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Baixar Capítulo - Editora Alta Books
Leia & Pense
I like to see a man proud of the place in which he lives.
I like to see a man live so that his place will
be proud of him.
Abraham Lincoln
often associated: muitas vezes associado
prosperity: prosperidade
freedom: liberdade
driven/to drive: levado/levar
viewed: visto
land of opportunity: terra da oportunidade
have settled/to settle: estabeleceram-se/
fresh start: novo começo
new life: nova vida
promise: promessa
had begun/to begin: tinha começado/
to attract: atrair
looking for/to look for: procurando/
hoped to escape: esperavam fugir
class boundaries: divisões classistas
helped shape: ajudou a moldar
creating/to create: criando/criar
thousands: milhares
development: desenvolvimento
big business: grandes negócios
standard of living: padrão de vida
tycoons: magnatas
willingness: vontade, disponibilidade
think/to think: pensam/pensar
implies/to imply: implica/implicar
financial security: segurança financeira
material comfort: conforto material
coined the term: inventou o termo
broader meaning: significado mais
land: terra
according: de acordo
ability: habilidade
wages: salários
merely: apenas
be able to attain: ser capaz de alcançar
fullest stature: estatura máxima
innately capable: naturalmente capazes
recognized: reconhecidos
birth: nascimento
position: posição
achieve/to achieve: realiza/realizar
answer: resposta
depends: depende
luckily: felizmente
living: vivemos
to choose from: para escolher
4 culture
The American Dream
The American Dream is often associated with immigration.
For years, the dream of prosperity and freedom has driven
immigrants to the United States. America is viewed as the land
of opportunity and immigrants from all over the world have
settled in the U.S. with dreams of a fresh start and a new life.
By the 1900’s, the promise of the American Dream had
begun to attract large numbers of immigrants looking for
work in large cities. With hard work and determination
immigrants hoped to escape the class boundaries of their
home countries.
The Industrial Revolution helped shape the American
Dream by creating thousands of jobs. The development
of big business, the Transcontinental Railroad, and the
increase in oil production improved the American standard
of living. “Rags to riches” stories of business tycoons led to
the belief that if you had intelligence, and a willingness to
work hard, you would have a successful life.
When people think of the American Dream they think of
a successful and satisfying life. The term usually implies
financial security and material comfort, but can also mean
living a fulfilling life.
James Truslow Adams coined the term “American Dream”
in his book The Epic of America. However, Truslow’s coinage
of the phrase had a broader meaning.
The American Dream is “that dream of a land in which
life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with
opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is
not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream
of social order in which each man and each woman shall be
able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately
capable, and be recognized by others for what they are,
regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.”
How do you achieve the American Dream?  That answer
depends upon your personal definition of the term. Luckily
for us, living in America—the land of opportunity, there are
many dreams to choose from!
A Melting Pot
The term melting pot is
strongly associated with the
United States. The United
States is a melting pot of
people from different cultures
and races. Throughout the
country you will notice
differences in the way people
live, eat and even talk.
While American English is generally standard, American
speech can differ according to what part of the country
you are in.
Certain traits and personalities are connected with certain
regions. Westerners are known as the least traditional of
Americans, and the most tolerant of change and differences.
Midwesterners are known for being honest, straightforward
people of traditional values.
The southwest has had the least inf luence by European
immigrants. Much of its culture has been defined by native
Americans and by the Spanish.
Southerners are probably the most distinctive of all American
groups, with more relaxed attitudes and traditional ways
than their neighbors to the north. They are known for their
The Northeast is well known for its culture with excellent
theaters and museums. It is also regarded for its educational
system with some of the most highly rated and respected
universities in the country. This region is also known for its
large mix of ethnic groups.
Every time we speak, we say volumes about where we are
from; the neutral tones of the Midwest, the rapid speech of
New York City, the long drawl that characterizes the South.
If you say a certain word or phrase, people will most likely
be able to guess where you are from.
