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Vestibulares 2011 – Sudeste
English
Vestibulares
2011 – Sudeste
www.richmond.com.br
UNIFESP – 2011
Instrução: Leia o texto para responder às questões de números 31 a 39.
Brazil: the natural knowledge economy
Kirsten Bound – THE ATLAS OF IDEAS
If you grew up in Europe or North America you will no doubt have been taught
in school that the Wright Brothers from Ohio invented and flew the first aeroplane
– the Kitty Hawk – in 1903. But if you grew up in Brazil you will have been taught
that the real inventor was in fact a Brazilian from Minas Gerais called Alberto Santos
Dumont, whose 14-bis aeroplane took to the skies in 1906. This fierce historical
debate, which turns on definitions of ‘practical airplanes’, the ability to launch
unaided, length of time spent in the air and the credibility of witnesses, will not be
resolved here. Yet it is a striking example of the lack of global recognition for Brazil’s
achievements in innovation.
Almost a century later, in 2005, Santos Dumont’s intellectual heirs, the company
Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica (EMBRAER), made aviation history of a different
kind when they unveiled the Ipanema, the world’s first commercially produced aircraft
to run solely on biofuels. This time, the world was watching. Scientific American
credited it as one of the most important inventions of the year. The attention paid to
the Ipanema reflects the growing interest in biofuels as a potential solution to climate
change and rising energy demand. To their advocates, biofuels – most commonly
bioethanol or biodiesel – offer a more secure, sustainable energy supply that can
reduce carbon emissions by 50–60 per cent compared to fossil fuels.
From learning to fly to learning to cope with the environmental costs of flight,
biofuel innovations like the Ipanema reflect some of the tensions of modern
science, in which expanding the frontiers of human ingenuity goes hand in hand
with managing the consequences. The recent backlash against biofuels, which
has seen them blamed for global food shortages as land is reportedly diverted
from food crops, points to a growing interdependence between the science and
innovation systems of different countries, and between innovation, economics and
environmental sustainability.
The debates now raging over biofuels reflect some of the wider dynamics in
Brazil’s innovation system. They remind us that Brazil’s current strengths and
achievements have deeper historical roots than is sometimes imagined. They reflect
the fact that Brazil’s natural resources and assets are a key area of opportunity for
science and innovation – a focus that leads us to characterise Brazil as a ‘natural
knowledge economy’.
Most importantly, they highlight the propitious timing of Brazil’s growing strength
in these areas at a time when climate change, the environment, food scarcity and
rising worldwide energy demand are at the forefront of global consciousness.
What changed between the maiden flight of the 14-bis and the maiden flight of the
Ipanema is not just Brazil’s capacity for technological and scientific innovation, but
the rest of the world’s appreciation of the potential of that innovation to address
some of the pressing challenges that confront us all.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNIFESP – 2011
31 The dispute about the first plane to take off and fly
A) can’t be solved due to a historical debate between Santos Dumont and the Wright Brothers.
B) shows that the world does not truly accept Brazil’s innovation and invention.
C) established a plausible definition of flying artifacts as well as biased witnesses from Ohio.
D) has been solved since Santos Dumont flew his 14-bis plane in 1906.
E) has started in the USA, where children learn that the Kitty Hawk was the first plane to fly.
32 According to the text, in Brazil people learn that
A) the Kitty Hawk spent less time in the air than the 14-bis.
B) both the Kitty Hawk and the 14-bis could not take off unaided.
C) there were no pictures taken of the first 14-bis flight.
D) Santos Dumont was born in Minas Gerais, where the 14-bis first flew.
E) the 14-bis, created by Santos Dumont, had its maiden flight in 1906.
33 Segundo o texto, a aeronave Ipanema
A) demonstrou que a pesquisa aeroespacial está progredindo por causa da disputa com os
irmãos Wright.
B) consolidou a EMBRAER, com mais de um século de inovação na aeronáutica, como a
empresa do ano.
C) chamou atenção por usar biocombustíveis e até foi considerada uma das invenções mais
importantes de 2005.
