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the furnas/ponta grossa contact and the age of the lowermost ponta
Rev. bras. paleontol. 13(2):89-102, Maio/Agosto 2010
© 2010 by the Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia
doi: 10.4072/rbp.2010.2.02
THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT AND THE AGE OF THE
LOWERMOST PONTA GROSSA FORMATION IN THE APUCARANA
SUB-BASIN (PARANÁ BASIN, BRAZIL): INTEGRATED PALYNOLOGICAL
AGE DETERMINATION
YNGVE GRAHN, PAULA MENDLOWICZ MAULLER
Faculdade de Geologia, UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
[email protected], [email protected]
PIERRE BREUER
Geological Technical Services Division, Saudi Aramco, 31311, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. [email protected]
ELVIO PINTO BOSETTI
Laboratório de Paleontologia, UEPG, Rua Otaviano Macedo Ribas, 164, 84070-540, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brasil.
[email protected]
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SÉRGIO BERGAMASCHI & EGBERTO PEREIRA
Faculdade de Geologia, UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
[email protected], [email protected]
ABSTRACT – The Furnas/Ponta Grossa Formation contact was until recently considered gradational or abrupt and of a
Lochkovian to Pragian age in the Apucarana Sub-basin (Paraná Basin, south Brazil). Based on sedimentology and palynomorph
evidence a hiatus has been revealed between the Furnas Formation and the overlying Ponta Grossa Formation. The
boundary between the topmost Furnas sandstones and the lowermost Ponta Grossa fine-grained sandstones constitutes a
transgressive ravinement surface generated during a latest Pragian – early Emsian transgression. The hiatus corresponds to
a maximum of ca. 4 Ma. A similar gap is also present in the Alto Garças Sub-basin.
Key words: Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact, palynology, Early Devonian, Paraná Basin.
RESUMO – O contato entre as formações Furnas e Ponta Grossa na Sub-bacia de Apucarana (bacia do Paraná, sul do
Brasil) foi considerado até recentemente como gradacional ou abrupto e de idade Lockoviana/Praguiana. Com base em
evidências sedimentológicas e palinológicas um hiato foi revelado entre a Formação Furnas e a sobrejacente Formação Ponta
Grossa. O limite entre os arenitos da porção superior da Formação Furnas e os folhelhos e arenitos finos basais da Formação
Ponta Grossa constitui uma superfície de ravinamento gerada na transgressão entre o final do Praguiano e o Eo-Emsiano. O
hiato observado envolve um máximo de 4 Ma. Uma lacuna similar também foi descrita na Sub-bacia de Alto Garças.
Palavras-chave: contato Furnas/Ponta Grossa, Palinologia, Eodevoniano, bacia do Paraná.
INTRODUCTION
the Ponta Grossa Formation in the Apucarana Sub-basin.
Petri (1948) and Sanford & Lange (1960) considered these
beds to be transitional to the Ponta Grossa Formation. Based
on spores, Dino & Rodrigues (1995) dated early land plants
in the upper Furnas Formation (included in the transitional
beds by Petri, 1948) at PISA (Figure 2) to be of Pragian age,
and the overlying Ponta Grossa Formation to be of Emsian
age. Spores identified by Steemans from PISA during the
1990s was partially published by Gerrienne et al. (2001). The
same samples, complemented by new ones, were used to
review the age previously assigned, which was considered
Outcrops with a continuous sedimentary record over the
Furnas/Ponta Grossa (or Ponta Grossa equivalents) contact
are known from many localities in the Paraná Basin (Figures
1-2; for references see Grahn et al., 2000, 2010; Pereira, 2000;
Mauller et al., 2009). Published information of lithologies is
also known from several Petrobras wells (e.g. Lange, 1967;
Bergamaschi, 1999; Grahn et al., 2000, 2010; Bergamaschi &
Pereira, 2001; Gaugris & Grahn, 2006). Most of these localities
display an arenaceous or silty facies in the lowermost part of
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as early Lochkovian (Gerrienne et al., 2001). The
lithostratigraphic lateral equivalent level at Jackson de
Figueiredo (Figure 2), ca. 11 km west of the PISA locality, is
probably coeval of the PISA locality. However, no spores
have been found at this locality (Gerrienne et al., 2001).
