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Report
2011
2
TECHNICAL DATA
Title:
Public Procurement in Portugal 2011
Report compiled by:
Ana Sofia Pais
Pedro Ministro
Coordination:
Pedro Ministro
Directorate of Financial Management, Research and Strategy
Institute of Construction and Real State, Ministry of Economy and Employment
Av. Júlio Dinis, 11
1069–010 Lisboa
Telephone: 217 946 700 |Fax: 217 946 799 |Email: [email protected]
Date of publication: December 2012
Figures in this report for which the source indicated is the “BASE portal” (www.base.gov.pt) are based on data taken from
said portal in November 2012.
3
4
CONTENTS
FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................................. 7
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 9
2. ELECTRONIC PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN PORTUGAL .............................................. 11
2.1. The Public Contracts Code ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2. The Public Contracts Portal (BASE)...................................................................................................................................................... 13
The Public Works Observatory ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3
2.4 The electronic procurement platforms ............................................................................................................................................... 16
2.5 The electronic certification bodies ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
2.6
Diário da República Eletrónico (DRE) ......................................................................................................................................... 18
2.7
The interoperability platform of the Agency for Administrative Modernisation (AMA) ........................................... 19
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
Electronic public procurement ..................................................................................................................................................... 19
E-public procurement index in Portugal (ICPEP)................................................................................................................. 19
The Manchester Index (above EU threshold) ...................................................................................................................... 20
PUBLIC PROCUREMENT STATISTICS ............................................................................. 21
3
3.1
Total value of public procurement.............................................................................................................................................. 23
3.2
Competitive procedures ................................................................................................................................................................. 27
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.3.1
Direct award procedures................................................................................................................................................................ 37
Direct awards by material criterion ........................................................................................................................................ 40
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
Contracts by procedure type ........................................................................................................................................................ 42
General ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Goods and services ..................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Public works .................................................................................................................................................................................. 44
Breakdown of Contracts according to the “Common Procurement Vocabulary” ........................................................ 46
3.6 Framework agreements ........................................................................................................................................................................... 47
4
3.7
Contracting authorities ................................................................................................................................................................... 48
3.7.1 Contracting authorities that reported contracts to the BASE portal .................................................................................. 48
3.7.2 Contracting authorities per electronic public procurement platform .......................................................................... 50
3.7.3 Use of electronic public procurement platforms in direct award procedures ........................................................... 50
3.8
Contractors ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS ...................................................................................................... 52
5
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Table 1 – E-public procurement in Portugal ........................................................................................................................................19
Table 2 – Calculation of the Manchester Index ....................................................................................................................................20
Table 3 – Public procurement in Portugal: share of GDP .......................................................................................................................21
Table 4 – Public procurement in Portugal: weight of construction in GFCF ..............................................................................................21
Table 5 – Public procurement in Portugal: overall figures .....................................................................................................................23
Table 6 – Number and value of contracts in 2011 by year of launch of procedure ....................................................................................26
Table 7 – Public procurement in 2011 by type of procedure..................................................................................................................27
Table 8 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures in 2011 .......................................................................................................28
Table 9 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU in 2011 .......................................................................30
Table 10 – Relative weight of competitive procedures published in the OJEU: goods and services .............................................................31
Table 11 – Relative weight of competitive procedures published in the OJEU: public works ......................................................................31
Table 12 – Number of procedures published in the OJEU by contractor nationality..................................................................................33
Table 13 – Contract values of procedures published in the OJEU by contractor nationality .......................................................................33
Table 14 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures not published in the OJEU, in 2011 ...............................................................34
Table 15 – Number of procedures not published in the OJEU, by contractor nationality ...........................................................................36
Table 16 – Value of contracts for procedures not published in the OJEU, by contractor nationality ............................................................36
Table 17 – Direct awards in 2011 .......................................................................................................................................................37
Table 18 – Origin of reporting of data on contracts preceded by direct award procedures ........................................................................39
Table 19 – Direct awards reported to the BASE portal by criterion .........................................................................................................40
Table 20 – Material justifications for the use of direct award ................................................................................................................41
Table 21 – Distribution by type of expenditure of direct award contracts based on material criteria ..........................................................41
Table 22 – Public procurement by procedure type ...............................................................................................................................42
Table 23 – Number of contracts by procedure type – 2010/2011...........................................................................................................42
Table 24 – Contract values per contract type – 2010/2011 ...................................................................................................................43
Table 25 – Distribution of contracts for goods and services by procedure type ........................................................................................43
Table 26 – Number of contracts per procedure type (goods and services) – 2010/2011 ...........................................................................44
Table 27 – Contract amounts by procedure type (goods and services) – 2010/2011.................................................................................44
Table 28 – Distribution of public works contracts by procedure type......................................................................................................45
Table 29 – Number of contracts by procedure type (public works) – 2010/2011 ......................................................................................45
Table 30 – Contract amounts by procedure type (public works) – 2010/2011 .........................................................................................46
Table 31 – Public procurement distribution by CPV, number of contracts ...............................................................................................47
Table 32 – Procurement under framework agreements........................................................................................................................47
Table 33 – Contracting authorities that reported contracts in 2011 .......................................................................................................48
Table 34 – Frequency of contracting authorities by number of contracts awarded in 2011 .......................................................................49
Table 35 – Number of platforms per contracting authority ...................................................................................................................50
Table 36 – Frequency of contractors and total contract value per number of contracts awarded in 2011 ...................................................51
Graph 1 – Distribution of contracts awarded, by value and by sector (CPV) - 2008 ...................................................................................22
Graph 2 – Number of contracts in 2010 and 2011 ................................................................................................................................24
Graph 3 – Value of contracts in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR million) .............................................................................................................24
Graph 4 – Average value of contracts in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR) ...........................................................................................................25
Graph 5 – Average value of contracts by year of launch of procedure (in EUR) ........................................................................................26
Graph 6 – Number of contracts by pre-contractual procedure in 2010 and 2011 .....................................................................................27
Graph 7 – Value of contracts resulting from pre-contractual procedures in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR million) ................................................28
Graph 8 – Number of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011 ................................................................................29
Graph 9 – Number of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011 (in EUR million) .........................................................29
Graph 10 – Average value of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011 (in EUR) ..........................................................30
Graph 11 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: number of contracts 2010/2011 ................................31
Graph 12 - Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: contract values 2010/2011 (in EUR million) ..................32
Graph 13 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: change in average contract value 2010/2011 (in EUR) ..32
Graph 14 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: number of contracts 2010/2011 ............34
Graph 15 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: value of contracts 2010/2011 ................35
Graph 16 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: change in average value 2010/2011 (in
EUR) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................35
Graph 17 – Number of direct award procedures in 2010/2011 ..............................................................................................................37
Graph 18 – Value of direct award contracts: 2010/2011 (in EUR million) ................................................................................................38
Graph 19 – Average value of direct award contracts: 2010/2011 (in EUR) ...............................................................................................39
6
FOREWORD
The “purchasing” role of public authorities is an area that is subject to an ever increasing
attention and public scrutiny, a fact that is, of course, to be welcomed. Due to the increasing
space for public intervention and the growing complexity of procurement procedures for
goods, services and public works, the relative weight of public expenditure has generally been
on the increase in the European Union Member States.
A single portal dedicated to public procurement (the BASE portal), to which all procurement
procedures carried through by public authorities must be reported, is a tool of great interest
to policy-makers, public managers, top officials and citizens in general, not only because it has
a development potential that remains untapped (e.g. the possibility of characterising and
classifying procurement contracts per contracting authority or the average value per type of
contract), but also because it allows for public scrutiny by citizens.
The BASE portal takes on an increased importance in the current economic climate,
characterised by budget restrictions and the need for a more meticulous identification of
collective needs, greater control in calculating budgets and greater rigour in selecting
contractors. In this respect, Portugal is to be congratulated for being the first and so far the
only European Union Member State to have such a portal as BASE that is both universal and
mandatory.
This report seeks to provide an overview of public procurement in Portugal in 2011, a year
marked by wide-reaching cuts in public expenditure in general and in “public procurement” in
particular, as a result of the impacts of the sovereign debt crisis and the budget restrictions.
