Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline
81 Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline Volume 15 Number 3 June 2012 Editor-in-Chief Tommy Boone, PhD, MBA Review Board Todd Astorino, PhD Julien Baker, PhD Steve Brock, PhD Lance Dalleck, PhD Eric Goulet, PhD Robert Gotshall, PhD Alexander Hutchison, PhD M. Knight-Maloney, PhD Len Kravitz, PhD James Laskin, PhD Yit Aun Lim, PhD Lonnie Lowery, PhD Derek Marks, PhD Cristine Mermier, PhD Robert Robergs, PhD Chantal Vella, PhD Dale Wagner, PhD Frank Wyatt, PhD Ben Zhou, PhD JEPonline Transition Points of Heart Rate during a Progressive Maximal Intermittent Field Test in Young Soccer Players Antônio José Ferreira-Júnior1, Gabriel Guidorizzi Zanetti2, Patrícia Guimarães Couto3, Letícia A. L. G. Bastos4, Sandro Fernandes da Silva 1, Jorge Roberto Perrout Lima 1, Fernando Roberto De-Oliveira5 1 Department of Physical Education / Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 2Department of General and Specialized Nursing / University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 3Department of Nutrition / Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil, 4Department of Physical Education/Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil, 5Department of Physical Education/Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil ABSTRACT Official Research Journal of the American Society of Official Exercise Research Physiologists Journal of the American Society of Exercise ISSN Physiologists 1097-9751 ISSN 1097-9751 Ferreira-Junior AJ, Zanetti GG, Couto PG, Bastos LALG, Silva SF, Lima JRP, De-Oliveira FR. Transition Points of Heart Rate during a Progressive Maximal Intermittent Field Test in Young Soccer Players. JEPonline 2012;15(3):81-88. The purpose of this study was to identify the heart rate inflection point (HRIP) and the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) during a progressive maximal intermittent field test (TCar) in the 29 young soccer players. In order to identify the transition points, the differences of the heart rate (HR) values derived from linear and polynomial fits using all HR points were calculated. We were able to identify the HRIP in just three subjects (76 ± 1% of HR max and 77 ± 2% of Peak Velocity). The HRDP was identified in all the subjects (92% ± 2% of HR max and 84 ± 4% of Peak Velocity). The reduced number of identifications for HRIP was probably due the elevated values of HR in the first stage of TCar (149 ± 12 beats·min-1). Thus, using the original TCar protocol, it is possible to identify the HRDP. However, for studies using HRIP, it should be used with a smaller initial load in the test. Key Words Heart Rate, Transition Points, Soccer 82 INTRODUCTION Given the specificity that is so important in sport assessment (3,19), there has been an increase in the use of a field intermittent graded test (TCar) to assess maximal aerobic power of soccer players (2,10,14). Carminatti et al. (5) and Da Silva et al. (9) reported the validity of a field IGT with short periods of pause (TCar) in the identification of peak velocity (PV). They also identified anaerobic threshold by the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) using visual inspection as proposed by Conconi and colleagues (7) and by second order polynomial fitting of the heart rate (HR) curve as recommended by Dmáx-Kara method (13). Carminatti (6) showed that the HRDP during the TCar test, identified by the Dmáx-Kara method, is similar to the maximum lactate steady-state (MLSS). On the other hand, Lima (15) in a graded cycleergometer test, verified that it would be possible to determine a heart rate inflection point (HRIP) by a sigmoid fitting of HR curve. This point is correlated to the lactate threshold. Thus, it could be assumed that HR during a graded test shows two transition points (TP). Cambri et al. (4), using third order polynomial fit, proposed a modification in Dmáx-Kara method (13) where it then became possible to identify both HRIP and HRDP. The identification of both TP has been successfully applied in both treadmill (4) and cycle-ergometer tests (8,15). Although the two TP have been successfully identified in different protocols in the laboratory, there are no data in the literature concerning the identification of these two TP in young soccer players using a specific IGT test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify HRIP and HRDP in a progressive maximal intermittent field test (TCar) in young soccer players. METHODS Subjects Twenty-nine young soccer players with at least 1 yr of regular training at the regional level were evaluated. The mean age and body fat of the subjects were 14.3 ± 1.4 yrs and 15.4 ± 6.3%, respectively. All subjects signed an informed consent, which was previously approved by the Ethics Committee of Itaúna University. The soccer players were instructed to avoid intense exercise during the 24 hrs prior to the test, and they were told not to eat solid food in the 2 hrs before the TCar. Procedures The assessments were divided into two steps. During the first step, the subjects’ anthropometric were assessed. During the second step, the subjects were submitted to the TCar test in a grass field using soccer cleats. The assessment was done in the soccer field of the multisport Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). The temperature was 24.6 ± 2.6 °C and air relative humidity was 68.3 ± 13.1%. Anthropometric Assessment The subjects’ body mass was determined using a digital scale Britânia®. Height was measured using a professional stadiometer Asimed®, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were determined using the BodyCaliper®. The subjects’ fat percentage was estimated using Lohman equation (16). TCar Protocol Before the TCar test, the subjects were submitted to 10-min warm-up that consisted of a light run and 5 min of stretching. Then, the subjects performed the TCar test, which consisted of stages of 90 sec of shuttle-run with the initial distance of 15 m completed in 12 sec (9 km·h-1). The pace was controlled by a sounding beep of the SpheraPortable Server software. A distance of 1 m (0.6 km·h-1 ) was added to the subsequent stages. Between each stage, there was a 6-sec walking pause. At the end 83 of each stage, HR was recorded by a portable HR monitors (Polar® S810i). Figure 1 presents the protocol of the TCar test. Figure 1. TCar Scheme. Identification of the Heart Rate Transition Points The values % of maximal HR recorded for each subject were plotted as a function of velocity (HR, beats·min-1 x Velocity, km·h-1). The Dmáx-Cambri (4) method was used to identify the HRIP and HRDP. Briefly, the HR-velocity curve was fitted both by third-order polynomial and linear equations. The differences between the observed and fitted HR values were calculated for each stage velocity. After that, the differences were plotted as a function of velocity and the highest negative difference was considered as HRIP, and the highest positive difference was considered as HRDP (refer to Figures 2 and 3). Figure 2. Example of Individual Third-Order Polynomial and Linear Fitting of Heart RateVelocity Curve 84 Figure 3. Example of Heart Rate Inflection Point and Heart Rate Deflection Point identification. Statistical Analyses The values are expressed as mean and standard deviation. The HRIP and HRDP are expressed in absolute and relative to maximum values. RESULTS All the subjects finished the TCar. They reached a PV of 14.1 ± 0.2 km·h-1 and a HR max of 200 ± 7 beats·min-1, which corresponded to 97% of the maximal HR predicted for the subjects’ age (220-age). The mean values of % HR max plotted as a function of the % PV and adjusted by third-order polynomial equation are presented in Figure 4. It was observed that the deflection of the curve (92%) in which PV HRDP was identified was not clearly evident with the curve inflection. Thus, the HRIP was found in only three participants (10.3%) that corresponded to 76 ± 9% of the PV and 76 ± 2% of the HR max. On the other hand, the HRDP was found in 100% of the subjects. The HRDP corresponded to 84 ± 4% of the PV and 92 ± 2% of the HR max (Table 1). Table 1. Heart Rate and Velocity at Transition Points (Mean ± SD). HR (beats·min-1) Percentage HR max (%) V (km·h-1) Percentage PV (%) HRIP (n=3) HRDP (n=29) 155 ± 8 185 ± 9 76 ± 2 92 ± 2 9.8 ± 1.0 11.3 ± 0.8 76 ± 9 84 ± 4 85 Figure 4. Percentage of the Maximum Heart Rate by Percentage of the Velocity Peak (Mean ± SD), Fitted by Third Order Polynomial Equation. DISCUSSION To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that both HRIP and HRDP were identified in young soccer players during a graded field test. The TCar was chosen because: (a) it is a validated test for team sports; and (b) its use in assessment and prescription of aerobic