Loboziak et al. (1995), based on spores in the uppermost
Furnas Formation (ca. 8 m below the Furnas/Ponta Grossa
contact) from core 23 in the Petrobras 2-CN-1-SC well (Figure
2), regarded the Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact as early
Pragian. Loboziak & Melo (2002, p. 141-142) pointed out that
the miospores from core 23 in well 2-CN-1-SC (Figure 7) are
comparable to those of the lowermost Jatapu and uppermost
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Figure 1. Location map of the localities from the Alto Garças Sub-basin discussed in this study.
GRAHN ET AL. – THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT IN THE APUCARANA SUB-BASIN
Manacapuru formations in the Amazonas Basin. Both intervals
are late Lochkovian as dated by chitinozoans (Grahn, 2005a,b).
Lithostratigraphic lateral unit in the Solimões Basin
(uppermost Jutaí Fm.) was dated as late Lochkovian (Z
Phylozone of the BZ Oppel Zone and Urochitina loboi
chitinozoan Sub-zone) by acritarchs and miospores
(Rubinstein et al., 2005, 2008) and chitinozoans (Grahn &
Melo, 2003).
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The early land plant bearing beds in the uppermost
Furnas Formation at the PISA locality are slightly older (Si
Phylozone of the MN Oppel Zone; Rubinstein et al., 2005)
and of late but not latest Lochkovian age. Dino (1999),
Mauller et al. (2009) and Grahn et al.(2010) considered the
lower Ponta Grossa Formation as latest Pragian-early
Emsian, but the lowermost 10 m of the Ponta Grossa shales
and the Ponta Grossa sandstones below were not sampled
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Figure 2. Location map of the localities from the Apucarana Sub-basin discussed and/or investigated in this study.
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REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE PALEONTOLOGIA, 13(2), 2010
or provided no palynological results. The first body fossils
from the Ponta Grossa shales in the Apucarana Sub-basin,
described in the literature, are from a level 10-15 m above the
contact with the arenaceous beds in the lowermost Ponta
Grossa Formation. These fossils are of late Pragian-early
Emsian age as evidenced by palynomorphs (Mauller et al.,
2009). The base of the Ponta Grossa Formation remains
undated. About 2.7 km north of Amorinópolis city (Figure 1)
in the northeastern part of the Alto Garças Sub-basin,
chitinozoans have been described from a level ca. 1 m above
a conglomerate between the Furnas and Ponta Grossa (=
Chapada Group unit 2 sensu Grahn et al., 2010) equivalents
(Grahn et al., 2000, 2010). This is in agreement with the
lowermost Chapada Group unit 2 in well RVR-1 (Figure 1;
Mauller et al., 2009), where a sample ca. 4 m above the contact
with the Furnas Formation (= Chapada Group unit 1 sensu
Grahn et al., 2010) is latest Pragian-early Emsian (Mauller et
al., 2009; Grahn et al., 2010). At Amorinópolis the plantbearing layers occur 4-5 m below the conglomerate in a deltaic/
lagoonal environment (Quadros & Melo, 1986; Pereira, 2000).
The plant remains are fragmented and probably transported.
Other localities with uppermost Furnas Formation in the Alto
Garças Sub-basin occur between Iporá and Palestina de Goiás,
close to the Caiapó River, and at Barra do Garças (Figure 1;
Pereira, 2000). Plant-bearing beds are also known ca. 6-12 m
below typical Ponta Grossa shales in a hummocky cross
stratified fine-grained sandstone associated with Skolithos
at Cachoeira das Andorinhas in the Parque Nacional da
Chapada dos Guimarães near Chapada dos Guimarães (Figure 1). The contact with the Furnas sandstones is a ravinement
surface, and between the lowermost Ponta Grossa sandstones
and the Ponta Grossa shales at this locality there is an interval,
ca. 4 m thick, with fine-grained sandstone with hummocky
cross stratification (Pereira, 2000). The preservation of the
plant remains suggests transport from continental or
transitional beds.