Fernando Oliveira Silva
Vice-chairman of the Executive Board
(Chairman-in-Office)
7
8
1. INTRODUCTION
In this report, the Institute for Construction and Real Estate (InCI, from Instituto da
Construção e do Imobiliário) presents the main indicators on public procurement in Portugal,
thus contributing to a better knowledge of this important area of activity of the public sector.
The report is based on data from the BASE portal and follows the first report presented in
2011 (on public procurement in 2010 1), but provides a wider analysis of the situation, namely
of the reasons for using the direct award procedure, and includes new statistical data.
This document is published in a changing environment for public procurement in the
European Union, where the Portuguese electronic public procurement model has been widely
praised by the European authorities. The European Commission has recently issued a
Communication (COM(2012) 179 final) entitled A strategy for e-procurement, presenting the
strategic importance of e-procurement and setting out the main actions through which it
intends to support the transition towards full e-procurement in the European Union, with a
particular reference to the case of Portugal as follows:
“There are numerous examples of successful e-procurement solutions already in
operation across Europe: following the introduction of e-procurement, Portuguese
hospitals were able to achieve price reductions of 18% on their procurement contracts.
In aggregate, the switch-over to e-procurement in Portugal is estimated to have
generated savings of about €650 million in the first year and could have reached €1.2
billion if all contracting authorities had fully implemented e-procurement.”
Furthermore, on 21 February 2012, on the occasion of dissemination of the report Europe can
do better, which was drawn up by the High Level Group of Independent Stakeholders on
Administrative Burdens, set up to advise the Commission, 74 examples of best practice were
identified and the Portuguese case was singled out as follows:
“Digitalized public procurement in Portugal
Since 2009, tender procedures in Portugal must be performed through an electronic
platform. The electronic public procurement rate in Portugal is 75% (2010), whereas
the EU average is estimated to be less than 5%”.
1
This report is based on data not only from the BASE portal but also from the electronic public procurement platforms themselves.
9
In 2011 about 62% of the procurement procedures were carried out through e-procurement
platforms. That figure rises to 92% if only procedures of a value above the EU threshold are
considered.
At a time when new European directives on public procurement are being finalised in
Brussels, the fact that electronic public procurement at the European level remains a
challenge for the EU authorities is enthusiastically welcomed.
In addition to being a very important instrument in terms of accountability and transparency
of the diverse public bodies, particularly as regards the management of public money, eprocurement also constitutes an excellent source of statistical information on public
contracts.
The overall figures in this report show from the outset a sharp decrease in new public
procurement contracts as compared to the preceding year, with the total value of national
public procurement falling from EUR 11 billion to approximately EUR 4.7 billion (a drop of
56%). This decrease can essentially be explained by the significant drop in the number of
public works contracts.
10
2. ELECTRONIC PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN PORTUGAL
Since 1 November 2009 2, competitive procurement procedures (i.e. open tender procedure,
restricted tender procedure with prequalification, negotiated procedure, competitive
dialogue, framework agreement, design competition and dynamic purchasing system)
launched in Portugal under the Public Contracts Code (PCC) must be carried out on electronic
platforms throughout all the phases of contract formation – from the publication of the notice
to the award of the contract.
The use of electronic means is also mandatory for the transmission of data within the context
of direct award procedures, more specifically in two distinct phases of the procedure:
(a) communications between contract awarding authorities, entities invited to
tender/bidders and successful contractors must be made by electronic means, i.e.
through the electronic platforms 3 or by electronic mail;
(b) the signing of any public procurement contract awarded must be registered and)
publicized on the BASE portal (www.base.gov.pt), which is managed by InCI. To that
effect, the corresponding data are recorded by the contracting authorities directly on
this tool, or are electronically transmitted thanks to the interoperability of the portal
with the electronic platforms involved in the public procurement process4.
The introduction of electronic means has been an EU-wide concern for some time. In this
respect it is worth noting the Manchester Ministerial Declaration of 24 November 2005, in
which the EU Member States set the following targets:
• by 2010 all public administrations across Europe will have the capability of carrying out
100% of their procurement electronically (for goods, services and works contracts),
thus creating a fairer and more transparent and competitive market for all companies
independent of a company’s size or location within the market; and
2
Decree-Law No 223/2009 of 11 September.
3
Be they the electronic platforms specifically certified to carry out the procurement procedures or other platforms, such as that of the Imprensa
Nacional Casa da Moeda, the authority responsible for the publication of procurement procedure notices.
Pursuant to Article 127(3) of the Public Contracts Code, The act of publication referred to in the preceding paragraphs is a condition for the respective contract being
concluded, regardless of whether or not it takes the written form, namely for purposes of any payments (as amended by the State Budget Law for 2012, Law No 64B/2011 of 30 December 2011).
4
11
• by 2010 at least 50% of public procurement above the EU public procurement
threshold will be carried out electronically.
Data included in this report show an e-public procurement rate of 62% (quite above the EU
average) in 2011. As regards the procedures of a value above the EU threshold, the electronic
procurement rate is 92%, reflecting the high degree of utilisation of e-procurement platforms
in Portugal.
2.1. The Public Contracts Code
The course Portugal has taken, which has allowed it to serve as an example of good practice
as regards e-public procurement, began on 29 January 2008 with the publication of DecreeLaw No 18/2008, which approved the Public Contracts Code (PCC). With this law, Portugal
took the first and decisive step towards modernity in public procurement.
In addition to transposing EU Directives 17/2004/EC and 18/2004/EC, the Code represented a
definitive break with the past, a break with excessive bureaucracy, embarking on a new path
of speed and transparency in procedures for the procurement of goods, services and works by
the State.
Indeed, amongst other innovative measures, the PCC established the following requirements:
dematerialisation of procedures (paper must be replaced by electronic means), procedural
simplicity, shorter deadlines and improved competition, transparency and efficiency.
To that extent, the PCC provided the legal framework for the setting up of an official portal
dedicated to public contracts that would serve as the central base and meeting point for
public procurement in Portugal: the BASE portal (www.base.gov.pt).
12
2.2. The Public Contracts Portal (BASE)
The BASE portal was launched on 30 July 2008 (the date when the PCC also entered into
force), as provided for in Article 4(1) of Decree-Law No 18/2008 of 29 January 2008.
This portal was designed by InCI, which is also responsible for its management, and is
nowadays an essential element in the new public procurement strategy, based on information
transparency. It is absolutely innovative at the European level, with Portugal being the first
European country to gather all information on public procurement contracts in one single
official portal.
Furthermore, the BASE portal is a decisive instrument for the effectiveness of direct award
procedures, in that contracts resulting from such procedures can only take effect after being
published on the portal.
13
The BASE portal is therefore an official repository of information on public procurement
procedures in Portugal and is fed by inputs from the contracting authorities, the electronic
public procurement platforms and the Diário da República Eletrónico [the national electronic
official journal].
Information compiled by the portal is targeted to two specific audiences:
•
Citizens in general, who can perform various types of searches, from specific
procedures (e.g. data on direct award procurement procedures) to aggregate
statistical data, within the public procurement market;
•
Entities wishing to draw up relevant statistical reports, such as the InCI and the
ESPAP (the entity responsible for the Portuguese public administration shared
services, formerly known as ANCP), given that the portal transmits data to the
Public Works Observatory and the Goods and Services Management System.
The 2nd version of BASE portal was launched in January 2012 with the aim of optimising the
information provided, by presenting structured statistical information and enabling simple or
structured searches so that the statistical data can be extracted according to user
specifications.
14
This new BASE portal not only provides information on the formation of contracts following
direct award procedures, but also serves as a source of public information on the formation of
public procurement contracts in general, whether or not the respective award procedures are
competition-based.
2.3 The Public Works Observatory
The InCI is also responsible for the management of the Public Works Observatory (OOP, from
Observatório das Obras Públicas), which is a sub-system of the BASE portal
(http://www.base.gov.pt/oop/) since June 2012.
Amongst other features, the Public Works Observatory enables searches on the formation and
performance of public works-related contracts (works contracts, concessions and public
works-related services). It also allows comparison of the contract value with the actual (paid)
total price, as well as of the completion deadline established in a contract with the actual date
of completion of the work that is the object of that contract.