D) deu origem ao interesse do mundo por etanol e biodiesel como alternativos aos combustíveis
fósseis.
E) reduziu o consumo de combustível em cerca de 50 a 60%, tornando os voos mais
econômicos.
34 According to the text, biofuels
A) have caused a strong reaction against them because land formerly used for food crops is
now used for biofuel production.
B) provide sustainable energy that can be used to minimize global food shortages and climate
change.
C) have shown detrimental effects on economics and environment, although they come from
renewable sources.
D) are a temporary solution to supply the soaring energy demand until new fossil fuel sources
come into operation.
E) should be produced in different countries and from varied crops in order to become
economically viable.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNIFESP – 2011
35 Brazil is characterized as a ‘natural knowledge economy’ because
A) environmental and climate changes should be globally addressed.
B) issues such as food scarcity and energy demand have been duly solved.
C) there was no significant impact of biofuel crops on other agricultural commodities.
D) science and innovation opportunities have been created from its natural resources.
E) it has always produced plenty of agricultural goods thanks to its favorable climate.
36 O trecho do segundo parágrafo – This time, the world was watching. –
A) refere-se à fundação da EMBRAER com o lançamento do Ipanema.
B) faz contraste com o ano de 1906, em que o 14-bis fez seu voo.
C) faz uma analogia entre o Kitty Hawk e o Ipanema.
D) considera que o intervalo de um século entre os voos do 14-bis e do Ipanema foi demasiado.
E) refere-se aos cientistas americanos que viajaram no voo inaugural do Ipanema.
37 No trecho do segundo parágrafo – To their advocates, biofuels ... – a expressão their
advocates refere-se
A) aos defensores dos biocombustíveis.
B) aos herdeiros intelectuais de Santos Dumont.
C) à EMBRAER.
D) aos cientistas que idealizaram o Ipanema.
E) aos cientistas americanos.
38 No trecho do terceiro parágrafo – which has seen them blamed for global food shortages
as land is reportedly diverted from food crops – a palavra as introduz
A) um contraste.
B) uma condição.
C) uma comparação.
D) uma consequência.
E) uma causa.
39 An example of the pressing challenges mentioned in last lines of the text – the pressing
challenges that confront us all. – is
A) the ‘natural knowledge economy’.
B) technological and scientific innovation.
C) climate change, the environment and food scarcity.
D) Brazil’s current strengths and achievements.
E) biofuel.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNIFESP – 2011
Instrução: Leia o texto para responder às questões de números 40 a 45.
To Scientists, Laughter Is No Joke – It’s Serious
March 31, 2010.
So a scientist walks into a shopping mall to watch people laugh. There’s no
punchline. Laughter is a serious scientific subject, one that researchers are still
trying to figure out. Laughing is primal, our first way of communicating. Apes laugh.
So do dogs and rats. Babies laugh long before they speak. No one teaches you
how to laugh. You just do. And often you laugh involuntarily, in a specific rhythm and
in certain spots in conversation.
You may laugh at a prank on April Fools’ Day. But surprisingly, only 10 to 15 percent
of laughter is the result of someone making a joke, said Baltimore neuroscientist
Robert Provine, who has studied laughter for decades. Laughter is mostly about
social responses rather than reaction to a joke. “Laughter above all else is a social
thing,’’ Provine said. “The requirement for laughter is another person.’’
Over the years, Provine, a professor with the University of Maryland Baltimore
County, has boiled laughter down to its basics. “All language groups laugh ‘ha-ha-ha’
basically the same way,’’ he said. “Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English,
everyone will understand laughter. ... There’s a pattern generator in our brain that
produces this sound.’’
Each “ha’’ is about one-15th of a second, repeated every fifth of a second, he
said. Laugh faster or slower than that and it sounds more like panting or something
else. Deaf people laugh without hearing, and people on cell phones laugh without
seeing, illustrating that laughter isn’t dependent on a single sense but on social
interactions, said Provine, author of the book “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation.’’