Furnas sandstone is ca. 120 m north-northeast of the
outcropping of lowermost Ponta Grossa shales (Bosetti et
al., 2006, 2009; Myszynski Jr. & Bosetti, 2006; Zabini et al.,
2010). Three outcrops constitute the locality (Francelina 13), of which the lower part (Francelina 2) is the section
investigated (Bosetti et al., 2009). The lithology of the Furnas
Formation is fine-grained sandstones with intercalated
siltstone layers (ca. 5 cm thick). No intervening faults are
known. The palynomorphs present are not age-diagnostic
(Figure 4).
Campus UEPG (25o05’33’’S, 50o06’15’’W)
The Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact is not exposed at this
locality (Figures 2, 4), but ca. 450 m towards the east occur
Furnas sandstones (Bosetti et al., 2006, 2009; Myszynski Jr.
& Bosetti, 2006; Horodyski et al., 2006; Zabini et al., 2010)
with the same lithologies as those near Vila Francelina. None
of the palynomorphs present are age-diagnostic (Figure 4).
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LOCALITIES AND PALYNOLOGICAL RESULTS
A more argillaceous facies, suitable for palynomorph
preservation, is known from four outcrops in the Campos
Gerais region (Vila Francelina, Campus UEPG, Avenida
Monteiro Lobato km 04 (CEFET), and km 60 on road PR-340)
in the Apucarana Sub-basin, and from some wells (e.g. 2-CS1-PR, 2-RI-1-PR and 9-PPG-6-PR) in the same sub-basin. Some
of the samples from these localities have yielded spores and
acritarchs, and allow dating of the base of the Ponta Grossa
Formation, and the initial Early Devonian transgression
represented by Ponta Grossa sandstones. The localities are
described below. The palynomorphs identified are listed in
the Appendix 1.
Vila Francelina (25o04’55’’S, 50o06’54’’W)
The Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact does not crop out at
this locality (Figures 2, 4), and the closest exposure with
Av. Monteiro Lobato, km 04, CEFET (25 o03'18,67"S, 50
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08'01,52"W)
A new road-cut near the corner of rua Antônio Saad and
Avenida Monteiro Lobato in Ponta Grossa (Figures 2, 4), and
about 100 m from Franco da Rocha (Grahn & Bosetti, 2010),
display a ca. 7 m thick sequence from the upper Furnas (ca. 3
m) and lower Ponta Grossa (ca. 4 m). The Furnas sandstones
have the same lithology as at Vila Francelina and Campus
UEPG, and the contact with the Ponta Grossa Formation is
distinct. A sample collected immediately above the Furnas/
Ponta Grossa contact yielded no palynomorphs.
PR-340, km 60, Tibagi (24o46’04’’S, 50o09’24’’W)
This is the classical locality with the Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact situated ca. 100 m from the Tibagi River (Figures 2,
4). The levels with early land plant remains are ca. 6 m below
the Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact (Bigarella et al., 1966;
Bergamaschi, 1999). Maack (1951) interpreted the siltitic layers
with plant remains as representative of glacially varved layers,
while Rodrigues el al. (1988) interpreted the outcrop as a
record of the early Devonian transgression. The faciological
aspect of the outcrop shows a lagoon and deltaic plain
covered by barrier sandstone deposited on a foreshore. The
outcrop is deeply weathered, and it has not been possible to
extract any palynomorphs from the boundary beds, which
are very distinct at this locality (Maack, 1951). Petri (1948)
and Rodrigues et al.(1988) regarded the fine-grained
sandstones above typical Furnas sandstones as transitional
beds between the Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations.
2-CS-1-PR, Chapéu do Sol no. 1 (24 o 57’49.789’’S,
51o58’2.940’’W)
This well was used by Milani et al.(1994), Bergamaschi
(1999) and Bergamaschi & Pereira (2001) for correlations in
the Paraná Basin. The lower Ponta Grossa shale in this well
(Figure 3) is dated as late Pragian-early Emsian as indicated
GRAHN ET AL. – THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT IN THE APUCARANA SUB-BASIN
by chitinozoans. Dictyotriletes sp. cf. D. richardsonii (= D.
favosus in Grahn et al., 2005) is known to occur in the lower
Ponta Grossa (Mauller et al., 2009), and in the contemporary
upper Jaicós Fm., Parnaíba Basin (Grahn et al., 2005).