This is an important monitoring tool that makes a decisive contribution to minimising
overruns in terms of costs and deadlines in public works.
15
2.4 The electronic procurement platforms
The e-procurement system adopted by the Portuguese government is based on the
promotion of an electronic procurement services market. These services are provided by
companies under controlled competition that manage their respective electronic platforms
(software as a service – SaaS).
As far as pre-contractual procedures are concerned, Portugal was once again a pioneer,
accepting the challenge and the risks involved in carrying out all public procurement phases
via the electronic platforms and replacing the paper-based procedures.
Following the adoption of PCC, a number of companies emerged in the market and rose to the
challenge of creating electronic public procurement platforms. These companies also had to
undergo a certification procedure that is the responsibility of the Management Center for the
Government Electronic Network (CEGER – Centro de Gestão da Rede Informática do
Governo).
Today there are eight certified electronic platforms operating in the public procurement
market:
Electronic Public Procurement Platforms
Platform
Company
Website
ACINGOV
Academia de Informática
Brava,
Engenharia
de
Sistemas, Lda.
www.acingov.pt/
ANOGOV
Ano - Sistemas de Informática
e Serviços, Lda
www.anogov.com/
COMPRAS GOV
Central-E-Informação
Comércio Eletrónico, S.A.
https://comprasgov.forumb2b.co
GATEWIT
Construlink - Tecnologias de
Informação, S.A.
www.compraspublicas.com/
COMPRAS PT
Infosistema - Sistemas de
Informação, S.A.
www2.compraspt.com/
SAPHETY GOV
Saphety Level
Services, S.A.
www.saphety.com/saphetygov
VORTALGOV
-
e
Trusted
Vortal, Comércio Eletrónico
Consultadoria e Multimédia,
S.A.
m
http://portugal.vortal.biz/vortalg
ov
16
TRADEFORUM
PT PRIME TradeCom Soluções Empresariais de
Comércio Eletrónico, S.A.
http://www.tradeforum.pt/defau
lt.asp
These platforms are a testimony to the commitment of the Portuguese companies in
technological innovation. Thanks to their pioneering role, they are now able to export their
know-how to other markets within the European Union and in other parts of the world where
some of them have already established subsidiaries. Moreover, it should be noted that the
European Union Green Paper on public procurement calls on Member States to share their
experiences, by developing a benchmarking philosophy, and in this field Portugal figures
prominently at the forefront.
2.5 The electronic certification bodies
The dematerialisation of administrative procedures becomes particularly demanding in the
area of public procurement, not only in terms of adhering to the principle of competition in
the global market by compiling mass information in a database and making it available to the
general public, but also within the specific context of the electronic transmission of
documentation for each procedure, whereby the economic operator and potential contractor
electronically submits information on the advantages it offers in the market.
Therefore, the safe operation of this (recent) information system is also being ensured by
those platforms that issue qualified digital certificates and time stamps, thus complementing
the work of the electronic procurement platforms, namely with respect to:
(a) the integrity, non-repudiation and confidentiality of the documents made available
via the electronic procurement platforms;
(b) the authentication and identification of stakeholders in electronic procurement;
(c) the time stamping of all documents made available and communications made
over the electronic procurement platforms, making it possible to ascertain their
time of submission for the purpose of complying with the rules laid down by law.
The electronic certification platforms must undergo an accreditation procedure under the
oversight of the National Security Office (GNS – Gabinete Nacional de Segurança) in order to
17
be able to issue qualified digital certificates and time stamps. The following bodies are
currently accredited for this purpose:
Electronic Certification Bodies
Accreditation type
Body/company
Website
Qualified digital
certificates and qualified
time stamps
State Common Certifying Body
(ECCE)
www.ecce.gov.pt
Qualified digital
Certificates
Citizen ID Card Certifying Body
pki.cartaodecidadao.pt
Qualified digital
Certificates
Portuguese Parliament
Certifying Body
www.parlamento.pt
Qualified digital
certificates and qualified
time stamps
Multicert - Serviços de Certificação
Electrónica, S.A.
www.multicert.com
Qualified digital
Certificates
British Telecommunications plc
(registration services carried out by
DigitalSign – Certificadora Digital
Lda.)
www.bt.com
(www.digitalsign.pt)
2.6 Diário da República Eletrónico (DRE)
Since the BASE portal was set up, the InCI and the INCM (Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda,
I.P., the Portuguese Mint and Official Printing Office, which is responsible for managing the
DRE, the Portuguese electronic official journal) have been involved in a close cooperation that
has an important impact on the electronic public procurement.
The synchronisation between these two bodies has enabled, amongst other things, the use of
a common authentication system. Thanks to this system, the login provided by INCM to
contracting authority representatives so that they can access the DRE reserved area, also
provides access to the BASE reserved area, thus avoiding duplication of systems.
18
Another aspect of the aforementioned synchronisation has been the automation of data
migration to the BASE portal following the publication of all pre-contractual procedure notices
in the DRE, thus making it possible for all interested parties not only to view the on-going
tender procedures, but also to benefit from the data already entered into the information
system, whenever it is necessary to fill out forms in the course of any procedure.
2.7 The interoperability
Modernisation (AMA)
platform
of
the
Agency
for
Administrative
To conclude this characterisation of the electronic public procurement circuit, it is important
to highlight the concern to make good use of already available resources, another reason for
the successful implementation of the system. With a view to maximising the use of existing
public infrastructures, the InCI signed a protocol with the Agency for Administrative
Modernisation (AMA – Agência para a Modernização Administrativa), establishing that the
interconnection between the electronic platforms and the BASE portal should be made
through that agency’s interoperability platform, as an instrument specifically aimed at
maximising interoperability between public administration agents.
2.8 Electronic public procurement
2.8.1 Public e-procurement index in Portugal (ICPEP)
Table 1 –Public e-procurement in Portugal
N.º
Amount
Public procurement
122.763
4.764.817.691 €
Public procurement via electronic platforms
16.847
2.937.950.218 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
19
In 2011, public procurement contracts in Portugal totalled EUR 4.7 billion, of which EUR 2.9
billion - i.e. 62% of the total value of contracts5 - correspond to procurement carried out via
the electronic platforms.
INDEX OF ELECTRONIC PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN PORTUGAL – ICPEP* (total)
ICPEP(total) = 62%
*ICPEP (Índice de contratação pública eletrónica em Portugal)
2.8.2 The Manchester Index (above EU threshold)
As far as the Manchester commitment is concerned, Portugal has performed even better in
2011 than in 2010 (91%). Indeed, if we exclude from the competitive procedures the direct
award procedures with a contract value above the threshold and not yet reported to the BASE
portal on the date of the data collection (a total of 57 procedures amounting to just over EUR
116 million), we arrive at a figure of 92% for the Manchester Index.
Table 2 – Calculation of the Manchester Index
Contract Value (2011)
Procedures published in the OJEU
1.444.330.132 €
Direct awards above the threshold values and
not reported to BASE portal
116.292.458 €
Manchester Index
92%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012); OJEU
MANCHESTER INDEX (ATV)
MI(ATV) = 92%
ATV: Above Threshold Values
5
As previously pointed out, it should be borne in mind that the method for ascertaining data for 2011 was different to that used for 2010:
while in 2010 the data in the BASE portal were cross-checked with information provided by the platforms, in this report the only source used
to determine the utilisation rates was the BASE portal, which means that the real rate of public procurement procedures performed via the
electronic platforms may be underestimated here as a result of the interconnection between the various platforms and the public
procurement portal not being coincident in all cases.
20
3 PUBLIC PROCUREMENT STATISTICS
In 2011 there was a drop in the total value of new public procurement contracts reported to
the BASE portal 6 as compared to 2010, accompanying the downward trend in the country’s
GDP. In fact, the relative weight of procurement contracts in the total wealth produced in the
country fell 3.56 percentage points to 2.8%, as illustrated in the table below:
Table 3 – Public procurement in Portugal: share of GDP
2010
2011
∆%
Gross Domestic Product
172.670
171.112
-0,9
Total contract value
10.958
4.765
-56,5
6,3%
2,8%
Public procurement as a share of GDP
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
INE Quarterly and Annual State Accounts – 4th quarter of 2011 and year 2011
There was a similar but shaper drop in the total contract value for public works reported to
the BASE portal. In this case, the drop in contract value (-60%) has also contributed to a
decrease of 19.3 percentage points to 16% of the relative weight of public works in the gross
fixed capital formation (GFCF) in the construction sector.