term: termo
strongly: fortemente
associated with: associado com
people: pessoas
races: raças
throughout: por todo
you will notice: você perceberá
differences: diferenças
way: forma
live/to live: vivem/viver
eat/to eat: comem/comer
even: até mesmo
talk/to talk: falam/falar
while: ainda que
generally: geralmente
standard: padrão
speech: fala
differ: diferenciar-se
according to: de acordo com
country: país
traits: características
personalities: personalidades
connected/to connect: conectadas/
known as: conhecidos como
least: menos
most tolerant: mais tolerantes
change: mudança
honest: honestos
straightforward: diretos
values: valores
has been defined/to define: foi definida/definir
probably: provavelmente
distinctive: distintivos, característicos
relaxed attitudes: atitudes tranquilas
neighbors: vizinhos
hospitality: hospitalidade
museums: museus
regarded: respeitados, estimados
highly rated: classificação elevada
respected: respeitadas
mix: mistura
ethnic groups: grupos étnicos
every time: toda vez
say/to say: dizemos/dizer
volumes: muito
neutral tones: tons neutros
rapid speech: fala rápida
long drawl: o sotaque de fala lenta
characterizes/to characterize:
certain: certa
word: palavra
phrase: frase
most likely: provavelmente
guess: adivinhar
central character: personagem central
colorful: colorido
ranching: rancheira
has played/to play: representou/representar
is embedded/to embed: está incorporada/incorporar
stories: histórias, contos
songs: músicas
legends: lendas
although: embora
generally: geralmente
considered/to consider: considerado/
icon: ícone
comes from/to come from: origina-se
de/originar-se de
Civil War: Guerra Civil
soldiers: soldados
drifting/to drift: migrando/migrar
means/to mean: significam/significar
guns: armas
cattle: gado
gunfights: tiroteios
rugged country: uma terra rústica
amenities: conforto
danger: perigo
appealing: atrativos
open and untamed: abertos e indomados
owned/to own: possuíam/possuir
carry/to carry: carregar/carregar
horseback: em seus cavalos
ranchers: rancheiros
hired/to hire: contratavam/contratar
hard-working: trabalhadores
ranch hands: vaqueiros
tended to/to tend to: cuidavam/cuidar
the herd: rebanho
when the time came: quando chegava
o momento
round up/to round up: reuniam/reunir
open prairie: pradaria aberta
drive/to drive: conduziam/conduzir
market: mercado
depicted/to depict: descreviam/descrever
rustlers: ladrões de gado
while: ainda que
in some cases: em alguns casos
often: muitas vezes
lonely: solitário
harsh conditions: condições difíceis
exposed: exposto
despite this: apesar disto
joked/to joke: brincavam/brincar
simple way of life: estilo de vida
6 culture
The American Cowboy
The central character of
America’s colorful ranching heritage is the cowboy. The American cowboy
has played an important
part in American culture
and history. The cowboy
inf luence is embedded in
stories, songs, legends,
movies, art and fashion.
Although the cowboy is generally considered an American icon, the traditional cowboy actually comes from a
Hispanic tradition, which originated in Central Mexico,
known as “charro.”
At the end of the Civil War, many soldiers had no home,
and no place to go. They started drifting to the West. To
many, this term means guns, cattle, horses and gunfights.
It was a rugged country with few amenities and a lot of
danger. The Western territories were appealing to the
adventurous, and they were open and untamed. Many of
these men only owned what they could carry on horseback.
Ranchers hired these hard-working men as ranch hands.
The ranch hands tended to the herd and did work around
the ranch. When the time came to sell the beef, the ranch
hands would round up the herd from the open prairie and
drive the cattle to market.
Popular stories about the cowboys depicted them as rustlers
or professional gunfighters. While this is true in some cases, the average American cowboy was often lonely, lived
in harsh conditions, and was frequently exposed to danger.
Despite this, the cowboys always kept their sense of humor
and joked about everything. They did not make much money and enjoyed the simple way of life.
Tough as nails, but generous and hospitable, these were
the true Wild West American cowboys. The cowboy was
the embodiment of rugged independence. Some names
you might be familiar with are Butch Cassidy and The
Sundance Kid, Buffalo Bill, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp and
Doc Holiday.
Many of these cowboys became legends in real life and later
legends of the silver screen. They rode horses. They sang
songs. Their horses did tricks and their guns were shiny.
They became American heroes.
Modern working Cowboys
Being a cowboy is certainly not a thing of the past.
Throughout the U.S., you
will find cowboys working
on ranches and farms. The
exact number of working
cowboys is unknown. Cowboys are responsible for
feeding the livestock, branding cattle and horses, and
tending to injuries. They also move the livestock to different pasture locations, or herd them into corrals. In addition, cowboys repair fences, maintain ranch equipment,
and perform other odd jobs around the ranch.
And last, but not least: the cowgirl! The history of women
in the west is not as well documented as that of men. However, in recent years companies have dedicated time and
money to researching the cowgirl tradition. The National
Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame has made great efforts
to document the history of cowgirls.
tough as nails: duros que nem pedra
(expressão idiomática)
generous: generosos
hospitable: hospitaleiros
embodiment: personificação
rugged independence: forte independência
real life: vida real
later: mais tarde
silver screen: cinema
sang/to sing: cantavam/cantar
did tricks: faziam truques
shiny: brilhantes
working: trabalhadores
being: ser
a thing of the past: uma coisa do
farms: fazendas
exact: exato
unknown: desconhecido
responsible: responsáveis
feeding: pastagem
livestock: criação
branding/to brand: marcar/marcar
tending to: cuidando de
injuries: ferimentos
move: mudam
pasture locations: localizações de pasto
herd/to herd: arrebanha/arrebanhar
repair/to repair: conserta/consertar
fences: cercas
maintain/to maintain: preserva/
perform/to perform: realiza/realizar
odd jobs: trabalhos esporádicos
last, but not least: último, mas não
menos importante
cowgirl: vaqueira
not as well documented: não é tão
bem documentada
companies: empresas
have dedicated/to dedicate: tem
researching/to research: pesquisa/
National Cowgirl Museum and Hall
of Fame: Museu Nacional e Galeria
da Fama da Vaqueira
to document: para documentar
is considered: é considerado
significant: importante
to emerge/to emerge: que surgiu/
widely known: amplamente conhecido
birthplace: lugar de nascimento
make/to make: faz/fazer
listener: ouvinte
feel/to feel: sentir-se/sentir
happy: feliz
sad: triste
mellow: tranquilo
energetic: energizado
sound/to sound: soa/soar
loud: alto
soft: suave
performers: músicos
improvise/to improvise: improvisam/
create/to create: criam/criar
has its roots: tem suas raízes
century: século
to develop: a desenvolver
gospel music: música gospel
sad songs: músicas tristes
slavery: escravidão
the first true: a primeira verdadeira
happened/to happen: aconteceu/
during: durante
came out of/to come out of: veio à
tona/vir à tona
to gain popularity: ganhou popularidade
became/to become: tornou-se (famoso)/tornar-se (famoso)
trumpet: trompete
unusual: incomum
call/to call: chamam/chamar
Golden Age: Era de Ouro
as time passed: com o passar do tempo
danced/to dance: dançaram/dançar
led/to lead: liderou/liderar
swing bands: bandas de swing
presented/to present: apresentou/
playing together: tocando juntos
first time: primeira vez
8 culture
American Jazz
Jazz is considered the most significant, inf luential and
innovative music to emerge from the United States.  New
Orleans, Louisiana, is widely known as the birthplace
of jazz.