Ancyrochitina pachycerata first occurs at the PragianEmsian transition in the Paraná Basin (Grahn, 2005a).
2-RI-1-PR, Rio Ivai no. 1 (23o19’52.067’’S, 52o27’18.436’’W)
This well was used for correlations in the Paraná Basin
by Assine et al. (1994), Milani et al. (1994), Bergamaschi
(1999), Bergamaschi & Pereira (2001) and Zabini et al. (2010).
The lower Ponta Grossa shales yielded Ramochitina
magnifica which is in agreement with a late Pragian-early
Emsian age.
9-PPG-6-PR, Ponta Grossa project no. 6 (24o35’12.2833’’S,
50o26’10.6697’’W)
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Gaugris & Grahn (2006) dated the upper part of this core
(20-30 m) as pre-late Emsian. Later investigations (e.g. Mauller
et al., 2009; Grahn et al., 2010) suggest a late Emsian age for
that part of the core, and where Ancyrochitina n. sp. C (pars)
sensu Gaugris & Grahn (2006) is conspecific with
Ancyrochitina aff. A. pachycerata (Mauller et al., 2009). The
latter species ranges through Emsian strata in the Paraná
Basin (Mauller et al., 2009; Grahn et al., 2010). The presence
of a diverse Ancyrochitina assemblage including
Ancyrochitina pachycerata s.s. characterizes the late Emsian
in the Paraná Basin. This age assignment is in agreement
with the present results. A low diversity miospore assemblage
including Dictyotriletes subgranifer dominates the sequence
in the lowermost Ponta Grossa Formation (Figure 5), which is
developed as storm bars (Rezende & Bergamaschi, 2008).
Latest Emsian chitinozoans occur at 68.80 m. Layers with
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Figure 3. Lithologic column and palynomorph range chart for the wells investigated.
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Figure 4. Lithologic column and palynomorph range chart for the outcrops investigated. For legend, see Figure 3.
GRAHN ET AL. – THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT IN THE APUCARANA SUB-BASIN
reworked material occur at 72.00 and 72.30 m, and the early
Emsian (PoW Su spore Zone)/late Emsian (AP spore Zone)
boundary is questionable, drawn at 72.30 m (Figure 5). No
positive evidence was found for the Emsian AB and FD spore
zones.
THE NATURE OF THE FURNAS/PONTA
GROSSA CONTACT
The upper part of the Furnas Formation is characterized
by fluvial and coastal coarse sandstones with silty layers
intercalated with coarse sandstones. These silty layers may
contain plant remains. The base of the Ponta Grossa Formation
represents the main transgressive surface into a 2nd order
cycle, and a 3rd order boundary (Bergamaschi, 1999). The
lithology consists of fine-grained littoral-sublittoral
sandstones with Skolithos (Borghi, 1993), sometimes
reworked by storms (hummocky cross stratification, storm
bars) or by intertidal erosion in more protected parts of the
basin (cyclic tidal bars). A cycle is initiated with a hardground
and ends with muddy layers. Bioturbation is common and
increases upwards in the tidal bar. Up to a maximum 20 m of
lowermost Ponta Grossa displays hummocky cross stratified
beds, deposited by oscillatory currents during storms that
reworked the sediments on the ravinement surface (Tamura
& Masuda, 2005; Grahn & Bosetti, 2010). Where hummocky
cross stratification, storm bars or intertidal cyclic bars are
missing there are low-angle tabular sandstones indicating
foreshore deposition.