Table 4 – Public procurement in Portugal: weight of construction in GFCF
Unit: € million
2010
2011
∆%
Gross fixed capital formation – construction
18.953
16.780
-11,5
Total value of public works contracts
6.687
2.678
-60,0
Share of public works in GFCF in construction
35,3%
16,0%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
INE Quarterly and Annual State Accounts – 4th quarter of 2011 and year 2011
6
Given their nature and the legal framework, there are a number of public procurement contracts that may not have been fully reported to
the BASE portal in 2010 and 2011, namely:
(a) contracts with a value of less than EUR 5,000;
(b) contracts for the purchase of water supply and electric power services;
(c) contracts with authorities in special sectors (water, energy, transport and postal services) below the EU threshold;
(d) contracts excluded pursuant to Article 4 of the PCC;
(e) contracts resulting from procedures that are not subject to part II of the PCC, pursuant to Article 5 of that code (e.g. “in-house”
procurement).
At any rate it should be noted that in 2011 a considerable number of registrations of these types of contracts were made, particularly relating
to simplified direct award procedures: of the procedures taken into consideration, 70,563 contracts (64.2% of the total number of contracts
for goods and services) had a value of less than EUR 5,000 (the threshold value for the simplified direct award procedure), amounting to a
total value of EUR 55,034,919.05 (2.6% of the total value of goods and services contracts taken into consideration).
Such a significant figure in comparison to the preceding year may be connected to the widespread use of the electronic public procurement
platforms by a number of contracting authorities also for low-value purchases.
21
Figures in tables 3 and 4 represent the planned and assumed expenditure in the contract
formation process (for new contracts) and the actual expenditure (GDP and GFCF,
respectively) 7. They do not include the expenditure resulting from on-going contracts
(contracts awarded in previous years).
Notwithstanding a certain time lag inherent in the phases in which the expenditure amount is
determined, the figures show a trend towards a reduction in public spending in line with the
need to restrain the budget deficit and reduce the public debt.
On the other hand, the drop in the volume of public works (as a share of the total volume of
public procurement contracts) may indicate that, after decades of structural investment to
promote the development of the country, we are now approaching the average values of the
most developed European Union Member States (where figures for goods and services
purchasing are higher than those for public works), as shown in the graph below.
Graph 1 – Distribution of contracts awarded, by value and by sector (CPV) - 2008
Source: GHK, Evaluation of SME’s access to public procurement markets in the EU, DG Enterprise and Industry
Final Report, September 2010
7
From a budgetary and financial point of view, the drop in the contract value suggests a lower execution rate in the future.
22
3.1 Total value of public procurement
In 2011 the total value of public procurement in Portugal reported to the BASE portal
amounted to approximately EUR 4.76 billion, resulting from 122,763 procurement
procedures.
Table 5 – Public procurement in Portugal: overall figures
N.º
%
AMOUNT
%
Goods and services
109.831
89,5%
2.086.727.006 €
43,8%
Public works
12.932
10,5%
2.678.090.684 €
56,2%
TOTAL
122.763
100%
4.764.817.691 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The great majority of procedures resulting in contracts in 2011 focused on the purchase of
goods and services (109,831 procedures, accounting for 89.5% of the total number of
procedures reported to the BASE portal). However, as far as the value of the contracts is
concerned, public works 8 contracts had slightly more weight, accounting for 56.2% of the total
value of contracts (approx. EUR 2.68 billion).
It should be noted that a significant number of contracts for goods and services with a
contract value of less than EUR 5,000 was reported during 2011: 70,563 contracts (64.2% for
goods and services, corresponding to 57.5% of all contracts) which accounted for a total
amount of EUR 55,034,919 (or 2.6% of the total value of contracts for goods and services or
1.2% of the overall contract value reported). This figure – which is the result of the
widespread use of the electronic procurement platforms by some contracting authorities, not
only for direct award procedures but also for simplified direct awards – may affect the
conclusions to be drawn, particularly as far as the trend in the number of contracts is
concerned.
With respect to public works contracts, there was a drop in the number of procedures (342
contracts less, or a drop of 2.58%).
8
Including public works-related services under public works.
23
Graph 2 – Number of contracts in 2010 and 2011
140.000
120.000
100.000
80.000
60.000
40.000
66.465
122.763
109.831
79.739
20.000
13.274
0
Goods and services
12.932
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
This decrease becomes more evident when one looks at the contract values: in terms of value,
the drop amounted to about EUR 6.19 billion, which is equivalent to a 56.5% decrease in
comparison to 2010 (Graph 3). It was particularly significant in the public works segment (59.5%, corresponding to a “loss” of EUR 4.01 billion), although the relative change in the case
of contracts for goods and services was not very far from these figures (-51.13% or a decrease
of EUR 2.18 billion).
Graph 3 – Value of contracts in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR million)
12.000
10.000
8.000
6.000
10.958
4.000
6.687
4.270
4.765
2.000
2.678
2.087
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
24
The average value for all contracts fell from EUR 137,418 in 2010 to EUR 38,813 in 2011, a
decrease of 71.8%. As far as public works specifically are concerned, there has been a
decrease of 52.8% (from EUR 503,803 to EUR 207,090), while goods and services contracts
saw a decrease of 70.4% (from EUR 64,246 in 2010 to EUR 18,999 in 2011), as the following
graph illustrates:
Graph 4 – Average value of contracts in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR)
600.000
500.000
400.000
300.000
503.803
200.000
207.090
100.000
0
64.246
18.999
Goods and services
Public works
2010
137.418
38.813
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
However, if we exclude goods and services contracts with a value of less than EUR 5,000, the
average contract value (for goods and services and for public works) is EUR 90,226, equivalent
to a decrease of 34.3% as compared to 2010. In the specific case of goods and services, the
average contract value is EUR 51,739, which corresponds to a decrease, albeit less
pronounced, of 19.5% in relation to 2010.
Considering the year when the respective procurement procedures were launched, the great
majority of contracts were awarded following procedures launched in 2011 itself: a total of
120,808 (or 98.4% of all contracts). However, this share drops significantly when reported in
terms of contract value: “only” 70.7% of the total value of procurement – equivalent to EUR
3.37 billion – resulted from procedures launched in 2011.
25
Table 6 – Number and value of contracts in 2011 by year of launch of procedure
Year in which procedure was opened
Before 2011
2011
Total
N.º
VALUE
N.º
VALUE
N.º
VALUE
Goods and services
1.049
211.398.522 €
108.782
1.875.328.485 €
109.831
2.086.727.006 €
Public works
896
1.182.833.606 €
12.036
1.495.257.078 €
12.932
2.678.090.684 €
TOTAL
1.945
1.394.232.128 €
120.818
3.370.585.563 €
122.763
4.764.817.691 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
An analysis of the data shows that 2011 saw a pronounced decrease (96%) in the average
contract value, falling from EUR 716,829 in 2010 to EUR 27,898 in 2011. While this trend
affected both goods and services and public works, the drop was more pronounced in the
latter segment, with the difference in the average contract value being -90.6%. Even taking
into consideration some of the procedures with a higher base price that are more complex in
nature and, accordingly, have longer pre-contractual procedures – e.g. international
procedures – it is still a significant difference that should be highlighted.
Graph 5 – Average value of contracts by year of launch of procedure (in EUR)
1.320.127
1.400.000
1.200.000
1.000.000
800.000
716.829
600.000
400.000
200.000
0
201.524
124.232
17.239
Goods and services
Public works
Before 2011
27.898
TOTAL
2011
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
26
3.2 Competitive procedures
In 2011, contracts based on competitive procedures accounted for 4.1% (4,994 contracts) of
the total number of contracts and 54.2% (more than EUR 2.5 billion) of the total expenditure.
