 170
PBO 235,238
phenolics 258
pitch-based fibers 170
plied-yarn 151
PMR-15 82,88
polyester 511
polyurethane 258
polyvinyl chloride 258
pp IPCI-glass 898
recycled PET 894
recycled SMC 890, 892, 893
regrind RIM 895
52-glass 383
S-glass 503
epoxies 152
single-yam 151
skinned molded foam 258
5kybond 86
5MC 386,386
5pectra 225, 503
steel 170
SVM 208
Technora 209
Teijinconex 209
Tekmilon 225
thermoplastic resins 122
titanium 170
Twaron 208
Vectran 235
vinylester 511
VMN-4 305, 306
yam distribution 154
ZMC 386,386
stress
PP and granulated SMC 897
recycled NBC 897
recycled PP 895, 896
Tension
and compression 786-9
failure in 787
head, fasteners 625
tension ratio 1049
TEOS 346
testing 781, 782, 788
rings 782, 788
Tensioning 469
TEOS 340
carbon-carbon composites 349
compression 346
flexure 346
comer 346
impact 346
impregnation 341, 343-4, 344
interlaminar shear 346
interlaminar tension 346
process 341
shear 346
tension 346
thermal expansion 346
Terephthalic acid 35
Terephthalics 36, 39
processing time 36
reactivity 36
solubility 36
Tertiary amines 104
Test
direction, yam distribution 154
methods 721
adhesives 630
joints 626
specimen
dimensions 786-7
loading sections 786
transition sections 786
Testing
barcol hardness 38
bars 784
compression 38, 781
distortion temperature 38
eddy current 849-50
flat specimens 786-7
flexural properties 38
half-discs 782
history 779
hydraulic system 782
impact strength 38
in-plane shear methods 783
incoming materials 20
microwave 853
non-symmetric bending 783
off-axis tension 781
pressure compliant ring 782
rail shear 783
requirements 779-80
ring specimens 782, 784
rods 784
selecting techniques 779
special tests 792
specimens 780,786
split rings 784
structural 792
tensile properties 38
tension 781
torsion of square plate 783
tubes 784
ultrasonic through-transmission
Index
840-2,841
Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA),
viscosity 54
Tetraethylorthosilicate, see TEOS
Tetramethylbisphenol F
homopolymer property 102
structure precursor 102
supplier 102
trade name 102
Tex,defirrition 136,241
Textile
fibers 307
preforming
defirrition 397
linear 398
planar 398
three-dimensional 398
preforms 401-2
role of 398-401
selecting 401
T 120
g NR-150 82
PMR-1582
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polyimides 121
polysulfones 121
resins 440
Thermal
accelerators 509
coefficient
BMC 386,386
Kevlar 383
LPMC 386, 386
ZMC 386,386
coefficients, orthotropic layers
742
conductivity
ABS 259
aliphatic system 70
aluminum 558
aromatic system 71
carbon fibers 169
carbon-carbon composites
333,349
carboni epoxy prepreg 558
cellulois acetate 259
ceramics 307
electroformed nickel 558
epoxies 259
glass/epoxy 558
high carbon cast steel 558
Invar 558
Kevlar 206
mahogany 558
monolithic graphite 558
Nomex 206
particulate fillers 242
phenolics 259
polypropylene 259
polyurethane 259
polyvinyl chloride 259
skinned molded foams 259
steel 558
Technora 206
Teijinconex 206
thermoplastics 531-2
Twaron 206
urethane board stock 558
control tape 819
cycling 89,89,816,817
aircraft 818
spacecraft 818
data 818
decomposition, carbonyls 293-4
degradation 31
diffusivity, thermoplastics 534
expansion 3,5, 19
adherends 630, 661
carbon-carbon composites
333
ceramic composites 312
coefficient
continuous fiber 162
staple 162
whiskers 162
composite tools 592
correction, tooling design 590
E-glass 383
graphite 383
molding 593
NR-150 82
PMR-1582
52-glass 383
SMC 386,386
steel dies 507
TEOS 346
thermoplastics 127
tooling materials 577
extremes 816-17
gradients, carbon-carbon
composites 333
inertia technology 444
mismatch 638, 661, 662
oxidation 79
carbon-carbon composites
345,347-8
properties
aramid fibers 205-7,206
BMI 106,109
carbon fibers 184-5, 185, 186
CE 106,109
composites 661
fiberglass 135
rotational molding 551
radiation 816
resistance, aramid fibers 205
stability, composite tools 592
1113
stress 659,660,661-2
laminates 322
Thermally
induced stresses 640
resistant gloves 829
Thermoelastic behavior, anisotropic
bodies 470-1
Thermoforming 436, 437, 526,