Jazz can make the listener feel happy or sad, mellow or
energetic. Jazz can sound loud or soft. Performers of jazz
improvise and create music as they play. 
Jazz has its roots in the
nineteenth century. In
the late 1880’s, AfricanAmericans began to develop
new forms of music. They
created blues music from the
gospel music and sad songs
of their years in slavery. 
From the blues came the
first true jazz music. This
happened during the early
1900’s in Louisiana.   Classic,
traditional or Dixieland
jazz came out of the music
originating in New Orleans.
During the 1920’s, jazz continued to gain popularity. 
Louis Armstrong became famous for his performances on
the trumpet  and for his unusual voice. Louis Armstrong
became one of the most inf luential and loved U.S. jazz
musicians. Historians call the 1920’s the Golden Age of
American Jazz. 
As time passed, a jazz form called “swing” became very
popular in America.   People danced to swing music until
after World War II. Benny Goodman led one of America’s
most successful swing bands.  People called Goodman “The
King of Swing.” Goodman also presented black and white
jazz musicians playing together for the first time. 
After World War II, swing jazz became less popular. 
Americans began to listen to different sounds.  One was
bebop. Young musicians had created bepop in the 1940’s
and it gained popularity slowly over the years. The music
seemed harshly different to the ears of the public. Bebop
appeared to sound racing, nervous, and often fragmented.
Nevertheless, bebop was an exciting and beautiful revolution
in the art of jazz.
In the 1950’s, cool jazz became popular. Cool jazz instruments
sound softer than bebop and the rhythm is more even.
With cool jazz came many new listeners. People went to
jazz clubs and bought jazz recordings. The introduction
of the long-playing record also helped the music become
more popular. 
In the 1960’s a new kind of music, rock and roll, grew very
popular in the United States. People throughout the world
listened to the rock music of Elvis Presley and the Beatles. 
This new music cut into the popularity of jazz.
In the 1980’s, trumpet
player Wynton Marsalis
helped lead a return to
more traditional jazz. This
mainstream jazz borrows
sounds from swing, bebop
and cool jazz. Marsalis is one
of the most well known and
praised jazz musicians.
Today, jazz musicians play all types of music. Jazz can
sound like swing or bebop.  It can sound like rock and roll. 
It can sound like American Western music. It can sound like
the music of several nations and ethnic groups. Or, it can
sound traditional. With so many options to choose from,
people of all ages and all walks of life can find enjoyment
and an appreciation for American jazz.
less: menos
began to listen: começaram a escutar
sounds: sons
young: jovens
gained/to gain: ganhou/ganhar
slowly: lentamente
harshly different: bem diferente
ears: ouvidos
racing: rápido
nervous: agitado
fragmented: fragmentada
nevertheless: contudo
revolution: revolução
sound/to sound: soam/soar
softer: mais suaves
more even: mais uniforme
new: novos
clubs: clubes
bought/to buy: compravam/comprar
recordings: gravações
long-playing record: LP (disco de vinil)
helped/to help: ajudou/ajudar
throughout: por todo
listened to/to listen to: ouviam/ouvir
cut into/to cut into: reduziu/reduzir
lead a return: liderou o retorno
mainstream: corrente dominante
borrows/to borrow: pega emprestado/
pegar emprestado
most well known: mais famosos
praised: elogiados
today: atualmente
all types: todos os tipos
so many options: tantas opcões
to choose from/to choose: para serem
ages: idades
all walks of life: classe social
find/to find: encontra/encontrar
enjoyment: diversão
appreciation: apreço
beginnings: origens
can be traced back to: remontam a
bar room singers: cantores de bar
gospel choirs: coros de gospel
early: original
have their roots: têm suas raízes
started/to start: começou/começar
at first: a princípio
were recorded/to record: eram gravados/gravar
only: apenas
performed/to perform: interpretados/
live: ao vivo
passed down/to pass down: passou/passar
oral tradition: tradição oral
storytelling: narração de histórias
produced/to produce: produziu/
leading: principais
came out/to come out: surgiram/
known as: conhecida como
museums: museus
are located: estão localizados
because of: por causa da
served as/to serve as: servia como/
servir como
vehicle: veículo
to convey: transmitir
daily: cotidianas
early forms: primeiras formas
which allowed: que permitiam
laborers: trabalhadores
field: campo
to keep in contact: ficarem em
dancing: dançar
combined/to combine: combinava/
with a new type: com um novo tipo
marked a new era: marcou uma nova era
eventually: finalmente
would contribute to/to contribute to:
contribuiria para/contribuir para
you can/can: você pode/poder
around: por todo
legendary: lendário
10 c u l t u r e
Singing the Blues
America’s beginnings in music
can be traced back to “the
blues.” Bar room singers in the
south, gospel choirs, rock and
roll, pop styles and early jazz all
have their roots in blues music.