Table 7 – Public procurement in 2011 by type of procedure
Number of contracts
Value of contracts
Value
%
Value
%
Competitive procedures
4.994
4,1%
2.582.088.181 €
54,2%
Direct award
117.769
95,9%
2.182.729.509 €
45,8%
TOTAL
122.763
100%
4.764.817.691 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Compared to 2010, these figures reflect a slight increase of four percentage points in the
relative number of direct award contracts as opposed to the number of contracts originating
from competitive procedures.
Graph 6 – Number of contracts by pre-contractual procedure in 2010 and 2011
140.000
120.000
122.763
100.000
80.000
60.000
117.769
40.000
79.739
73.289
20.000
0
6.450
4.994
Competitive procedures
Direct award
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The decrease in the relative weight of the competitive procedures was more significant in
terms of contract value: while in 2010 such procedures accounted for 64.8% of the total value
of public procurement contracts reported to the BASE portal, in 2011 their weight decreased
to “only” 54.2% (i.e. a loss of 10.6 percentage points based on procedure type).
27
Graph 7 – Value of contracts resulting from pre-contractual procedures in 2010 and 2011 (in EUR million)
12.000
10.000
8.000
6.000
7.101
10.958
4.000
2.000
4.765
3.857
2.582
2.183
0
Competitive procedures
Direct award
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In 2011, the number of contracts resulting from competitive procedures and reported to the
BASE portal was 4,994, of which 65.0% (3,246) related to goods and services and 35.0%
(1,748) to public works. In terms of contract value, the situation is reversed, as the greatest
share is accounted for by public works contracts (74.8%) and the remaining (25.2%) by goods
and services contracts.
Table 8 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures in 2011
Number of contracts
Value of contracts
Value
%
Value
Goods and services
3.246
65,0%
650.090.335 €
25,2%
Public works
1.748
35,0%
1.931.997.847 €
74,8%
TOTAL
4.994
100%
2.582.088.181 €
100%
%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In terms of number of procedures, data for 2011 indicate a significant drop in relation to the
preceding year: there were 24.8% less procedures for goods and services and 18.1% less for
public works.
28
Graph 8 – Number of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011
7.000
6.000
5.000
4.994
4.000
4.315
3.000
6.450
3.246
2.000
2.135
1.000
1.748
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The difference is even more noticeable in terms of value: between 2010 and 2011 the value of
contracts that were preceded by competitive procedures registered an overall drop of 63.6%,
with the drop in the purchase of goods and services (65.3%) being more pronounced than that
for public works (63%).
Graph 9 – Number of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011 (in EUR million)
8.000
7.000
6.000
5.000
4.000
7.101
3.000
5.225
2.000
1.000
0
2.582
1.876
1.932
650
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
29
There was also a sharp decrease in the average contract value: from 2010 to 2011 the average
value of public contracts that were preceded by competitive procedures decreased by 53%:
53.9% for the purchase of goods and services and 54.8% for public works.
Graph 10 – Average value of contracts resulting from competitive procedures: 2010/2011 (in EUR)
3.000.000
2.500.000
2.000.000
1.500.000
2.447.311
1.000.000
1.105.262
500.000
0
434.753
1.100.925
517.038
200.274
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: ”Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Of the 4,994 contracts that resulted from competitive procedures and were reported to the
BASE portal, 956 (accounting for EUR 1.44 billion) resulted from procedures that were
published in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU).
Table 9 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU in 2011
Number of contracts
Value of contracts
Value
%
Value
%
Goods and services
789
82,5%
482.099.079 €
33,4%
Public works
167
17,5%
962.231.052 €
66,6%
TOTAL
956
100%
1.444.330.132 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
These competitive procedures published in the OJEU were unevenly divided between
contracts for goods and services and contracts for public works. Contracts for goods and
services accounted for 24.3% of the total number of procedures and 74.2% in terms of
contract value.
30
Table 10 – Relative weight of competitive procedures published in the OJEU: goods and services
N.º
VALUE
International tender procedures
789
482.099.079 €
Competitive procedures
3.246
650.090.335 €
24,3%
74,2%
Relative weight
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
As far as public works are concerned, contracts resulting from competitive procedures
published in the OJEU represent “only” 9.6% of the total number of competitive procedures
but 49.8% of the total contract value.
Table 11 – Relative weight of competitive procedures published in the OJEU: public works
N.º
VALUE
International tender procedures
167
962.231.052 €
Competitive procedures
1.748
1.931.997.847 €
Relative weight
9,6%
49,8%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
With reference to the year 2010 there was also a significant decrease in contracts resulting
from competitive procedures published in the OJEU. In terms of number of procedures, the
drop was equivalent to 42.9% for goods and services and 57.2% for public works.
Graph 11 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: number of contracts 2010/2011
2.000
1.800
1.600
1.400
1.200
1.382
1.000
800
600
1.772
789
956
400
200
390
0
Goods and services
167
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
31
In terms of contract value, the decrease was even shaper: 69.6% for goods and services and
75.2% for public works.
Graph 12 - Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: contract values 2010/2011 (in EUR
million)
6.000
5.000
4.000
3.000
5.475
2.000
3.887
1.588
1.000
1.444
962
482
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
As a result of the aforementioned changes, there was also a decrease in the average contract
value in 2011 as compared to 2010: 46.8% for goods and services and 42.2% for public works.
Graph 13 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU: change in average contract value
2010/2011 (in EUR)
12.000.000
9.965.769
10.000.000
8.000.000
5.761.863
6.000.000
4.000.000
2.000.000
3.089.597
1.149.143
1.510.806
611.025
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
32
Amongst the contracts resulting from procedures published in the OJEU there was a
predominance of contractors based in Portugal: in terms of number of contracts, in 97.1% of
cases the contractors were exclusively Portuguese companies, while in other cases (2.9%) they
were based in third countries.
Table 12 – Number of procedures published in the OJEU by contractor nationality
Goods and services
Contractor nationality
Public works
Total
N.º
contracts
%
N.º
contracts
%
N.º
contracts
%
97,2%
161
96,4%
928
97,1%
Portugal
767
Other EU Member States
20
2,5%
6
3,6%
26
2,7%
Non-EU countries
2
0,3%
0
0,0%
2
0,2%
TOTAL
789
100%
167
100%
956
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
As regards the type of contract, the distribution of the contracts between domestic and nondomestic bidders was similar, with a slight predominance of domestic contractors for goods
and services (97.2%) over domestic contractors for public works (96.4%).
In terms of contract value, the predominance of domestic contractors remains high – overall
they accounted for 93% of contract value, and their weight is more significant in contracts for
goods and services (93.9%) than for public works (92.6%).
Table 13 – Contract values of procedures published in the OJEU by contractor nationality
Goods and services
Contractor nationality
Public works
Total
Total contract
value
%
Total contract
value
%
Total contract
value
Portugal
452.543.286 €
93,9%
891.374.823 €
92,6%
Other EU Member States
29.546.200 €
6,1%
70.856.229 €
7,4%
Non-EU countries
9.593 €
0,002%
0€
0,0%
9.593 €
0,0%
TOTAL
482.099.079 €
100%
962.231.052 €
100%
1.444.330.132 €
100%
%
1.343.918.109 € 93,0%
100.402.430 €
7,0%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Of the 4,038 contracts preceded by competitive procedures that were not published in the
OJEU 2,457 (60.8%) related to goods and services and 1,581 (39.2%) to public works. In terms
of contract value the public works segment was predominant (85.2%), while contracts for
goods and services represented 14.8%.
33
Table 14 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures not published in the OJEU, in 2011
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Goods and services
2.457
60,8%
167.991.256 €
14,8%
Public works
1.581
39,2%
969.766.794 €
85,2%
TOTAL
4.038
100%
1.137.758.050 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In comparison to 2010 there was a drop in the number of procedures, both for goods and
services (-16.2%) and for public works (-9.4%). However, the decrease was less significant than
that for contracts resulting from competitive procedures published in the OJEU.
Graph 14 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: number of contracts
2010/2011
5.000
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
2.500
4.678
2.000
1.500
1.000
2.933
4.038
2.457
1.745
1.581
500
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
A similar trend can be observed as regards the contract value: there was a drop in contract
value in comparison to 2010 (-41.6% for goods and services and -27.5% for public works),
although it was less severe than for competitive procedures published in the OJEU.