529-30,529,532,545-9
polymer properties 545
Thermoplastics 356
aerospace 115
aging 127
amorphous, HDT 126
automotive market 115
chemical resistance 126
composite density 534
composites
extrusion 526
injection molding 526
processing 525-52
compression molding 116, 544-9
compressive properties 124, 125
diaphragm forming 116
dielectric constant 107
dissipation factor 107
extrusion 534-8
fatigue resistance 115
fiber content 117
folding 116
fracture toughness 124
heat capacity 532-4
high price of 1024
impact energy 125
injection molding 116
joining 127
low toxicity 115
manufacturing 116-17
matrices, aramid fibers 221
melt, high viscosity 116
molecular weight 116
polymers
adducts 526
fillers for 527
reinforcements 526
prepregs 357
processing 115
properties 115
pultrusion 116
reinforcing 528
remelting 115
resins 31-2
fracture toughness 122
health effects 834
injection 116
tensile modulus 122
tensile strength 122
solvent resistance 115, 127
structure 118
1114 Index
suppliers 119
thermal
conductivity 531-2
diffusivity 534
expansion 127
thennoforming 544-9
tougheners 106
trade names 124, 125
transverse modulus 123
transverse strength 123
unidirectional
compression strength 125
trade names 125
winding 458
Thermosets
amorphous 118
compressive strength 124
joining 127
polymers 34
Thermosetting 37,356
binders 458
dielectric constant 107
dissipation factor 107
reaction, definition 49
resins 518
Thermostamping 22
Thick composites, consolidation 585
Thick molding compound, see 1MC
Thick-walled structures 456, 46&-71
loaded in torsion 473-4
monolithicity 456
residual stresses 469
torsion strength 473
Thickeners 383
Thickness
adherends 627-9,628,628,658
bond 631
layer 628, 656
to adherend 641
drawings 731
flberglass 141-4,153
Hercules 1M7 fiber 478
honeycomb 263
preform 438-9, 438
sandwich 284
section 512
variation 372-3
Thin composites, consolidation 585
Thin-walled
beams 747-9,748
shear stress resultants 748,
748
uses 747
shells 456
structures 466-8
Thinning, organic solvents 65
Thixotropic liquids, adhesives 275-6
Thornel 1054
properties of 170
Three zone model, pultrusion 505,
505
Three-dimensional
fiberglass 146
lamina properties 761
reinforcement 456, 801
Threshold limit values, see TLV
Through-the-facesheet evacuation,
aircraft 865
TIme weighted average, see TWA
Tune window, consolidation 588
Tltanates, coupling agents 251
TItanium
alloy- linear thermal expansion
705
carbide 319
density 170
diboride 319
elastic modulus 170
fracture elongation 170
specific modulus 1049
specific strength 1049
tensile strength 170
tension-tension ratio 1049
TLV 825,826
Tm
polyamide-imides 121
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polysulfones 121
1MC380
Tolerance
stackup 561
to flaws, ceramics 307
Tonox 60-40 (Uniroyal Inc) 56
Tool
geometry 439
life 599
factors 596-7
pins 574
separating from master 570
steel, erE 589
surface
area 480
strength 480
usage 559
wear 599
Tooling 14, 361-ii, 392-5,429-30,
447, 479-80, 480, 556-75
alternative 449-50,449,450
balls 565
bushings 562
cast aluminum 442
correction method 590-1
eTE 556-7, 557-8
design 590
coordinating partial plies 590
thermal expansion correction
590
use of caul plates 590
development, space 1015-16
elastomer 14
elastomeric 593-4, 593
electroformed nickel 591-2,592
employee induced damage 563
epoxy laminates 562
fiber placement 479-80
fiber separation 562
fixed-volume method 593, 593
graphite-epoxy 592-3,593
hole fittings 562
leakage 562
master models 563-ii
materials 589
bleeder 577
consolidation 577
hardness 577
metals 577
properties of 558
stiffness 577
strength 577
surface roughness 577
thermal behavior 589
thermal expansion 577
moisture absorption 561
and part shape 589-94
prepreg 562
resin system 562
rubber 366
sealers 561
selecting materials 557
sheet wax 574
solid rubber 670
spray metal 442
urethane based 567
variable volume method 593, 594
wet lay-up repairs 867
Tools
composite 361
cure cycle times 559
depth of cut 597
design 556-63
durability 558
fabrication, cost 558, 559-60
life expectancy 558,559,561
machinability 558