Petri (1948) and Sanford & Lange (1960) considered these
beds as the upper part of the transitional beds to the overlying
more shaly Ponta Grossa Formation. Caster (1952) found
evidence for both abrupt and what he considered a
gradational contact. Diniz (1985) on the other hand regarded
these beds as part of the Ponta Grossa Formation. Bigarella
et al. (1966) remarked that the uppermost part of the Furnas
Formation has several layers with siltstones, argillaceous and
arenaceous siltstones, and argillaceous shaly beds although
not similar to those in the Ponta Grossa Formation. These
shaly layers always overlay an erosional surface and
truncated cross-stratified arenites characteristic of the Furnas
Formation. Bergamaschi (1999) and Bergamaschi & Pereira
(2001) interpreted the plant-bearing beds as deltaic-lagoonal
with the plants in situ and the arenites as deposited by
crevasse-splay flux in a lagoonal area recovered by tabular
sandstones associated with foreshore deposits (Rodrigues
et al., 1988; Bergamaschi & Pereira, 2001). Assine (1996) found
hummocky cross-stratified arenites associated with lags of
aligned disk-shaped pebbles with no excavation structures
below. He interpreted these beds as trangressive ravinement
surfaces reworked by storm action in a rapid transgression
from northeast. Similar beds are known from the lower Emsian
in the Paraná Basin (Grahn & Bosetti, 2010). Assine (1996)
and Bergamaschi (1999) recognized a hiatus between the
Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations, and placed the upper
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low angle sandstones below Ponta Grossa shales (transitional
beds by Petri, 1948) in the lowermost Ponta Grossa Formation.
The uppermost Furnas Formation is characterized by (i) silt
layers containing plant remains and rare palynomorphs (Milagres et al., 2007), dated as late, but not latest Lochkovian
(Loboziak & Melo, 2002; Rubinstein et al., 2005); and (ii) rare
laterally extensive conglomeratic layers with gravel and
pebbles. The Furnas Formation shows a general regressive
tendency upwards. The early land plant beds are here
considered as a late Lochkovian datum plane (Si Phylozone
in the MN Oppel Zone; Gerrienne et al., 2001; Rubinstein et
al., 2005, 2008). A dense sampling of core 9-PPG-6-PR from
the base of the “transitional beds” (76.5 to 80.7 m) below
typical Ponta Grossa Formation (from 76.5 m upwards; Figures 3, 5) revealed that these beds are probably late Pragianearly Emsian. Thus, the “transitional beds” are of the same
age as the lower part of the typical Ponta Grossa shales.
Attempts were made to date samples from lowermost Ponta
Grossa Formation with the Rb-Sr-method, but these failed
because of the unsuitable lithologies of the samples (Ana
Maria Misuzaki, pers. comm., 2009). The lowermost Ponta
Grossa sandstones were deposited as a result of an extensive
reworking of a ravinement surface that delimits the Furnas
Formation. The age of the ravinement surface is not older
than latest Lochkovian, and not younger than latest Pragian,
when the transgressive Ponta Grossa sandstones were
deposited. Early land plant layers have been found at varying
depths below the Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact at outcrop
localities in the Apucarana Sub-basin (Figure 2): (i) PISA ca.
2 km east of Jaguariaiva city at approximately 20 m below the
top of the Furnas Formation, which is here truncated by the
Carboniferous Itararé Group (Dino & Rodrigues, 1995; Dino
et al., 1995; Mussa et al.,1996; Bergamaschi, 1999; Gerrienne
et al., 2001; Rubinstein et al., 2005); (ii) Jackson de Figueiredo
ca. 11 km west of the PISA locality. Plant remains occur ca.
5 m below the top of the Furnas Formation (Mussa et al.,
1996; Bergamaschi, 1999; Gerrienne et al., 2001); (iii) Carambéi,
km 316.5, PR-151 at ca. 20 m below the top of the Furnas
Formation (Assine, 1996; Milagres et al., 2007). The contact
with Ponta Grossa Formation has not been observed; (iv) km
60, PR-340 (Figure 4) close to Tibagi River (Tibagi city) at ca.
6 m below the top of the Furnas Formation (Bigarella et al.,
1966; Bergamaschi, 1999); (v) BR-360, 1 km west of the
entrance to Parque Estadual Vila Velha at 8-10 m below the
top of the Furnas Formation (Bigarella et al., 1966). The
contact with Ponta Grossa Formation has not been
observed; (vi) Vila 31 de março, Ponta Grossa, at 2.5 m
below the top of the Furnas Formation (Rodrigues et al.,
1989). The contact with Ponta Grossa Formation has not
been observed.
The variable thickness of the basal Ponta Grossa
sandstones suggests a surface with a slightly undulating
relief when the late Pragian-early Emsian transgression
reached the area. The maximum gap between the youngest
dated Furnas Formation and the base of the Ponta Grossa
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Figure 5. Lithologic column and palynomorph range chart for well 9-PPG-6-PR. For legend, see Figure 3.