“It’s joy, it’s positive engagement with life,’’ said Jaak Panksepp, a Bowling Green
University psychology professor. “It’s deeply social.’’ And it’s not just a people thing
either. Chimps tickle each other and even laugh when another chimp pretends to
tickle them. By studying rats, Panksepp and other scientists can figure out what’s
going on in the brain during laughter. And it holds promise for human ills.
Northwestern biomedical engineering professor Jeffrey Burgdorf has found that
laughter in rats produces an insulin-like growth factor chemical that acts as an
antidepressant and anxiety reducer. He thinks the same thing probably happens
in humans, too. This would give doctors a new chemical target in the brain in their
effort to develop drugs that fight depression and anxiety in people. Even so, laughter
itself hasn’t been proven to be the best medicine, experts said.
(www.nytimes.com. Adaptado.)
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNIFESP – 2011
40 Segundo o texto, a risada
A) foi estudada pelos cientistas em locais com aglomeração de gente.
B) só é prontamente entendida entre falantes do mesmo grupo linguístico.
C) agrega diversos sentidos, como visão e audição, para ser comunicada.
D) já foi estudada por cientistas das principais universidades do mundo.
E) é uma resposta social, que pode ser observada em alguns animais.
41 According to the text,
A) chimpanzees have the same laughing pattern as humans.
B) one responds to laughing if people around are laughing too.
C) laughter is prompted mostly by a joke or a trick.
D) both Provine and Panksepp agree that laughter is a social response.
E) children laugh as soon as they start learning a language.
42 Jeffrey Burgdorf discovered that
A) rats that laugh grow bigger.
B) there is a chemical produced in the body by laughter in rats.
C) people who laugh a lot are less prone to anxiety and depression.
D) benefits produced by laughter are better than many medicines.
E) all animals that laugh feel better.
43 The excerpt of the first paragraph – You just do. – means that
A) people simply laugh.
B) you laugh because you learned it.
C) people laugh involuntarily.
D) you started laughing since you were a baby.
E) people laugh the same way.
44 No trecho do terceiro parágrafo – Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English,
everyone will understand laughter. – a palavra whether pode ser substituída, sem alteração
de sentido, por
A) Whatsoever.
B) In due time.
C) Nevertheless.
D) No matter if.
E) Furthermore.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNIFESP – 2011
45 No trecho do quarto parágrafo – Laugh faster or slower than that and it sounds more like
panting or something else. – a palavra like indica
A) preferência.
B) probabilidade.
C) semelhança.
D) condição.
E) ênfase.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) – 2011
QUESTÕES DE 41 A 50
We May Be Born With an Urge to Help
What is the essence of human nature? Flawed, say many theologians. Vicious
and addicted to warfare, wrote Hobbes. Selfish and in need of considerable
improvement, think many parents. But biologists are beginning to form a generally
sunnier view of humankind. Their conclusions are derived in part from testing
very young children, and partly from comparing human children with those of
chimpanzees, hoping that the differences will point to what is distinctively human.
The somewhat surprising answer at which some biologists have arrived is that
babies are innately sociable and helpful to others. Of course every animal must to
some extent be selfish to survive. But the biologists also see in humans a natural
willingness to help. When infants 18 months old see an unrelated adult whose
hands are full and who needs assistance opening a door or picking up a dropped
clothespin, they will immediately help, Michael Tomasello writes in. The helping
behavior seems to be innate because it appears so early and before many parents
start teaching children the rules of polite behavior.
“It’s probably safe to assume that they haven’t been explicitly and directly taught
to do this,” said Elizabeth Spelke, a developmental psychologist at Harvard. “On
the other hand, they’ve had lots of opportunities to experience acts of helping by
others. I think the jury is out on the innateness question.” But Dr. Tomasello finds
that helping is not enhanced by rewards, suggesting that it is not influenced by
training. It seems to occur across cultures that have different timetables for teaching
social rules. And helping behavior can even be seen in infant chimpanzees under
the right experimental conditions. For all these reasons, Dr. Tomasello concludes
that helping is a natural inclination, not something imposed by parents or culture.