materials available 560
materials selection S59
methods of fabrication 560
mounted 480
multi-cavity 500
resistance to failure 561-3
selection 598
surface finish 597
usage rates 558
wear ratio 597
Torayca 1054
fiber types 1054
Index 1115
properties of 170
Torque levels 625
bolt tensions 626
Torsion 784, 790
square plate, testing 783
strength, thick-walled structures
473
Total hip arthroplasty 960-1
femoral components 960-1
FRP 959
metallic devices 960
Total overlap length 658
Tougheners
reactive rubber 106
thermoplastic 106
Toughening 104-5
interphase 802, 802
Toughness 801
a~ives 274-5,274
aramid fibers 221
interlaminar 124, 124
measuring 274,274
resins 440
Tows 164
bridging of 487
buckled 480
carbon fiber 292, 293
cutting 483
definition 476
dropping and adding 483-4
end locations 481
folded 487
selecting 478
thickness 478
twisted 487
wandering 487
width
histogram 479,479
of material 479
Toxic 822-4
definition 822
Toxicity
acute and chronic 823-4
fluorine 362
particulate fillers 252
reproductive 824
solvents 361, 362
Trade names
continuous fiber 162
fibers 158
PAN-based tow 198
pitch-based tow 199
polyamide-imides 121
polyarylene ether 121
polyester 121
polyimides 121
polysulfones 121
staple 162
thermoplastics 124,125
whiskers 158,162
Transfer molding 22
Transformation relations 707
Transition, areas of 731-2,732
Transportation 905-15
future directions 915
land 905-15
pultrusion 520-1
Transverse
compression, Kevlar 212
erE
699
extension, IM6/epoxy 701
modulus 12
IM6 / epoxy 699
M401/F854 699
resins 1056
thermoplastics 123
shear
adherends 630
failure, sandwich 282
strain, IM6/epoxy 701
strength
moisture 811
thermoplastics 123
tensile strength, resins 1056
tension
Kevlar 212
test 688
Treatments, Vectran 236
Triaxial, plain-weave 399
Triethylenetriamine (TETA),
viscosity 54
Triglycidyl p-aminophenol 53
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA),
melting point 58
Trimming 446
Kevlar 600
2,4,6-Tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenyl 60
Trucks 912
Truss structure, spacecraft 968-70
TRW-R-8XX 94
chemistry of 81
Tubes, testing 784
Tubular structures 425-32
pultrusion 496-7
Tunnels 950
Turning 597,598,601
advantages 597
withAWJ 603-4
disadvantages 597
Kevlar 600
machining 602
repeatability 603
surface finish 603-4
TWA 826
Twaron
availability 219-20
decomposition temperature 206
density 206
elongation at break 208
filament diameter 206
filament shape 206
forms of 216
initial tensile modulus 208
linear thermal expansion
coefficient 206
long-term use temperature 206
melting temperature 206
moisture content 206
properties 205
sources of information 221
specific gravity 208
specific heat 206
tensile strength 208
thermal conductivity 206
Twill, weave 145,145,405,406
Twin-screw extruders 535-6
advantages 539
classification 537
disadvantages 539
Twist
drill 600
Kevlar 215-16
Two-dimensional
flow, compression molding 584
lamina properties 760-1
reinforcement 456
'JYpical
compression strength, carbon
fiber composites 1055
properties 1053-8
E-glass 1055
selecting 1057-8
'JYranno 316
UHMWPE 959, 962
compression molding 545
reinforcement 963
Ultimates, Kevlar 210
Ultrahigh molecular weight
polyethylene, see UHMWPE
Ultrasonic
correlation 843-4, 844
cutting 601
machining (USM) 605-8
advantages 608
applications 607-8
brittle materials 605
ceramic matrix composites
605
disadvantages 608
rates 608
polar backscatter 843
pulse-echo testing 842-3,842
resonance 843
signal 840
to noise ratio 834
1116 Index
through-transmission testing
840-2,841
automation 840
C-scan 841,841
vibrations 607
Ultraviolet Coronagraph
Spectrometer, see UVCS
Ultraviolet resistance, PET 224
UMC 381
Uniaxial loading, allowable 802
Unidirectional
composites 107-8
compression testing 787
fabrics, weave 145,145
laminates 4, 8
molding compound, see UMC
ply 741
tape, flexural strength 401
Uniformity 301, 301, 302
Unit costs, polymer processes 532
Unsaturated polyesters, resins 382
Unsaturation 39
Unsupported
films, adhesives 276
single lap, adhesive joints 628
Untapered, joints 624