GRAHN ET AL. – THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT IN THE APUCARANA SUB-BASIN
Formation corresponds to the E Phylozone of the BZ Oppel
Zone-pre PoW Su spore Zone (latest Lochkovian and most
of the Pragian), a time interval representing ca. 4 Ma (Figure 6).
REMARKS ON THE MIOSPORE AND
CHITINOZOAN ASSEMBLAGES
In the Paraná Basin, late Lochkovian spores have been
described from the uppermost Furnas Formation. Dino and
Rodrigues (1995) and Dino et al.(1995) found Dictyotriletes
emsiensis and Dictyotriletes subgranifer at the PISA locality
and dated these beds as Pragian. Loboziak et al.(1995)
described a miospore assemblage from the uppermost Furnas
in well 2-CN-1-SC, and based on the occurrence of
Dictyotriletes emsiensis and Dibolisporites cf. eifeliensis,
these beds were considered early Pragian. The samples from
PISA were re-investigated by Gerrienne et al.(2001), and the
specimens of Dictyotriletes emsiensis are now interpreted as
intermediate forms between D. emsiensis and D. granulatus.
These forms are known from the late Lochkovian MN Oppel
Zone and younger strata in western Gondwana (D. emsiensis
Morphon Assemblage Zone by Rubinstein et al., 2005). The
presence of Aneurospora geikiei and Synorisporites
verrucatus further strengthen a Lochkovian age for the
uppermost Furnas Formation. According to Rubinstein et
al.(2005), the absence of characteristic species such as
Dibolisporites eifeliensis and Dibolisporites echinaceus at
PISA suggests a late, but not latest Lockovian age (Si
Phylozone of the MN Oppel Zone). The presence of
Dibolisporites cf. eifeliensis in core 23 in well 2-CN-1-SC
suggests a slightly younger age, but not older than the Z
Phylozone of the BZ Oppel Zone. Core 23 probably has a
coeval stratigraphic position with the latest Lochkovian
assemblages from the Solimões Basin (Rubinstein et al.,
2005). No chitinozoans are known from the Furnas Formation.
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Figure 6. Correlation scheme for the Furnas/Ponta Grossa contact.
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Figure 7. Selected spores (A-G, G-N), algae (F), acritarchs (O-P), and chitinozoans (Q-T) from the Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations
in the Apucarana Sub-basin. A, Apiculiretusispora plicata. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 79.28 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908831, T68/1; B, cf.
Cymbosporites asymmetricus. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 78.42 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908830, F58/4; C,Dictyotriletes aff. emsiensis
sensu Le Hérisse 1983. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 76.00 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908403, P57/4; D, Dictyotriletes subgranifer. Well 9-PPG6-PR, 68.10 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908377, T68/2-4; E, Dibolisporites spp. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 79.80 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA
200908832, W64/2; F, Quadrisporites horridus. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 78.42 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908830, U69/1; G, Ambitisporites
avitus. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 78.42 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908830, X45/3; H, Ambitisporites avitus? Well 2-CS-1-PR, 3765-3780 m,
Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407124, E17c; I, cf. Brochotriletes foveolatus Well 2-CS-1-PR, 3765-3780 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407124, P14;
J, Dictyotriletes sp. cf. D. richardsonii. Well 2-CS-1-PR, 3765-3780 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407124, U17/3; K, ?Knoxisporites riondae.
Well 2-CS-1-PR, 3765-3780 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407124, R34/4; L, Synorisporites papillensis. Well 2-CN-1-SC, core 23 (1455-1457
m). Furnas Fm. BPA 2917, O59/3-4; M, Dibolisporites echinaceus. Well 2-CN-1-SC, core 23 (1455-1457 m). Furnas Fm. BPA 12847, K45/
2; N, Dictyotriletes emsiensis Well 2-CN-1-SC, core 23 (1455-1457 m). Furnas Fm. BPA 12848, N47/4; O. Anthatractus insolithus. Well 9PPG-6-PR, 78.00 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 200908828, V68/3; P, Polyedrixium decorum. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 68.40m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA
200908378, W70; Q, Ancyrochitina pachycerata. Well 2-CS-1-PR, 3765-3780 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407124, D49c; R, Ancyrochitina
sp. B sensu Grahn 2000. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, BPA 200908376, 67.80 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. 200908376, O60/3; S, Ramochitina magnifica.