Infants will help with information, as well as in practical ways. From the age of 12
months they will point at objects that an adult pretends to have lost. Chimpanzees,
by contrast, never point at things for each other, and when they point for people, it
seems to be as a command to go fetch something rather than to share information.
For parents who may think their children somehow skipped the cooperative phase,
Dr. Tomasello offers the reassuring advice that children are often more cooperative
outside the home, which is why parents may be surprised to hear from a teacher or
coach how nice their child is. “In families, the competitive element is in ascendancy,”
he said. As children grow older, they become more selective in their helpfulness.
Starting around age 3, they will share more generously with a child who was
previously nice to them. Another behavior that emerges at the same age is a sense
of social norms. “Most social norms are about being nice to other people,” Dr.
Tomasello said in an interview, “so children learn social norms because they want
to be part of the group.”
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) – 2011
Where do they get this idea of group rules, the sense of “we do it this way”? Dr.
Tomasello believes children develop what he calls “shared intentionality,” a notion
of what others expect to happen and hence a sense of a group “we.” It is from this
shared intentionality that children derive their sense of norms and of expecting others
to obey them. Shared intentionality, in Dr. Tomasello’s view, is lose to the essence
of what distinguishes people from chimpanzees. A group of human children will use
all kinds of words and gestures to form goals and coordinate activities, but young
chimps seem to have little interest in what may be their companions’ minds.
If children are naturally helpful and sociable, what system of child-rearing best
takes advantage of this surprising propensity?
Dr. Tomasello says that the approach known as inductive parenting works
best because it reinforces the child’s natural propensity to cooperate with others.
Inductive parenting is simply communicating with children about the effect of their
actions on others and emphasizing the logic of social cooperation. “Children are
altruistic by nature,” he writes, and though they are also naturally selfish, all parents
need do is try to tip the balance toward social behavior.
The shared intentionality lies at the basis of human society, Dr. Tomasello argues.
From it flow ideas of norms, of punishing those who violate the norms and of shame
and guilt for punishing oneself. Shared intentionality evolved very early in the human
lineage, he believes, and its probable purpose was for cooperation in gathering
food. Anthropologists report that when men cooperate in hunting, they can take
down large game, which single hunters generally cannot do.
Frans de Waal, a primatologist, in a book called “The Age of Empathy, has long
studied the cooperative side of primate behavior and believes that aggression,
which he has also studied, is often overrated as a human motivation. The roots of
human cooperation may lie in human aggression. We are selfish by nature, yet also
follow rules requiring us to be nice to others. “That’s why we have moral dilemmas,”
Dr. Tomasello said, “because we are both selfish and altruistic at the same time.”
(WADE, N. We may be born with an urge to help. Available in: http://www.nytimes.
com/2009/12/01/science/01human.html?_r=2&em. Retrieved on: Dec. 3, 2009. Adapted.)
41 According to the text, children learn social norms because they:
A) want to belong to the group.
B) want to control each other.
C) know their parents oblige them.
D) want to surprise their parents.
42 According to the text, shared intentionality is:
A) understanding similarities between humans and chimpanzees.
B) obeying norms and having negative expectations from others.
C) understanding other’s expectations and having a collective sense of thought.
D) using kindness and politeness in coordinated activities.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) – 2011
43 According to Frans de Waal, aggression in human behavior is:
A) outrageous.
B) overvalued.
C) outstanding.
D) overboard.
44 The expression “to tip the balance” (line 53) can be best replaced by:
A) to favor.
B) to rewind.
C) to dismiss.
D) to overcome.
45 The word “because” (line 13), can be best replaced by:
A) in spite of.
B) thus.
C) since.
D) nevertheless.
46 According to the text, children start selecting more who they will help:
A) as they are born.
B) as they age.
C) as they go to school.
D) as they reach the age of 2.
47. In the text, the word that functions as an adjective is:
A) “surprising” (line 7).
B) “helping” (line 12).