Uranium enrichment centrifuges
953-4
Urea-formaldehyde, adhesives 255
Urethane board stock
ceofficient of thermal expansion
558
density 558
thermal conductivity 558
US Air Force Materials Laboratory
22-3
US Federal Aviation Regulations
(FAR) 1022
Use temperature, PET 225
UV
absorption, aramid fibers 221
radiation, carbon black 245
resistance, PET 230,233
stability
PBO fiber 238
PET 233
UVCS 1017-18,1018
V-cap 93
chemistry of 81
processing conditions 84-5
Vacuum
assisted resin injection, see VARI
assisted resin transfer molding,
seeVARTM
bag 14,14
autoclave tooling 589
molding 361, 577
nylon 577
pressure 918
processing 919-20
silicone rubber 577
bagging 569,593,872-3
applications, aerospace 375
with autoclave 593
bridging 369-71,369
eliminating 369, 370, 371
edge bleeder 368
expendable 367-71
bags 371
precautions 363
reusable 371-2
thermoset composites 371
vertical bleeder 368
drying 818
infiltration 299-300
pressure
cures 870
repairs 869
Valves 954
Vapor
barriers 817
processing 316-17,316
VARI 910
VARTM 919
advantages 919
Vectran 234-7, 234, 235
aerospace applications 236
applications 236-7
availability 236
cost of 234-5
dielectric constant 236
elongation at break 235
forms 236
melt spun 235
melting temperature 235
properties 235-6
protective garments 236
resin 235
safety materials 236
sources of information 236
specific gravity 235
tensile modulus 235
tensile strength 235
treatments 236
Veils 436, 438
surface ply 503
surfacing, application 436
Velocity, meteoroids 815
Velsicol 58
Venetian blinding 482
Vent design 442-3
Ventilation 830
volatiles 683
Venting 450-1
ports 443
Verification, design 733-4, 733
Vertical
pultrusion 495-6
advantages 495
tape wrapper 427,428
Vmyl cyclohexene dioxide, viscosity
63
Vmyl esters
applications 41-2
corrosion resistance 41, 42, 42
density 505
elongation at break 505
flexural modulus 505
flexural strength 505
general purpose 40
heat distortion 505
heat resistant 40-1
marine applications 916
properties 41-2
resins 28,382,504
structure 40
tensile modulus 505
tensile strength 505
VIscoelasticity 122
VISCosity 37
aliphatic system 70
anhydride-cured system 72
aromatic system 71
coupling agents 250
definition 527
elongational 529-30
low density polyethylene 528
polypropylene 530, 531
predicting 528-9
resins 440, 578
RTM 440
shear rate-dependent 528
and temperature 173-4, 174
vs. time, epoxy resins 509, 510
VIsual inspection 839-40
VIS 160
time needed 160
VMN-4
bending strength 305
carbon content 306
coating thickness 306
compressive strength 305
density 305, 306
elastic modulus 305
elongation at break 306
filament diameter 306
specific modulus 305
strand properties 306
tensile modulus 306
tensile strength 305,306
Voids 430,548,588,630--1
capture 450--1
content
checks 430
marine laminates 920
exposed surface 432
Index
stability map 588, 588
Volatiles
content 356
elimination 78, 79
ventilation 683
Volkersen
model 662-3
solution 635
Volume
expansion, water absorption 811
fraction
fiber reinforcement 435
IM6/epoxy 699
M401/F854 699
resistivity
fiberglass 135
Skybond 95
Volumetric shrinkage
aliphatic system 70
aromatic system 71
Von Mises criterion 708
Vortex, tennis rackets 1046
Voyager aircraft 32, 32
Wall effects 153
Warp 541
knitting 408,409
plied-yam 151
single-yam 151
yam 140
fiberglass 141-4
Warpage 374,467,557
Warping
GFRP 1013, 1013
polyoxymethylene 541
Wash resistance, fiber reinforcement
435
Wastage
cut-off 502
pultrusion 489
Water
absorption 110,811
aliphatic system 70
aramid fibers 215
aromatic system 71
rate of relaxation 811
recycled NBC 897
recycled PET 894
recycled SMC 890
swelling stresses 811
volume expansion 811
evacuation, aircraft 863
immersion 110
ingestion, aircraft 859
intrusion, NDE 854
jet 601
resistance 3
soluble sand mandrels 465--6
Weak bonds 671-5,671
Weather resistant, resins 813
Weathering 813
climate 813
graphite/epoxy 813
graphite/polysulfone 813
Kevlar/epoxy 813
Weave
aramid fibers 222
basket 140,145
crowfoot satin 145, 145
eight-harness satin 145, 145
fiberglass 141-4
non-woven 145,146
patterns 140, 145, 150