soccer training. The main results are twofold. First, it was possible to identify the HRDP in all the subjects. Second, it was possible to identify the HRIP in only 10% of the subjects. Heart Rate Inflection Point The HRIP results in the present study are significantly different from that reported by Lima (15), DeOliveira (10), and Costa et al. (8). They identified the HRIP in 72%, 74%, and 80% of the subjects, respectively. Lima (15) identified HRIP at 58%, De-Oliveira (10) at 74%, and Costa et al. (8) at 73% of the PV. It should be noted that the HRIP values were found in close intensities across these studies, regardless the protocol differences. It could be argued that during the initial loads of the progressive exercise there was a parasympathetic withdrawal due to the heart with a parallel increase in the sympathetic activation. This caused an alteration in the cardiac autonomic control (1) that resulted in an abrupt increase in HR (i.e., HRIP) (4). The reason for the low number of subjects with HRIP in the present study is very likely related to the elevated metabolic demand on the first stage of the TCar test. At the end of the first stage, the subjects reached 65% of the PV and 74% of the HR max. At this intensity, most of the subjects may already have reached the HRIP. Thus, in retrospect, it is recommended that low initial velocities should be used to identify the HRIP. The problem is that there are no IGTs with low initial velocities (4). Heart Rate Deflection Point The HRDP was identified in 100% of the subjects at 84% ± 4% of the PV and 92 ± 2% of the HR max. These values are similar to the reported values by Carminatti (6) and Piasecki (18), using a similar protocol as applied in the present study. De-Oliveira (10) reported HRDP in 87% of the subjects. It appears that the existence of the HRDP is dependent on the action of the left ventricle as a function 86 of the level of catecholamines and circulating potassium. A possible explanation for the fact that we were able to find the HRDP in all subjects may be a function of their myocardial wall thickness, which may have resulted in a better cardiac efficiency in the progressive exercise test (17). The intensity in which the HRDP was identified was similar to the values found by Carminatti (6) (78 ± 3% of the PV) and by Piasecki (18) (84 ± 5% of the PV). The %HR max of the HRDP found in the present study was 92 ± 2%, which is essentially in agreement with De-Oliveira (10) (91 ± 3% of the HR max) and Piasecki (18) (95 ± 2% of the HR max). Similarly, Carminatti (6) identified the HRDP at 88 ± 3% of the HR max. These findings support the notion that HRDP can be used as a useful tool for training prescription. Limitation of the Study One limitation of the present study was the lack of lactate measurement for the identification of lactate threshold (11). In future studies, lactate should be measured. Practical Implications It can be assumed that the HRDP is a simple index, easily identified during a progressive maximal intermittent field test. The results in this study further demonstrate the association between the HRDP and the MLSS (20), which should help stimulate the use of the HRDP by trainers and coaches as an additional tool for training control. On the other hand, the Dmáx–Cambri method (4) was not able to identify the HRIP, suggesting that the trainers and coaches should be careful when using the TCar to identify the HRIP. CONCLUSIONS It is concluded that it was not possible to identify HRIP during an intermittent graded test (TCar) in young soccer players, probably due the elevated cardiovascular effort during the first stage. On the other hand, the HRDP was identified in all the soccer players. Thus, using the original TCar protocol, it is possible to identify the HRDP. However, for studies using HRIP, it should be used with a smaller initial load in the test. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge the help of Adriano Eduardo Lima da Silva for help with the revision process of this manuscript. Address for correspondence: Ferreira-Júnior AJ, Department of Physical Education, Campus Universitário, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, zip-code: 36036900. Phone +55 32 32188766; Email. [email protected] REFERENCES 1. Alonso DO, Rezende LO, Forjaz CLM, Braga AMW, Negrão CE, Barretto ACP, Rondon MUPB. Comportamento da freqüência cardíaca e da sua variabilidade durante as diferentes fases do exercício físico progressivo máximo. Arq Bras Cardiol. 