The blues started in Mississippi
after the Civil War. At first blues
were recorded only by memory,
and performed only live and in
person. The blues passed down
from generation to generation
through an oral tradition much like storytelling.
Mississippi produced many leading blues musicians,
including Charley Patton, Robert Johnson, Howlin’ Wolf,
Muddy Waters and B.B. King. These musicians came out
of the area known as the Mississippi Delta. Three blues
museums are located in the Mississippi Delta—the Delta
Blues Museum in Clarksdale, the Blues & Legends Hall of
Fame Museum in Robinsonville and the Highway 61 Blues
Museum located in Leland.
Because of the early African-American experience and
slavery, “singing the blues” served as functional music
offering African-Americans a vehicle to convey their daily
experiences. Early forms of the blues include the “field
holler,” which allowed laborers in the fields to keep in
contact with each other, while the “ring shout” was used
for dancing.
The blues combined the styles of the past with a new type
of song. The popularity of the blues marked a new era for
music. The result was the creation of a style of music that
would eventually contribute to the development of jazz.
You can experience the blues live at festivals all around the
U.S. For a complete listing of legendary rhythm and blues
festivals visit: www.bluesfestivals.com
Native American
The America discovered by the first Europeans was not an
empty wilderness. Approximately 2 – 18 million people
lived in what is now called the United States. These people,
Native American Indians, were the first people to live
here. The name “Indian” was first applied by Christopher
Columbus. Columbus mistakenly thought America was
part of the Indies, in Asia.
Indian customs and culture were extremely diverse due to the
expanse of the land and the many different environments they
had adapted to. Most tribes combined gathering, hunting,
and the cultivation of corn and other products for their food
supplies. The women cared for the children, and were in charge
of farming and the distribution of food. The men hunted and
participated in war. Indian culture in North America was tied
closely to the land. Nature was part of their religious beliefs.
Initially, the Europeans were welcomed enthusiastically
by the Native Americans. Conf licts soon arose. The value
systems were different for each group. The natives were in
tune to the rhythms and spirit of nature. Nature to the
Europeans was a commodity: a beaver colony was a number
of pelts, a forest was timber for building. The Europeans
expected to own land and claimed it. The Indians, on the
other hand, were considered by the Europeans as nomadic
with no interest in land ownership.
It was the Europeans’ materialistic view of the land that the
Indians found repellent. The conf licts and wars continued until
the end of the 19th century. On June 2, 1924, Congress granted
citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S. The right to
vote was governed by state law. In some states, Native American
Indians were prohibited from voting until 1948.
Many Native Americans are politically and socially active,
holding fast to the ancient values of their ancestors. Prayers
for peace, respect for the environment, and love for all things
living is a legacy that remains today.
discovered by: descoberta pelos
first: primeiro
empty wilderness: imensidão vazia
lived/to live: viviam/viver
what is now called: que é agora
applied: usado
mistakenly: erroneamente
thought/to think: pensou/pensar
expanse: extensão
environments: ambientes
had adapted to/to adapt to: adaptaram-se/ adaptar
combined/to combine: combinava/
gathering: colheita
hunting: caça
cultivation: cultivo
cared for/to care for: cuidavam das/
cuidar de
in charge of: responsáveis pela
farming: agricultura
participated in: participavam da
tied closely: estreitamente ligada
beliefs: crenças
were welcomed: foram recebidos
enthusiastically: com entusiasmo
arose/to arise: apareceram/aparecer
value systems: sistemas de valores
in tune: em sintonia
rhythms: ritmos
spirit: espírito
nature: natureza
commodity: mercadoria
beaver colony: colônia de castores
pelts: peles
forest: f loresta
timber: madeira
building: construção
expected to: supuseram-se
claimed/to claim: reivindicaram/
on the other hand: por outro lado
nomadic: nômades
ownership: posse, propriedade
coupled with: combinado com
view: visão
found/to find: achavam/achar
repellent: repulsiva
century: século
granted citizenship: concedeu cidadania
was governed/to govern: foi determinado/determinar
were prohibited/to prohibit: foram
holding fast: agarrando-se
ancient: antigos
prayers: orações
legacy: legado
remains/to remain: persiste/persistir
unlike: ao contrário de
many: muitos
came/to come: chegaram/chegar
against their will: contra sua vontade
were caught up: foram envolvidos
slave trade: tráfico de escravos
waged/to wage: travaram/travar
centuries-long: secular
freedom: liberdade
full involvement: plena participação
society: sociedade
transformed/to transform: transformou/transformar
shaped/to shape: moldou/moldar
the world we live in today: o mundo
em que vivemos atualmente
remade: refeitos
workers: trabalhadores
activists: ativistas
organizers: organizadores
thinkers: pensadores
more than: mais de
claim/to claim: alegam/alegar
ancestry: descendência
increases/to increase: aumenta/aumentar
every year: cada ano
explorers: exploradores
colonists: colonos
free will: livre arbítrio
century: século
Age of Exploration: Era do Descobrimento
open up/to open up: explorar/explorar
Southwestern: sudoeste
during: durante
were transported/to transport: foram
British colonies: colônias britânicas
later: posteriormente
precise: preciso
current estimates: cálculos
report/to report: relatam/relatar
died/to die: morreram/morrer
journey: jornada
today: hoje
again: de novo
making their way: encontrando seu
shores: costas
to start: para começar
12 c u l t u r e
African Heritage
Unlike other immigrants, many Africans came to North
America against their will. They were caught up in a
brutal system of human exploitation—the transatlantic slave
African Americans waged a centuries-long battle for dignity,
freedom, and for full involvement in American society.