34
Graph 15 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: value of contracts
2010/2011
(in EUR million)
1.800
1.600
1.400
1.200
1.000
800
1.338
600
970
1.626
1.138
400
200
0
288
168
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The average value of contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published
in the OJEU was also lower than in 2010, with a sharper decrease for goods and services (30.3%) than for public works (-20%).
Graph 16 – Contracts resulting from competitive procedures that were not published in the OJEU: change in average value
2010/2011 (in EUR)
900.000
800.000
700.000
600.000
500.000
613.388
400.000
766.968
300.000
200.000
100.000
0
347.628
98.139
281.763
68.373
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
35
Data breakdown by contractor nationality shows that Portugal-based companies account for
98.7% of the contracts reported to the BASE portal. Their weight is more significant for public
works (99.7%) than for goods and services (98.6%).
Table 15 – Number of procedures not published in the OJEU, by contractor nationality
Goods and services
Public works
Total
Contractor nationality
N.º contracts
%
N.º contracts
%
N.º contracts
%
Portugal
107.511
98,6%
12.732
99,7%
120.243
98,7%
Other EU Member States
1.361
1,2%
30
0,2%
1.391
1,1%
Non-EU countries
170
0,2%
3
0,024%
173
0,1%
TOTAL
109.042
100%
12.765
100%
121.807
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The relative weight of domestic companies is, naturally more significant for procedures that
were not published in the OJEU (98.7%) than for procedures that were published in that
journal (97.1%).
In terms of contract value, the predominance of domestic companies over third country
companies remains high (97.4%), and it is more significant for the public works segment
(99.4%) than for goods and services (95.2%).
Table 16 – Value of contracts for procedures not published in the OJEU, by contractor nationality
Goods and services
Contractor nationality
Total contract
value
%
Portugal
1.528.210.888 €
95,2%
Other EU Member States
68.750.464 €
4,3%
Public works
Total contract
value
Total
%
1.705.023.869 € 99,4%
10.785.401 €
0,6%
Non-EU countries
7.666.575 €
0,5%
50.362 €
0,003%
TOTAL
1.604.627.927 €
100%
1.715.859.632 €
100%
Total contract
value
%
3.233.234.757 € 97,4%
79.535.865 €
2,4%
7.716.936 €
0,2%
3.320.487.559 € 100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Compared to the weight of domestic contractors in contracts resulting from procedures
published in the OJEU (93%), the weight of domestic contractors in procedures that were not
published at the EU level is also greater, following the same trend as in the number of
contracts.
36
3.3 Direct award procedures
In 2011 a total of 117,769 contracts resulting from direct award procedures were reported to
the BASE portal: 90.5% related to goods and services and the remaining 9.5% to public works.
The distribution of the total contract value resulting from this procedure type (EUR 2.18
billion) shows a less pronounced dispersion: 65.8% (EUR 1.4 billion) for goods and services and
the remaining 34.2% (EUR 746 million) for public works.
Table 17 – Direct awards in 2011
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Goods and services
106.585
90,5%
1.436.636.672 €
65,8%
Public works
11.184
9,5%
746.092.838 €
34,2%
TOTAL
117.769
100%
2.182.729.509 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The number of contracts resulting from direct award procedures in 2011 represents an
increase of 60.7% in relation to the figures registered in the BASE portal and taken into
consideration for 2010. This increase can essentially be explained by the inclusion of simplified
direct award procedures in the figures for 2011. As far as goods and services contracts are
concerned, there was an increase of 71.5%; for public works contracts the increase was not
very significant (only 0.4%).
Graph 17 – Number of direct award procedures in 2010/2011
140.000
120.000
100.000
106.585
117.769
80.000
60.000
62.150
40.000
73.289
20.000
11.139 11.184
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
37
The change registered for this type of contract contrasts therefore with that registered for
contracts resulting from competitive procedures, both in the goods and services segment (24.8% versus +71.5%) and in public works (-18.1% versus +0.4%).
In terms of contract value reported to the BASE portal in 2011 the total of EUR 2.18 billion
represents a decrease of EUR 1.67 billion (-43%) in relation to 2010 (EUR 3.85 billion).
Graph 18 – Value of direct award contracts: 2010/2011 (in EUR million)
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
2.394
3.857
1.437
2.183
1.462
746
500
0
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
This decrease was more noticeable in the public works segment (-49%), although the
reduction (-40%) in the purchase of goods and services was also significant. Similarly, the
negative trend in this area was less pronounced for contracts resulting from direct award
procedures than for competitive procedures both in goods and services (-40% versus -65%)
and in public works (-49% versus -63%).
There was also a decrease of 64.8% in the overall average contract value: from EUR 52,622 in
2010 to EUR 18,534 in 2011.
38
Graph 19 – Average value of direct award contracts: 2010/2011 (in EUR)
140.000
120.000
100.000
80.000
40.000
66.711
131.293
60.000
38.522
52.622
20.000
0
18.534
13.479
Goods and services
Public works
2010
TOTAL
2011
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The registered change in value was more noticeable in the goods and services segment (in
2011 the average value of these contracts was EUR 13.479, i.e. 65% lower than in 2010),
although the drop in public works contract value was also significant (EUR 66,711 in 2011,
corresponding to a drop of 49.2% in relation to 2010).
Among the contracts preceded by direct award procedures and registered in the BASE portal
for 2011 24.5% of the total value (EUR 534,844,995) and 10.6% of the contracts (12,454) were
reported by the electronic platforms.
Table 18 – Origin of reporting of data on contracts preceded by direct award procedures
Total contract value
Contracts
Origin of data
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Platforms
12.454
10,6%
534.844.997 €
24,5%
Contracting authorities
105.315
89,4%
1.647.884.512 €
75,5%
TOTAL
117.769
-
2.182.729.509 €
-
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The percentage of the reported contract value (24.5%) would appear to be a drop in relation
to the figures for 2010 (29%). However, it should be borne in mind that the methodology for
determining the value differed from that for the preceding year: while figures for 2010 were
39
based on a comparison of the data provided by the platforms, for 2011 only information from
the BASE portal was used.
While 2011 was marked by a progressive interoperability between the BASE portal and the
various public procurement platforms, it was not possible to connect the BASE portal to all
those platforms. Even where this connection was possible, it did not happen necessarily
during the whole year.
3.3.1 Direct awards by material criterion
Of the total number of contracts resulting from direct award procedures, 14,694 contracts
(13.2%), making up a total of EUR 781 million (36.1% of the total contract value), were related
to procedures legally justified on the basis of material criteria, which would justify or even
impose direct award, regardless of their contract value.
Table 19 – Direct awards reported to the BASE portal by criterion
No. Contracts
Goods and services
Incidence of material criteria
Public works
Incidence of material criteria
TOTAL
Incidence of material criteria
Total contract value
N.º
%
Value
%
100.475
-
1.423.478.866 €
-
14.363
14,3%
574.428.567 €
40,4%
11.082
-
744.474.147 €
-
331
3,0%
207.278.304 €
27,8%
111.557
-
2.167.953.014 €
-
14.694
13,2%
781.706.871 €
36,1%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The incidence of material criteria is more significant for contracts related to goods and
services (14% of total number of contracts and 40% of contract value) than for public worksrelated procedures (only 3% of total number of procedures, and 27.8% of the total value of
contracts).
Of these contracts, the most important justifications in terms of public expenditure had to do
with technical or artistic reasons or the protection of exclusive rights (35.6%), reasons of
absolute urgency (14.6%), the need for the contract to be declared secret (12.8%), framework
agreements, and previous procedures without competitors or with all tenders excluded
(10.1%).