C) “training” (line 20).
D) “parenting” (line 50).
48 The referent to the pronoun “its” (line 57) is:
A) “probable purpose”.
B) “gathering food”.
C) “shared intentionality”.
D) “human lineage”.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) – 2011
49 In the text, the expression “sunnier view” (line 4) means:
a)
better perspective.
b) more intense sunlight.
c)
warmer weather.
d) hotter sunshine.
50. The word that functions as an objective pronoun, in the text, is:
a)
“their” (line 45).
b) “its” (line 57).
c)
“it” (line 49).
d) “us” (line 64).
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNESP – 2011
Instrução: Leia a história em quadrinhos de Archie, What goes up, para responder às
questões de números 21 e 22.
21 Qual a alternativa correta?
A) O pai de Archie está nervoso porque recebeu uma longa carta de Bill Going contendo
notícias desagradáveis sobre Archie.
B) O pai de Archie, que é motorista de táxi, está furioso porque o conserto de seu carro custou
muito caro.
C) O pai de Archie está nervoso porque as contas que ele tem que pagar estão ficando muito caras.
D) O pai de Archie pediu para ver as notas escolares do filho e descobriu que Archie obteve
notas baixas.
22 Qual o significado, na história, dos termos cable bill, a good time e report card,
respectivamente?
A) Cabo elétrico, uma boa hora e cartão de repórter.
B) Conta da televisão a cabo, uma boa hora e cartão de repórter.
C) Cabo elétrico, um bom tempo e cartão de repórter.
D) Conta da televisão a cabo, uma boa hora e boletim escolar.
E) Cabo elétrico, um bom tempo e boletim escolar.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNESP – 2011
Instrução: Leia o texto a seguir para responder às questões de números 23 a 25.
Two of the greatest obstacles that comics have in reaching readers are exposure
and cost. Fortunately, the internet has provided remedies for both. Many comic
book creators and publishers have put their comics online, available as full issues
and at absolutely no cost to the reader. And unlike torrents or scanned files, these
comics are completely legal. Here I have endeavored to collect as many of these as
possible, now totalling over 300 full issues and stories, in one place.
Whether you have been meaning to try a new title, or if you’ve never read a comic
in your life, there’s still something here for everyone. Follow a link or two or three.
Some comics that I especially recommend carry an asterisk, but I haven’t come
close to reading everything here. Maybe you’ll find something you enjoy.
(___________________________________________)
(www.lorencollins.net/freecomic. Adaptado.)
23 Qual o melhor título para o texto?
A) My costly comic book collection
B) Remedy obstacles in comic books
C) 300 recommended funny stories
D) Enjoy funny books online
E) Free online comic books
24 De acordo com o texto, dois obstáculos ao acesso dos leitores às histórias em quadrinhos são
A) a divulgação e o material escaneado da internet.
B) o custo da internet e a legalidade de material escaneado.
C) a legalidade de material escaneado e de edições completas.
D) o desconhecimento e o desinteresse por histórias em quadrinhos.
E) o custo e a divulgação das histórias ao público.
25 Qual das orações a seguir melhor se encaixa na sequência do texto, como um terceiro parágrafo?
A) If you have never read a comic book in your life, you’ll probably find it very difficult to
understand the books in this collection.
B) If you know of more online comics I could add to the list, or discover that any of these links
have gone bad, please contact me by e-mail.
C) If you like funny stories, click on one of the five links below and buy as many free books as
you want, at excellent prices.
D) If you like funny stories and want to e-mail the publishers to complain, this is considered
totally legal.
E) If you have read a total of 300 stories in your life, you’ll probably find it very difficult to enjoy
the books in this collection.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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UNESP – 2011
Instrução: Leia o texto Status of same-sex marriage para responder às questões de
números 26 a 30.
Status of same-sex marriage
South America
Argentina
The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (a federal district and capital city of the
republic) allows same-sex civil unions. The province of Rio Negro allows same-sex
civil unions, too. Legislation to enact same-sex marriage across all of Argentina was
approved on July 15, 2010.