Their participation transformed the United States, and
shaped the world we live in today. Our customs have been
inf luenced or remade by the efforts of African American
workers, artists, activists, organizers, and thinkers.
More than 35 million Americans claim African ancestry.
The number of African immigrants to the U.S. increases
every year.
Explorers and Colonists
When Africans first came to the Americas, they came of their
own free will. They arrived at the same time in history as
the first Europeans. During the sixteenth century, African
adventurers participated in the Age of Exploration. In the
early 1500s, Africans explored Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru. The
African explorer Estevanico helped the Coronado expedition
open up what is now the Southwestern United States.
During the 300 years of the transatlantic slave trade,
approximately 20 million Africans were transported to the
Americas as slaves. Of these, more than 400,000 were sent to
the 13 British colonies and, later, the United States. We may
never know a precise number, but current estimates report
that more than 1 million Africans died on the journey.
Today, Africans are coming to America again.
From Togo, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mali, Nigeria—Africans
are again making their way to American shores to start
More than 500,000 Africans came to the United States in
the 1990’s alone. This is more African immigrants than had
come in all the 150 years before.
Today, Africans are immigrating to a country profoundly
shaped by the long African experience in the United States.
America is a country where people of African ancestry now
hold positions of power, prestige, and inf luence, even as
the nation continues to grapple with the aftermath of
segregation and inequality. The United States is a country
that has seen three of its most prominent African American
citizens awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; the diplomat Ralph
Bunche, the civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., and
the novelist Toni Morrison.
alone: sozinhos
than had come: do que os que vieram
before: antes
country: país
profoundly: profundamente
shaped: moldado
hold positions: ocupam postos
continues/to continue: continua/
grapple: lutar
aftermath: consequências
inequality: desigualdade
civil rights: direitos civis
leader: líder
perhaps: talvez
enriched: enriquecido
to recognize: a reconhecer
Perhaps most important, America is a country that continues
to be enriched by and to recognize its African heritage.
Martin Luther King Jr.,
was the most famous leader of
the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist
minister, and was one of America’s
greatest orators.
In 1964, King became the youngest
man awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a peacemaker,
promoting nonviolence and equal
treatment for different races.
On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1977, he was posthumously awarded the Presidential
Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter.
In 1986, Martin Luther King Day was established as a United States holiday. Martin Luther King is one of only three persons to
receive this distinction (including Abraham Lincoln and George
Washington), and of these persons the only one not a U.S. president, indicating his extraordinary position in American history.
In 2004, King was posthumously awarded the Congressional
Gold Medal. King often called for personal responsibility in
fostering world peace. King’s most influential and well-known
public address is the “I Have A Dream” speech, delivered on the
steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. in 1963.
most famous: mais famoso
leader: líder
American civil rights movement:
movimento norte-americano pelos
direitos civis
minister: pastor
Nobel Peace Prize: Prêmio Nobel da
peacemaker: pacificador
non violence: não violência
was assassinated/to assassinate: foi
was posthumously awarded: foi
premiado postumamente com
Medal of Freedom: Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade
holiday: feriado
one of only: um de apenas
distinction: título de honra
indicating: indicando
Congressional Gold Medal: Medalha
de Ouro do Congresso
often: muitas vezes
called for/to call for: chamou para si/
chamar para si
fostering: promover
world peace: paz mundial
speech: discurso
delivered/to deliver: pronunciado/
steps: escadarias
myths: mitos
legends: lendas
songs: músicas
written: escrita
perhaps: talvez
documented: documentada
journals: jornais
recounting: relatando
topics: temas
were prompted by: foram inspirados no
discussing: debatendo
religious foundations: fundações religiosas
increasing desire to produce: crescente
desejo de produzir
emerged/to emerge: surgiu/surgir
key: principais
shocking: chocante
work: obra
he claimed/to claim: ele alegou/alegar
to do away with: acabar com
reach/to reach: alcança/alcançar
spiritual state: estado espiritual
studying/to study: estudando/estudar
responding to/to respond to: respondendo a/responder a
nonconformist: inconformista
wooded: arborizada
pond: lagoa
urges/to urge: encoraja/encorajar
organized society: sociedade organizada
first: primeiro
major: grande
away from: longe de
masterpieces: obras-primas
literary style: estilo literário
highly evocative: altamente evocativo
irreverently funny: irreverentemente
changed the way: mudou a forma
set the scene: preparou o terreno
working-class people: classe operária
struggle: luta
to lead: levar
masterpiece: obra-prima
tells/to tell: conta/contar
entering/to enter: admitidos em /
will find/to find: descobrirão/descobrir
will include/to include: incluirão/
stunningly: surpreendentemente
will chronicle/to chronicle: registrarão/registrar
14 c u l t u r e
Early American
Early American literature began with the myths, legends,
and songs of Indian cultures. There was no written literature
during this time. Perhaps the first documented written
literature is historical literature in journals recounting the
exploration of early settlers of the United States.