1998;71(6):787-792. 87 2. Aziz AR, Mukherjee S, Chia MY, Teh KC. Relationship between measured maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic endurance performance with running repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(4):401-407. 3. Barbero-Alvarez JC, Andrín G. Desarrollo y aplicación de un nuevo test de campo para valorar la resistencia específica en jugadores de fútbol sala: TREIF (Test de Resistencia específica intermitente para Futsal). EFDeportes.com. 2005;(89). Available in: (http://www.efdeportes.com). Accessed:19 jun. 2011. 4. Cambri LT, Foza V, Nakamura FY, De-Oliveira FR. Frequência cardíaca e a identificação dos pontos de transição metabólica em esteira rolante. Rev Educ Fis. 2006;17(2):131-137. 5. Carminatti LJ, Silva AEL, De-Oliveira FR. Aptidão aeróbia em esportes intermitentes evidências de validade de constructo e resultados em teste progressivo com pausas. Rev Bras Fisiol Exerc. 2004;3(1):120-130. 6. Carminatti LJ. Validade de limiares anaeróbios derivados do teste incremental de corrida intermitente (TCar) como preditores do máximo steady-state de lactato em jogadores de futsal. 2006. 105f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências do Movimento Humano) Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis. 7. Conconi F, Borsetto C, Ziglio PG, Droguetti P, Codega L. Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a noninvasive field test in runners. J Appl Physiol. 1982;52(4):869-873. 8. Costa VP, Lima J, De-oliveira FR. Identificação de limiares metabólicos em curvas de freqüência cardíaca ajustadas. Rev bras Educ Fís Esp. 2007;21(3):219-227. 9. Da Silva JF, Guglielmo LG, Carminatti LJ, De Oliveira FR, Dittrich N, Paton CD. Validity and reliability of a new field test (Carminatti's test) for soccer players compared with laboratorybased measures. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(15):1621-1628. 10. De-Oliveira FR. Prediccion de los umbrales de lactato y ajustes de frecuencia cardiaca en el test de legerboucher. 2004. 229f. Tese (DoutoradoemFilosofia e Ciências da Educação)- Facultad de Filosofia y Ciências de la Educación, San Sebastian. 11. Erdogan A, Cetin C, Karatosun H, Baydar ML. Non-invasive indices for the estimation of the anaerobic threshold of oarsmen. J Int Med Res. 2010;38(3):901-915. 12. Hofmann P, Pokan R, Preidler K, Leitner H, Szolar D, Eber B, Schaberger G. Relationship between heart rate threshold lactate turn point and myocardial function. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15(5):232-237. 13. Kara M, Gökbel H, Bediz C, Ergene N, Uçok K, Uysal H. Determination of the heart rate deflection point by the Dmax method. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1996;36(1):31-34. 14. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Nybo L, Jensen JM, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J. The .Yo-yo test: Physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(9):16661673. 88 15. Lima J. Freqüência cardíaca em cargas crescentes de trabalho: ajuste sigmóide, ponto de inflexão e limiar de variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca. 1997. 129f. Tese (Doutorado em Biodinâmica do Movimento Humano) - Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. 16. Lohman TG. The use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness on children and youth. JOPERD. 1987;58(9):67,69. 17. Lucia A, Carvajal A, Boraita A, Serratosa L, Hyos J, Chicharro JL. Heart dimensions might influence the occurrence of heart rate deflection point in highly trained cyclists. Br J Sports Med. 1999;33:387-392. 18. Piasecki F. Métodos de identificação do limiar de transição fisiológica em protocolo progressivo intermitente com pausa. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado ) - Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 2006. 19. Svensson M, Drust B. Testing soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):601-618. 20. Ribeiro JP, Fielding RA, Hughes V, Black A, Bochese MA, Knuttgen HG. Heart rate break point may coincide with the anaerobic and not the aerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med. 1985;6(4):220-224. Disclaimer The opinions expressed in JEPonline are those of the authors and are not attributable to JEPonline, the editorial staff or the ASEP organization.