40
Table 20 – Material justifications for the use of direct award
No. Contracts
Material justification
Total contract value
N.º
%
Value
%
Average value
Technical or artistic reasons or reasons related
with protection of exclusive rights
5.873
40,0%
278.594.268 €
35,6%
47.436 €
Urgency reasons
1.815
12,4%
114.344.468 €
14,6%
63.000 €
Secrecy reasons
52
0,4%
100.402.521 €
12,8%
1.930.818 €
Framework agreements
4.030
27,4%
79.162.489 €
10,1%
19.643 €
Procedure without competitors or with all
tenders excluded
489
3,3%
78.858.955 €
10,1%
161.266 €
Repetition of similar services
258
1,8%
32.692.247 €
4,2%
126.714 €
IT services
976
6,6%
30.268.571 €
3,9%
31.013 €
Intellectual or financial services
328
2,2%
11.781.778 €
1,5%
35.920 €
Consumption of goods of general interest
20
0,1%
5.447.925 €
0,7%
272.396 €
Research, experimentation, study or
development purposes
388
2,6%
2.581.405 €
0,3%
6.653 €
Special sectors
21
0,1%
799.360 €
0,1%
38.065 €
Others
444
3,0%
46.772.884 €
6,0%
105.344 €
TOTAL
14.694
781.706.871 €
53.199 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The use of material criteria to justify the implementation of direct award procedures was
more frequent for goods and services contracts (97.7% of the total procedures and 73.5% of
the total value of contracts) than for public works contracts (2.3% of procedures and 26.5% of
contract value).
Table 21 – Distribution by type of expenditure of direct award contracts based on material criteria
Nº. Contracts
Total contract value
N.º
%
Value
%
14.363
97,7%
574.428.567 €
73,5%
Public works
331
2,3%
207.278.304 €
26,5%
TOTAL
14.694
Goods and services
781.706.871 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
41
3.4 Contracts by procedure type
3.4.1 General
An analysis of public contracts in 2011 based on the type of procedure shows that direct
award procedures were the most representative both in terms of number of contracts (95.9%)
and the public expenditure amounts involved, accounting for almost half of the expenditure
(46.1%) in the latter case.
Table 22 – Public procurement by procedure type
PROCEDURE TYPE
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Open tender procedure
4.812
3,9%
1.811.091.177 €
38,0%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
170
0,1%
758.123.032 €
15,9%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
117.781
95,9%
2.195.603.481 €
46,1%
TOTAL
122.763
100%
4.764.817.691 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In the case of procedures opened within the market (open tender procedures and restricted
tender procedures with prior qualification), there was a significant drop in the number of
procedures resulting in contracts.
Table 23 – Number of contracts by procedure type – 2010/2011
PROCEDURE TYPE
2010
2011
N.º
%
N.º
%
Open tender procedure
5.912
7,4%
4.812
3,9%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
492
0,6%
170
0,1%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
73.289
91,9%
117.781
95,9%
Others
46
0,1%
0
0,0%
TOTAL
79.739
100%
122.763
100%
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
42
As regards the value of contracts resulting from those procedures, there was a shaper
decrease than in the number of contracts itself, and this is true for all procedure types.
Table 24 – Contract values per contract type – 2010/2011
2010
PROCEDURE TYPE
2011
VALUE
%
VALUE
%
Open tender procedure
3.711.174.438 €
33,9%
1.811.091.177 €
38,0%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
3.364.305.269 €
30,7%
758.123.032 €
15,9%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
3.856.607.936 €
35,2%
2.195.603.481 €
46,1%
Others
25.487.740 €
0,2%
0
0,0%
10.957.575.383 €
100%
4.764.817.691 €
100%
TOTAL
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
3.4.2 Goods and services
With respect to goods and services, contracts preceded by negotiation/direct award
procedures make up the majority – both in terms of contract number (97.1%) and contract
amounts involved (69.2%).
Table 25 – Distribution of contracts for goods and services by procedure type
PROCEDURE TYPE
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Open tender procedure
3.145
2,9%
578.866.653 €
27,7%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
90
0,1%
63.369.626 €
3,0%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
106.596
97,1%
1.444.490.728 €
69,2%
TOTAL
109.831
100%
2.086.727.006 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In comparison to 2010 there was a general drop in the number of contracts that affected in
particular the restricted tender (-69%) and public tender (-21%) procedures.
43
Table 26 – Number of contracts per procedure type (goods and services) – 2010/2011
2011
2010
PROCEDURE TYPE
Open tender procedure
N.º
%
N.º
%
3.983
5,0%
3.145
2,6%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
292
0,4%
90
0,1%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
62.150
77,9%
106.596
86,8%
Others
40
0,1%
0
0,0%
TOTAL
66.465
83%
109.831
89%
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
The aforementioned trend was also confirmed by an analysis of the contract amounts
involved: there was a sharp drop in open tender procedures (-87% and -58% for contracts
resulting from restricted and public procedures, respectively) and also a significant decrease
in the number of non competitive procedures (-40%).
Table 27 – Contract amounts by procedure type (goods and services) – 2010/2011
PROCEDURE TYPE
Open tender procedure
2010
2011
VALUE
%
VALUE
%
1.371.240.347 €
12,5%
578.866.653 €
12,1%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
480.225.163 €
4,4%
63.369.626 €
1,3%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
2.394.132.110 €
21,8%
1.444.490.728 €
30,3%
Others
24.492.740 €
0,2%
0
0,0%
TOTAL
4.270.090.360 €
39%
2.086.727.006 €
44%
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
3.4.3 Public works
Public works contracts using the direct award procedure accounted for 86.5% of the total
number of contracts and 28% of the total contract value. Open procedures were more
representative in terms of contract amounts (72%) than in terms of number of contracts
(13.5%). Here, the restricted procedures stood out (accounting for only 0.6% of the number of
contracts but 25.9% of the total contract value in 2011).
44
Table 28 – Distribution of public works contracts by procedure type
PROCEDURE TYPE
N.º
%
VALUE
%
Open tender procedure
1.667
12,9%
1.232.224.524 €
46,0%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
80
0,6%
694.753.406 €
25,9%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
11.185
86,5%
751.112.754 €
28,0%
TOTAL
12.932
100%
2.678.090.684 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
In comparison to 2010, an overall drop in the number of contracts (-2.6%) was particularly
sharp for those resulting from restricted procedures with prior qualification (-60%) and also
quite significant in the case of open tender procedures (-13.6%).
Table 29 – Number of contracts by procedure type (public works) – 2010/2011
2010
2011
PROCEDURE TYPE
N.º
%
N.º
%
Open tender procedure
1.929
2,4%
1.667
1,4%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
200
0,3%
80
0,1%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
11.139
14,0%
11.185
9,1%
Others
6
0,0%
0
0,0%
TOTAL
13.274
17%
12.932
11%
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Accompanying the trend for goods and services, the drop in contract value for public works (60% overall) was also more significant than the drop in the number of procedures (particularly
in the case of contracts resulting from restricted procedures, where the decrease was 76%).
The drop in the amounts for contracts resulting from open tender and direct award
procedures was similar for goods and services (-47% and -49%, respectively).
45
Table 30 – Contract amounts by procedure type (public works) – 2010/2011
2010
2011
PROCEDURE TYPE
N.º
%
N.º
%
Open tender procedure
2.339.934.091 €
21,4%
1.232.224.524 €
25,9%
Restricted procedure with prior qualification
2.884.080.106 €
26,3%
694.753.406 €
14,6%
Negotiation/direct award procedure
1.462.475.826 €
13,3%
751.112.754 €
15,8%
Others
995.000 €
0,0%
0
0,0%
TOTAL
6.687.485.023 €
61%
2.678.090.684 €
56%
Sources: “Electronic Public Procurement Report 2010” and BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
3.5 Breakdown of Contracts according to the “Common Procurement
Vocabulary”
A brief analysis based on the Common Procurement Vocabulary (CPV) shows a predominance
of public works mostly in terms of procurement classified as “construction work”, which
accounts for a quite significant share (56.3%) as regards the amounts involved, but also of
public works-related services, which include “architectural, construction, engineering and
inspection services” i. a..
Equally significant in terms of weight 9 are the following classes: “business services: law,
marketing, consulting, recruitment, printing and security” (4.2% of contract value), “medical
equipments, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (3.8%), “petroleum products, fuel,
electricity and other sources of energy” (3.4%), “sewage, refuse, cleaning, and environmental
services” (2.8%) and “IT services: consulting, software development, Internet and support”
(2.4%).
9
More than 2% of the total contract value.