Topics of early American writings were prompted by
discussions of religion. John Winthrop wrote a journal
discussing the religious foundations of the Massachusetts
Bay Colony. The War of 1812 prompted an increasing
desire to produce unique American work. From this
emerged a number of key literary figures, including Edgar
Allan Poe, Washington Irving, and James Fennimore Cooper.
In 1836, Ralph Waldo Emerson published a shocking
nonfiction work called Nature. In it, he claimed it was possible
to do away with organized religion and reach a spiritual state
by studying and responding to the natural world.
Emerson’s friend was Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau was a
nonconformist. After living alone for two years in a cabin
by a wooded pond, Thoreau wrote Walden, a memoir that
urges resistance to organized society.
Mark Twain was the first major American writer to be born
away from the East Coast—in the state of Missouri. His
masterpieces were the memoir Life on the Mississippi and the
novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain’s literary style
was direct, highly evocative, and irreverently funny. Mark
Twain’s literature changed the way Americans write.
John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California, which set the
scene for many of his stories. Steinbeck wrote about poor,
working-class people and their struggle to lead a decent
life. The Grapes of Wrath, considered his masterpiece, is a
novel that tells the story of a family’s journey to California.
At universities across the United States, students entering a
class in American literature will find that their studies will
include books that are stunningly diverse. Future American
writers will write of a new experience. New American literature will chronicle the experiences of different ethnic groups
and immigrants that make up the United States.
Artistic Expression
The artistic expression of Americans is as diverse as the
people who live in America. Two famous American artists
who believed that art belonged to the people are featured
in this article; Norman Rockwell, whose work represented
life in America; and Andy Warhol, who sparked a revolution
in art during the 1960’s.
Norman Rockwell (February 3, 1894–November 8, 1978)
Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations he
created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine.
In 1943, during the Second World War, Rockwell painted
the Four Freedoms series. The work was inspired by a speech
by Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had declared that there were
four principles for universal rights: Freedom from Want,
Freedom of Speech, Freedom to Worship, and Freedom
from Fear. Rockwell considered “Freedom of Speech” to be
the best of the four.
Norman Rockwell was very prolific, and produced over
4000 original works, most of which have been either
destroyed by fire or are in permanent collections. Original
magazines in mint condition that contain his work are rare
and are worth thousands of dollars.
Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928–February 22, 1987)
Warhol was an American artist associated with the definition
of Pop Art. Warhol was a painter, a commercial illustrator,
an avant-garde filmmaker, music industry producer, writer
and celebrity.
Warhol studied commercial art at Carnegie Mellon University
in Pittsburgh. He showed an early artistic talent. He moved
to New York City in 1949 and began a career in advertising
and magazine illustration.
During the 1960s Warhol began to make paintings of famous
American products such as Campbell’s Soup Cans and CocaCola, as well as paintings of celebrities like Marilyn Monroe.
Warhol sparked a revolution in art—his work quickly
became very controversial, and popular. Warhol became one
of the most famous American artists of the day.
artistic expression: expressão artística
as diverse as: tão diversa quanto
famous: famosos
who believed: que acreditavam
belonged to/to belong to: pertencia a/
pertencer a
people: pessoas
featured/to feature: retratados/retratar
represented/to represent: representava/representar
sparked a revolution: incitou uma
cover illustrations: ilustrações de capa
magazine: revista
during: durante
was inspired by/to inspire: foi inspirado por/inspirar
had declared/to declare: tinha declarado/declarar
principles: princípios
universal rights: direitos universais
freedom of speech: liberdade de expressão
worship: adoração, culto
fear: medo
the best: o melhor
prolific: criativo
produced/to produce: produziu/
works: obras
destroyed/to destroy: destruídas/
fire: fogo
mint condition: em perfeito estado
contain/to contain: contém/ conter
rare: raras
worth/to be worth: valem/valer
associated with: associado com
Pop Art: arte pop (popular)
commercial illustrator: ilustrador
avant-garde filmmaker: cineasta
producer: produtor
writer: escritor
artistic talent: talento artístico
began/to begin: começou/começar
career: carreira
celebrities: celebridades
quickly: rapidamente
one of the most famous: um dos mais
birthplace of: lugar de nascimento de
characterized by: caracterizado por
simplicity: simplicidade
charm: charme
cultural center: centro cultural
fascinated/to fascinate: encantou/
middle-class people: pessoas da classe
in search of: em busca de
best seats in the house: melhores
lugares da casa
relationship: relação
audience: público
lively: ativo
high-spirited: animado
caught up in: envolvida com
hissing/to hiss: assobiando/assobiar
booing/to boo: vaiando/vaiar
clapping/to clap: aplaudindo/aplaudir
cheering/to cheer: ovacionando/
to escape the reality: para escapar
da realidade
getaway: fuga
however: no entanto
assisting/to assist: apoiando/apoiar
war: guerra
effort: esforço
raise money: levantar fundos
relief: assistência
after: após
was filled/to fill: estava recheado/rechear
crowds: pilhas
enthusiastic citizens: cidadãos entusiasmados
f lags: bandeiras
since that day: desde aquele dia
gathering place: ponto de encontro
reached its prime: atingiu seu auge
fresh ideas: novas ideias
hope: esperança
organizer: organizador
dazzling: deslumbrante
inf luenced/to inf luence: inf luenciou/inf luenciar
stock-market crash: quebra da bolsa
de valores
plunged/to plunge: afundou/afundar
declined/to decline: declinou/declinar
put…out of work: desempregou/
to write/to write: escrevendo/escrever
plays: peças
state of affairs: situação
included/to include: incluíam/incluir
weapon: arma
playwrights: dramaturgos
social commentary: crítica social
16 c u l t u r e
The Birthplace of
New York City is the birthplace of Broadway, which began
in the early 1900s. Characterized by simplicity and charm,
Broadway soon became the cultural center of New York.