Well 2-RI-1-PR, 4800-4820 m. Ponta Grossa Fm. BPA 9407145, T36c; T, Ramochitina ramosi. Well 9-PPG-6-PR, 68.70m. Ponta Grossa Fm.
BPA 200908379, J46c. Scale bars = 20 μm.
GRAHN ET AL. – THE FURNAS/PONTA GROSSA CONTACT IN THE APUCARANA SUB-BASIN
99
A poorly diagnostic miospore assemblage occurs from
the base of the Ponta Grossa sandstones into the more shaly
parts of the formation, suggesting the PoW Su spore Zone.
The index species Dictyotriletes subgranifer is common and
occurs together with other characteristic species such as
Dictyotriletes emsiensis morphon and Dictyotriletes sp. cf.
D. richardsonii. Chitinozoans are rare but Ramochitina
magnifica and Ancyrochitina pachycerata are present. The
late Emsian is pooly characterized by miospores in this study.
The chitinozoans constitute a characteristic latest Emsian
assemblage with species such as Ancyrochitina sp. B sensu
Grahn, 2000, Angochitina daemoni, and Ramochitina ramosi.
These species also occur in the Tibagi Member of the Ponta
Grossa Formation, as defined in the Tibagi-Telemâco Borba
section (Bergamaschi, 1999; Grahn et al., 2000).
research. Thanks are also due to C.S. Valladares, head of the
post-graduate program at the Faculty of Geology at UERJ for
access to the facilities, to Project Paleosul at UERJ for granting
samples from well 9-PPG-6-PR, and to PETROBRAS for
permission to publish this paper. Ana M. Misuzaki is warmly
thanked for assessing the potential of some Ponta Grossa
Fm. samples for geochronological age determinations, and
C.E.S. Cruz for discussions on the sedimentology of well 9PPG-6-PR. Manuscript evaluation by M.E. Longhin and M.
Arai are greatly appreciated. Art Boucot checked the English.
The comments of the two reviewers, P. Steemans and C.
Rubinstein, greatly improved the content. Our sincere thanks
go to all.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
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Bergamaschi, S. 1999. Análise estratigráfica do Siluro-Devoniano
(formações Furnas e Ponta Grossa) da sub-bacia de
Apucarana, bacia do Paraná, Brasil. Universidade de São
Paulo, Doctoral thesis, 167 p.
Bergamaschi, S. & Pereira, E. 2001. Caracterização de seqüências
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Borghi, L. 1993. Caracterização e análise faciológica da Formação Furnas (Pridoli-Eodevoniano) em afloramentos do flanco
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Caster, K.E. 1952. Stratigraphic and paleontologic data relevant to
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UPDATE,
PROBLEMS
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REFERENCES
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For the first time the lowermost Ponta Grossa Formation
has been dated. An integrated (spore, acritarch and
chitinozoan) palynomorph study of the upper Furnas and
lower Ponta Grossa formations reveals a hiatus between the
ravinement surface that delimits the Furnas and the initial
lower Devonian transgression represented by the basal Ponta Grossa sandstones (Figure 6). This gap corresponds to a
maximum of ca. 4 Ma (E Phylozone of the MN Oppel Zone
and pre-PoW Su spore Zone). The Ponta Grossa basal
sandstones (transitional beds sensu Petri, 1948) were
deposited through an extensive erosion and reworking of
the ravinement surface (hummocky cross stratification, storm
bars and intertidal cyclic bars), and are dated as late Pragianearly Emsian (PoW Su spore Zone). The same age is found in
the lower Ponta Grossa shales. The finds of early land plants
in the uppermost Furnas Formation have been previously
dated as late, but not latest Lochkovian (Si Phylozone of the
MN Oppel Zone) by Rubinstein et al. (2005, 2008). On the
eastern border of the Paraná Basin a ravinement surface can
be associated with a 3rd order sequence boundary. Zalan et
al. (1987) interpreted the contact between the Ponta Grossa
sandstones and shales as a gap corresponding to a maximum
of ca. 10 Ma. A possible gap within the Ponta Grossa
Formation corresponding to the Emsian AB-FD Oppel Zones,
and possibly a latest Emsian age for the Tibagi Member s.s.,
is also suggested by the present study.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
YG thanks the CNPq (PQ 309751/2007-1), which made his
work possible through grants. PMM thanks CAPES (BEX
4515/05-6) for grants. PB acknowledges the Saudi Aramco
for granting permission to work on this material. EPB thanks
the CNPq (PQ 480427/2007-0) for financial support and to the
Palaios Group/UEPG/CNPq for support in the field work. SB
acknowledges the support of FAPERJ. EP thanks CNPq
(304961/2007-8) and FAPERJ for grants supporting his
100
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Appendix 1. List of taxa mentioned or discussed in text and/or figures.