46
Table 31 – Public procurement distribution by CPV, number of contracts
N.º of contracts
CPV
Code
CPV description
45
Construction work
Contract value
N.º
%
Value
%
11.310
9,2%
2.623.191.722 €
55,1%
8.509
6,9%
198.885.510 €
4,2%
33
Business services: law, marketing, consulting, recruitment, printing and
security
Medical equipments, pharmaceuticals and personal care products
6.609
5,4%
182.126.863 €
3,8%
71
Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection services
5.648
4,6%
176.585.770 €
3,7%
79
9
Petroleum products, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy
1.746
1,4%
164.032.379 €
3,4%
90
Sewage, refuse, cleaning, and environmental services
2.459
2,0%
158.966.639 €
3,3%
50
Repair and maintenance services
9.479
7,7%
134.035.434 €
2,8%
72
IT services: consulting, software development, Internet and support
3.121
2,5%
114.875.601 €
2,4%
-
Others
73.882
60,2%
1.012.117.772 €
21,2%
Total
122.763
4.764.817.691 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
3.6 Framework agreements
Procedures reported to the BASE portal include 1,441 contracts resulting from framework
agreements that make up a total of EUR 82 million. However, according to the data provided
by the National Agency for Public Procurement (ANCP – Agência Nacional de Compras
Públicas), currently known as ESPAP (the entity responsible for the Portuguese public
administration shared services), under the framework agreements established by the agency a
total of 1,279 contracts were awarded in 2011 for a total contract value of about EUR 181,500
million, i.e. more than twice the total amount for procedures resulting from framework
agreements reported to the BASE portal 10.
Table 32 – Procurement under framework agreements
Framework agreements N.º contracts
Contract value
Reported do BASE
1.441
82.023.491 €
ANCP
1.279
181.466.428 €
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012) / ANCP
10
Comparing data from the BASE portal and from the ANCP it was only possible to confirm correspondence of 40 procedures totalling EUR
8,968,834.23.
47
3.7 Contracting authorities
3.7.1 Contracting authorities that reported contracts to the BASE portal
In 2011 there were 3,609 contracting authorities registered on the public procurement
electronic platforms.
Table 33 – Contracting authorities that reported contracts in 2011
N.º platforms
N.º
N.º contracting authorities with platform(s)
3.609
N.º contracting authorities reporting contracts
3.027
Rate of contracting authorities reporting
84%
Source: electronic platforms and BASE portal
The number of contracting authorities having reported procurement procedures, either
directly or via the platforms, amounted to 3,027, i.e. 84% of the contracting authorities
registered on the public procurement electronic platforms.
The average number of contracts reported per contracting authority was 40 for the year 2011.
However, the majority of the contracting authorities did not report more than 4 contracts. It
should also be noted that 28.1% of contracting authorities (the equivalent to 858) reported
only 1 contract during the whole year.
48
Table 34 – Frequency of contracting authorities by number of contracts awarded in 2011
Nº contracts per
contracting authority
N.º contracting authorities
N.º
%
1.706
55,9%
1
858
28,1%
2
409
13,4%
3
187
6,1%
4
149
4,9%
5
103
3,4%
6--10
306
10,0%
11--20
253
8,3%
21--50
291
9,5%
More than 50
395
12,9%
Sub-total
2.951
96,7%
Groupings
100
3,3%
3.051
100,0%
Up to 5
Of which:
Total
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
Nevertheless, 12.9% of all contracting authorities reported more than 50 procurement
contracts in 2011.
The low number of contracts per contracting authority (40) and, above all, the significant
relative weight of contracting authorities having reported only one procurement contract for
the whole year may also indicate that reporting is below the actual figures.
49
3.7.2 Contracting authorities per electronic public procurement platform
As far as the use of electronic platforms is concerned, the great majority (84.5%) of the
aforementioned 3,609 contracting authorities resorted to only one platform. Of the remaining
contracting authorities, 15.2% (548 in all) had two platforms at their disposal, while a total of
13 authorities could make simultaneous use of 3 platforms.
Table 35 – Number of platforms per contracting authority
N.º platforms
Contracting authorities
N.º
%
1
3.048
84,5%
2
548
15,2%
3
13
0,4%
Overall total
3.609
100%
Source: electronic platforms
3.7.3 Use of electronic public procurement platforms in direct award procedures
As Table 18 shows, data reported to the BASE portal illustrate that 10.6% of the total number
of direct award procedures were carried out through the electronic platforms (accounting for
24.5% in terms of contract value).
3.8 Contractors
According to data provided by the electronic platform operators, in 2011 there were 48,136
economic operators registered with the platforms, of which 65.7% were registered with at
least two platforms.
Of the total number of registered economic operators, 20,843 companies (or 43.3%) entered
into contracts with public authorities subject to the Public Contracts Code.
50
Table 36 – Frequency of contractors and total contract value per number of contracts awarded in 2011
N.º contracts
N.º contractors
%
N.º contracts
%
Total contract value
%
1 -- 5
25.485
85,7%
41.944
34,2%
2.098.721.628 €
44,0%
1
16.472
55,4%
16.472
13,4%
1.098.272.316 €
23,0%
2
4.639
15,6%
9.278
7,6%
521.133.004 €
10,9%
3
2.168
7,3%
6.504
5,3%
203.076.761 €
4,3%
4
1.340
4,5%
5.360
4,4%
169.989.701 €
3,6%
5
866
2,9%
4.330
3,5%
106.249.846 €
2,2%
6 -- 29
3.676
12,4%
42.338
34,5%
1.843.801.888 €
38,7%
30 -- 52
314
1,1%
12.131
9,9%
341.693.657 €
7,2%
53 -- 75
121
0,4%
7.614
6,2%
163.548.284 €
3,4%
76 -- 98
58
0,2%
4.922
4,0%
48.393.737 €
1,0%
≥ 99
85
0,3%
13.814
11,3%
268.658.496 €
5,6%
TOTAL
29.739
100%
122.763
100%
4.764.817.691 €
100%
Source: BASE portal (Nov. 2012)
More than 61% of those companies (16,472 in all) entered into only one procurement
contract and together account for 23% of the total contract value. However, 85.7% of
contractors entered into up to 5 contracts accounting for 44% of the total contract value.
51
4
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
1. – The total value of new public procurement contracts reported to the BASE portal
(EUR 4.76 billion) in 2011 demonstrate a sharp decrease as compared to the previous
year, reflecting a drop in the relative weight of public procurement, both in relation to
the Gross Domestic Product (a drop of 3.56 percentage points from 6.3% in 2010 to 2.8%
in 2011) and in terms of the weight of public works in relation to the gross fixed capital
formation in the construction work sector (a drop of 19.3 percentage points to make up
only 16% of this macroeconomic indicator in 2011).
2. – As compared to 2010, the total public procurement reported to the BASE portal
represents a decrease in both the total value of contracts (-56.5% over 2010) and the
average contract value (in general, the average contract value in 2011 was 71.8% lower
than that for contracts awarded in 2010; indeed, the average value for contracts awarded
in 2011 and commenced during this same year was 96% lower than for contracts awarded
in 2011 but for which the procedure was launched before 2011).
3. – The decrease was felt both at the level of goods and services (a drop of 51.1% in
terms of total contract value) and of public works (-60%) and also across the various types
of procedures, be they competitive procedures – public tender procedures (which saw a
drop of 51.2% in terms of contract value) and restricted procedures (-77.5%) – or direct
award procedures (-43.1%).
4. – The downturn experienced in 2011 was also reflected in the drop in the average
-
-
contract value, which had variations the of 70.4% and 58.9% for goods and services and
for public works, respectively. The decrease is all the more noticeable when looking at the
average value of contracts whose procedures were launched before 2011 and those
launched during that year, where the drop was 91.4% and 90.6% for goods and services
and for public works, respectively.
52
5. – The final figures established for 2011 confirm the success that e-public procurement
has had in Portugal, as demonstrated by the figures calculated for the following indicators:
• the figure for the Public E-Procurement Index in Portugal (ICPEP) was 62%,
meaning that almost two-thirds of public procurement reported to the BASE
portal was carried out via the certified electronic public procurement platforms;
• the figure for the Manchester Index (above EU threshold) was 92%, i.e. higher
than in 2010, reflecting the success of the Portuguese public procurement in
meeting the objectives set out in the “Manchester Declaration”.
53
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