The theatre district fascinated large groups of middle-class
people in search of music, excitement, and romance. The
best seats in the house cost only $2.00.
The relationship between audience and actors was lively and
high-spirited. Audiences became caught up in the plays, talking
to the actors, hissing and booing, or clapping and cheering.
To escape the reality of World War II, many used Broadway
plays as an entertaining getaway. However, the Broadway
community became especially active in assisting the war
effort. The play Yip, Yip, Yaphank at the Century Theatre
helped raise money for war relief.
After World War II ended, Times Square was filled
with crowds of enthusiastic citizens carrying f lags and
celebrating. Since that day, Times Square has continued as a
gathering place for the people of New York City.
Broadway reached its prime during the 1920s. Fresh
ideas and hope filled the theatre. Lawrence Langner,
organizer of the Theatre Guild, helped Broadway become
a dazzling performing arts center that inf luenced the
theatre of the world.
After the stock-market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression,
Broadway plunged. The number of productions declined and
put many theatre people out of work. Ironically, this became
a creative period. Established writers organized the Playwrights
Company, and continued to write interesting plays that were
concerned with the state of affairs in America.
Many off Broadway theatres now included dramas of social
protest, using the slogan “Theatre as a Weapon.” Many
playwrights used the theatres to make social commentary.
Broadway began to compete with television and movies
during the 1940s. Most theatres on Broadway were being
turned into film houses. Movies were beginning to take over
the entertainment business. Also by this time, television
was becoming a competitor. Television was providing the
public with free entertainment.
In the 1950’s Broadway had become less of an industry and
more of a loose array of individuals. This period in America
was one of increasing intolerance and political persecution,
but Broadway was not afraid to express nonconformist
opinions. Broadway did not fear the government. Although
Broadway theatre had lost some of its range, it still retained
its liveliness and joyfulness. In a country that now required
conventionality, Broadway held onto a sense of freedom of
speech and action. These were the ideals on which the nation
was founded.
Many memorable musicals emerged in 1950-1970. Some
of these included West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound
of Music, Fiddler on the Roof, Man of La Mancha, and Hair.
Modern day Broadway is alive and well and Broadway
theatre is considered the most prestigious form of professional
theatre in the United States, as well as the most well known
to the general public.
Seeing a Broadway show is a popular tourist activity in
New York. Some ticket booths sell same-day tickets for
many Broadway shows at half price. This service helps sell
seats that would otherwise go empty, and makes seeing a
show in New York more affordable. Many theatres also offer
special student rates, same-day “rush” tickets, or standingroom tickets to help ensure that their theatres are full.
Theatres all across America produce Off-Broadway and
original plays, musicals and dance productions. American
Theatre offers a diverse range of entertainment. With many
themes to choose from you are certain to find a show that
interests you.
to compete with: a competir com
were being turned into: estavam se
transformando em
were beginning to/to begin to:
estavam começando a/ começar a
to take over: assumir/assumir
entertainment business: negócios de
by this time: nesse meio tempo
competitor: concorrente
free: grátis
less of…and more of: menos de... e
mais de
a loose array of: uma série solta de
was not afraid: não estava com medo
express nonconformist opinions:
expressar opiniões inconformistas
did not fear/to fear: não temia/temer
had lost/to lose: tenha perdido/perder
some of its range: parte de seu alcance
retained/to retain: preservava/preservar
conventionality: convencionalismo
freedom of speech: liberdade de
was founded/to found: foi fundada/
musicals: musicais
emerged/to emerge: surgiram/surgir
modern day: atualmente
alive and well: sã e salva
seeing: assistir
show: espetáculo
popular tourist activity: atividade
turística popular
ticket booths: bilheterias
sell/to sell: vendem/vender
same-day tickets: entradas para o
mesmo dia
half price: metade do preço
seats: lugares
otherwise: caso contrário
go empty: teriam ficado vazios
rates: preço
same day “rush” tickets: entradas
“urgentes” para o mesmo dia
standing-room tickets: entradas
populares para assistir em pé
ensure: assegurar
full: lotado
produce/to produce: produzem/
range: série
themes to choose from: temas para
serem escolhidos
certain to find: certamente encontrará
interests you: do seu interesse
ask/to ask: pergunta/perguntar
cultural values: valores culturais
you might receive blank stares: talvez
receba um olhar inexpressivo
no response: nenhuma resposta
society: sociedade
diverse: diversificada
likely: provável
answers: respostas
has been enriched/to enrich: tem sido
belief systems: sistemas de crença
a few select: uns poucos escolhidos
core: centro
nearly: quase
would agree upon: poderiam concordar
individual freedom: liberdade individual
whether you call it: seja chamando isto de
cornerstone: alicerce
destiny: destino
inf luenced/to inf luence: inf luenciou/inf luenciar
government: governo
was established/to establish: foi
guaranteed: garantidos
large corporations: grandes corporações
majority of: a maioria de
businesses: negócios
owned: de propriedade de
dream: sonho
own boss: próprio patrão
being: sendo
most appealing ways to improve:
formas mais atraentes para melhorar
is regarded/to regard: é considerado/
key to opportunity: chave para a
including: incluindo
approach: abordagem
classroom: sala de aula
internships: estágio
considered: consideradas
lifelong: vitalício
continuing education programs:
programas de educação contínua
belief: crença
be all that you can be: ser tudo o que
você puder ser
emanates/to emanate: emana/emanar
heritage: herança
early settlers: primeiros colonos
to improve themselves: melhorarem a
si mesmos
to develop: para desenvolver
talents: talentos
neighbors: vizinhos
18 c u l t u r e
Cultural Values
If you ask Americans what the cultural values in the
U.S. are, you might receive blank stares and little or no
response. In a society as diverse as the United States, there
is likely to be a multitude of answers. American culture has
been enriched by the values and belief systems of almost
every part of the world. A few select values are at the core of
the American value system.