and mechanical properties
152
plain 140,145
biaxial 407
plied-yam 151
shearing 439
single-yam 151
twill 145, 145
unidirectional fabrics 145, 145
Weavers 407, 407
Weaves
hybridized 118
reinforcing 118
Weaving 18,402,402,404-8,405,
406,407,801
biaxial 406
plain weave 405
satin weave 405
twill weave 405
definition 404
design methodology 407-8
multiwarp 406
loom 405
three-dimensional 405, 405
triaxial 405,405,406
two-harness loom 405
Web, yarns 407, 407
Weft, knitting 408,409
Weibull distribution 189
Weight
aramid fibers 223
fiberglass 141-4
fraction 1027-8
loss
AFR700B/S21aminates 94
PBO fiber 238
Skybond 86
savings 1028, 1028
Weld
lines 542, 544
strength 544
Wet lay-up 355,571-3
composite tools 566
repairs
aircraft 865-7
1117
core plug 866
damage assessment 866
elevated temperatures 868
equipment 867
face sheet 866-7
heat lamps 865, 866
heating blankets 865
hot air blowers 865
materials 867
precured patching 867-8
procedures 866-7
repair environment 867
restoration of coatings 867
tooling 867
two resins 571
Wet mat molding 43
Wetout 443
Wettability, fiber reinforcement 435
Wetting agents, additives 516
Wetting speed 495
Whipple-type shield 814-15,814
Whiskers 160-1,308,308,308,314
alumina 161
coating 166
commercially available 308
composition 158
continuous 156, 160
CTE 308
density 162, 308
description 162
diameter 162,308
discontinuous 156,160-1
elastic modulus 162
length 308
manufacturers 158, 162
manufacturing processes 158
for reinforcing 166
SiC 308
elastic modulus 327
fracture strength 325, 326,
326,327
fracture toughness 325, 326,
326,327
silicon nitride 161
specific strength 162
thermal expansion coefficient 162
trade names 158, 162
vapor-liquid-solid process 160-1,
326
Young's modulus 308
Whole rings, bending 785
Width of material 479
Wind
eye 461
tunnel blades 975-6,976
turbine blades 954
Winders
lathe type 461
race-track 462
1118 Index
stationary whirling arm type 461
Winding
angle 496-7
with braiding 473
chord 462
direction 496-7
dry 458
extra pressure 470, 470
geometry 459
helical angle 460
history of 458
inaccuracies 463
isotropic metallic tape 468
layer-by-layer curing 470
materials for 458-9
non-geodesic 457
pattern 459
closure 459
control 463-4
pitch of 496-7
planar-polar 462
preform 458
process 456, 457
programmed 469-70
pull 489, 490
and pultrusion 496-7
semifabricated composite 468
speeds 463
stages 469
technology 458-66
theory of 468-9
thermoplastics 458
of a torus 462
wet 458
Wmdmills 521
Wood 256, 838, 958
durability 256
end-grain balsa 256
low cost of 256
rehabilitation 988
Work of fracture
alumina composites 325
Silar 325
Tateho 325
Work-around technique 1006,1011
Workmanship 715
Woven
fabric 359
laminates 818
flexural strength 4{)1
reinforcements 91~17
Wrapping tapes 429
Wrinkles 487
X-ray
backscattering 845-6,846,847
imaging 844-9
cost advantages 845
foreign materials 844
honeycomb defects 845
matrix cracks 844
moisture contamination 858
non-film 845
porosity 844
XMC 381
Yarns
classification 4{)2
content, distribution 154
crimp 416
cross sections 411
designation, fiberglass 139-40
distribution 154
filament 164
fill 4{)7, 407
filling 140
geometry 4{)3-4, 403
identification 138-9
inclination angle 4{)7
jamming 412
longitudinal 415
orientation angle 412
S twist 138
slippage 399
surface weave 407, 407
textured 138
twisted, geometry 404
warp 14{)
web 4{)7, 407
Z twist 138
Yield
fiberglass 139-40
stress at break, PP /PCI-glass 898
Young's modulus
alumina composites 325
alumina silicate 309
carbon fIbers 295
CE 108
ceramic composites 312
ceramics 307
E-glass 24
and microtexture 189
resins 440
Silar 325
Tateho 325
whiskers 308
Z molding compound, see ZMC
Z twist, yarn 138
Zero-shear viscosity, rotational
molding 551
Zirconates, coupling agents 251
ZMC380
flexural modulus 386, 386
flexural strength 386, 386
formulation 384
injection machine 380
lZOD 386, 386
low viscosity 380
specific gravity expansion 386,
386
tensile modulus 386, 386
tensile strength 386, 386
thermal coefficient 386, 386
Zonyl 251
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