Spores
cf. Acinosporites sp.
Ambitisporites avitus Hoffmeister, 1959
Aneurospora geikiei Wellman & Richardson, 1996
Apiculiretusispora brandtii Streel, 1964
Apiculiretusispora plicata (Allen) Streel, 1967
Apiculiretusispora spp.
Archaeozonotriletes chulus (Cramer) Richardson & Lister, 1969
Artemopyra recticosta Breuer et al., 2007
Artemopyra cf. recticosta Breuer et al., 2007
Brochotriletes foveolatus (Naumova) McGregor, 1973
cf. Brochotriletes foveolatus (Naumova) McGregor, 1973
Chelinospora retorrida Turnau, 1986
Cirratriradiates diaphanus Steemans, 1989
Cymbosporites asymmetricus Breuer et al., 2007
cf. Cymbosporites asymmetricus Breuer et al., 2007
Cymbosporites spp.
Dibolisporites echinaceus (Eisenack) Richardson, 1965
Dibolisporites eifeliensis (Lanninger) McGregor, 1973
Dibolisporites cf. eifeliensis (Lanninger) McGregor, 1973
Dibolisporites spp.
Dictyotriletes emsiensis (Allen) McGregor, 1973
Dictyotriletes aff. emsiensis sensu Le Hérisse, 1983
Dictyotriletes emsiensis morphon sensu Rubinstein et al., 2005.
Dictyotriletes granulatus Steemans, 1989
Dictyotriletes subgranifer McGregor, 1973
Dictyotriletes sp. cf. D. richardsonii Steemans, 1989
Dictyotriletes spp. (D. emsiensis ?)
Emphanisporites rotatus McGregor, 1973
?Knoxisporites riondae Cramer & Díez, 1975
Retusotriletes maculatus McGregor & Camfield, 1976
Retusotriletes sp.
Synorisporites papillensis McGregor, 1973
Synorisporites verrucatus Richardson & Lister, 1969
Tetrahedraletes medinensis Strother & Traverse emend. Wellman & Richardson, 1993
Zonotriletes sp.
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Acritarchs and algae
Anthatractus insolitus Deunff, 1954
Baltisphaeridium paraguaferum Cramer, 1964
Deunffia sp.
Diexallophasis remota (Deunff) Playford, 1977
Gorgonisphaeridium sp.
Leiosphaerida spp.
Polyedryxium decorum Deunff, 1955
Quadrisporites granulatus Cramer & Cramer, 1972
Quadrisporites horridus (Hennelly) Potonié & Lele, 1961
Schizocystia sp.
Tasmanites sp.
Tyligmasoma spp.
Veryhachium rabiosum Cramer, 1964
Veryhachium trispiniflatum Cramer, 1964
Veryhachium spp.
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Chitinozoans
Ancyrochitina pachycerata Gaugris & Grahn, 2006
Ancyrochitina n.sp. C sensu Gaugris & Grahn, 2006 = Ancyrochitina aff. A. pachycerata
Ancyrochitina sp. B sensu Grahn, 2000
Ancyrochitina varispinosa? (Lange, 1967)
Ancyrochitina spp.
Angochitina daemoni Grahn, 2000
Ramochitina magnífica Lange, 1967
Ramochitina ramosi Sommer & Boekel, 1964
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