Brazil
A law that would allow same-sex civil unions throughout the nation has been
debated. Until the end of the first semester of 2010 the Supremo Tribunal Federal
had not decided about it.
Colombia
The Colombian Constitutional Court ruled in February 2007 that same-sex
couples are entitled to the same inheritance rights as heterosexuals in commonlaw marriages. This ruling made Colombia the first South American nation to legally
recognize gay couples. Furthermore, in January 2009, the Court ruled that samesex couples must be extended all of the rights offered to cohabitating heterosexual
couples.
Ecuador
The Ecuadorian new constitution has made Ecuador stand out in the region.
Ecuador has become the first country in South America where same sex civil union
couples are legally recognized as a family and share the same rights of married
heterosexual couples.
Uruguay
Uruguay became the first country in South America to allow civil unions (for both
opposite-sex and same-sex couples) in a national platform on January 1, 2008.
Children can be adopted by same-sex couples since 2009.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/. Adaptado.)
26 Assinale a alternativa correta.
A) Segundo o texto, os países nos quais os direitos de casais heterossexuais e de casais
homossexuais são os mesmos são o Equador e a Colômbia.
B) De acordo com as informações do texto, entende-se que uniões civis entre pessoas do
mesmo sexo são legais em todos os países da América do Sul.
C) De acordo com o texto, entende-se que, dentre os países da América do Sul, somente no
Brasil ainda não se permitem uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo.
D) O país da América do Sul onde as uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo demoraram
mais para ser legalizadas é o Uruguai.
E) As uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, válidas em todo o território brasileiro, foram
aprovadas em 2010 pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal.
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UNESP – 2011
27 Assinale a alternativa correta.
A) A Colômbia foi a última nação sul-americana a aprovar a união civil de casais hétero ou
homossexuais.
B) A Argentina foi a segunda nação sul-americana a reconhecer os direitos dos casais do
mesmo sexo.
C) O Equador foi o país sul-americano que menos se empenhou para reconhecer os direitos
dos homossexuais.
D) O Uruguai foi o primeiro país sul-americano a aprovar uniões civis de casais hétero e
homossexuais.
E) O Brasil não tem demonstrado nenhum interesse no reconhecimento dos direitos dos casais
28 Assinale a alternativa na qual todos os termos se caracterizam como vocabulário
específico da área legislativa.
A) Across, approved, platform, ruling.
B) Constitution, legislation, share, throughout.
C) Across, allow, platform, rights.
D) Constitution, entitled, rights, ruling.
E) Across, extended, recognize, share.
29 Assinale a alternativa na qual todas as palavras são formas verbais relativas ao passado.
A) Adopted, become, decided, recognized, ruled.
B) Adopted, allow, become, recognized, ruled.
C) Approved, became, been, decided, ruled.
D) Allow, approved, became, decided, may.
E) Can, debated, entitled, made, offered.
30 Com base nas informações do texto, o que podemos inferir a respeito da situação atual
dos casais do mesmo sexo na Argentina?
A) As uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo são válidas somente em Buenos Aires e na
província de Rio Negro.
B) Os casais do mesmo sexo provavelmente ainda não têm todos os direitos dos casais
heterossexuais.
C) A província de Rio Negro foi a região onde uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo foram
aprovadas mais recentemente.
D) Em Buenos Aires as leis para uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo são diferentes do
restante do país.
E) Os casais homossexuais poderão ter exatamente os mesmos deveres dos casais
heterossexuais.
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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Answer Key
UNIFESP – 2011
31 B
32 E
33 C
34 A
35 D
36 B
37 A
38 E
39 C
40 E
41 D
42 B
43 A
44 D
45 C
UFV – 2011
41 A
42 C
43 B
44 A
45 C
46 B
47 A
48 C
49 A
50 D
UNESP – 2011
21 C
22 D
23 E
24 E
25 B
26 A
27 D
28 D
29 C
30 B
Richmond Publishing — Photocopiable material.
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