Individual Freedom — One value that nearly
every American would agree upon is individual freedom.
Whether you call it individual freedom, or independence, it
is the cornerstone of American values.
The concept of an individual having control over his/her
own destiny inf luenced the type of government that was
established here. Individual rights are guaranteed in the
United States Constitution.
While our economic system may be dominated by large
corporations, the majority of American businesses are small,
and many are owned by an individual or a family. It is part
of the “American dream” to “be your own boss.” Being an
entrepreneur is one of the most appealing ways to improve
one’s economic future.
Choice in Education
Education is regarded as the
key to opportunity, including
financial security. Americans
take a pragmatic approach
to learning. What one learns
outside the classroom through
internship and extracurricular
activities is often considered as
important as what is learned in
the classroom. Lifelong learning
is valued which is why you will
find many adult and continuing
education programs.
The belief that Americans should “be all that you can be”
emanates from our Protestant heritage. Since the majority of
the early settlers were Protestant, they believed that they had a
responsibility to improve themselves, to be the best they could
be, to develop their talents, and to help their neighbors.
The Family — The
main purpose of the American family is to bring
about the happiness of each
individual family member.
The traditional family values
include love and respect for
parents, as well as for all
members of the family.
The emphasis on the individual and his/her right to
happiness can be confusing. It allows children to disagree,
even argue with their parents. While in most other cultures
such action would be a sign of disrespect, that is not the case
in the United States. It is considered a part of developing
one’s independence.
Privacy — Privacy is important to Americans. The
notion of individual privacy may make it difficult to make
friends. Because Americans respect one’s privacy, they may
not go beyond a friendly “hello.”
The rugged individualism valued by most Americans stems
from our frontier heritage. Early settlers had to be selfsufficient, which forced them to be inventive. Their success
gave them optimism about the future, a belief that problems
could be solved. This positive spirit enables Americans to take
risks in areas where others might only dream. This results in
tremendous advances in technology, health and science.
In addition to such basic American values as individual
freedom, self-reliance, equality of opportunity, hard work,
material wealth, and competition, we see a trend toward
conservation. There is an emphasis on recycling and
preserving the environment. Also there is a greater sensitivity
to cooperation on a global scale.
No matter what changes the next century brings or whether
you agree with American values, the opportunity to live in
the United States is a wonderful and new experience.
O artigo anterior foi escrito por Thomas E. Grouling, PhD, que
é o Diretor Adjunto do Departamento de Programas e Serviços
Internacionais da Universidade Drake. Trabalha como conselheiro dos estudantes e alunos de intercâmbio, e também é diretor
do Programa de Inglês Intensivo. O professor Grouling trabalhou
com alunos internacionais e minorias étnicas por aproximadamente 40 anos e realiza um seminário anual sobre os Estudos
Americanos na Universidade Drake.
main purpose: objetivo principal
happiness: felicidade
include/to include: incluem/incluir
love: amor
parents: pais
as well as: assim como
emphasis: ênfase
confusing: confuso
allows/to allow: permite/permitir
to disagree: a discordar
argue/to argue: discute/discutir
action: ação
sign: sinal
disrespect: desrespeito
developing: desenvolvimento
privacy: privacidade
notion: noção
difficult: difícil
may not go beyond: talvez não vão
além de
friendly: amigável
rugged: determinado
stems from/to stem from: originam-se
de/originar-se de
frontier heritage: herança de fronteira
self-sufficient: autossuficientes
forced/to force: forçou/forçar
inventive: criativos
success: sucesso
optimism: otimismo
solved/to solve: resolvidos/resolver
enables/to enable: permitem/permitir
to take risks: se arrisquem
results in: resulta em
advances: avanços
health: saúde
in addition to: além disso
hard work: trabalho duro
material wealth: riqueza material
competition: competição
trend toward: inclinação para
recycling: reciclar
preserving: preservar
environment: meio ambiente
global scale: escala global
no matter what: não importam que
changes: mudanças
century: século
agree/to agree: concorde/concordar
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