Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation

by user






Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation
Good Practices in
South-South and Triangular Cooperation
for Sustainable Development
United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
ISBN 978–0–9859081–3–3
May 2016
The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations, the United Nations
Development Programme or governments. The designations employed do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or its frontiers or boundaries.
Desgined by YAT Communication
Good practices to accelerate sustainable human development are increasingly available in the global South. They
can be found in the policies, institutions and programmes that have enabled a number of developing countries to
acquire a skilled labour force, create decent jobs, raise productivity and lift millions of their citizens out of grinding
poverty. Beyond the countries acting individually, there is a notable surge in international collective actions known
as South-South and triangular cooperation. The development community recognizes these approaches as viable
pathways to progress in the developing world. In such initiatives, developing countries turn to one another and
their Northern partners to address challenges through cooperative alliances and peer-to-peer learning, leading
to the widespread application of policies, strategies or practical programmes that have worked to raise living
standards in the South.
Good Practices in South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Sustainable Development, the first in its series,
highlights Southern good practices that are relevant to the implementation of the Sustainable Development
Goals. Policymakers and development practitioner seeking to understand better how South-South and triangular
cooperation can contribute to the improvement of peoples’ lives will find ample answers in this book. Many of the
good practices featured were recommended by member agencies of the United Nations Development Group Task
Team on South-South and Triangular Cooperation and other development partners at the subregional, regional
and global levels. Others were selected from among the good practices that had been nominated and showcased
during the annual Global South-South Development Expos organized by the United Nations Office for SouthSouth Cooperation since 2008.
Priority has been given to highlighting activities that illustrate the main characteristics of effective South-South and
triangular cooperation; initiatives that involve and benefit a great number of people in two or more countries of
the South; solutions that have addressed transnational development challenges that would be difficult to tackle
singlehandedly; and programmes that have been tested, validated, adapted and/or scaled up in various locations.
The objective is to demonstrate the efficacy of South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation in inspiring
international solidarity in efforts to overcome shared obstacles and jump-start or accelerate progress towards
sustainable human development.
As the Co-Chairs of the United Nations Development Group Task Team on South-South and Triangular Cooperation,
we hope that this publication will serve as a reference for United Nations resident coordinators, United Nations
country teams, South-South and triangular cooperation focal points in the United Nations development system
as well as national governments and development practitioners who facilitate the integration of South-South and
triangular cooperation approaches into national development plans and actions.
Vinícius Carvalho Pinheiro
Special Representative to the United Nations and Director
International Labour Organization Office for the United Nations
Jorge Chediek
Envoy of the Secretary-General on South-South Cooperation
Director of the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
This publication was made possible through the collaborative efforts of the United Nations Office for SouthSouth Cooperation (UNOSSC) and the member agencies of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) Task
Team on South-South and Triangular Cooperation. It contains 61 good practices in South-South and triangular
cooperation grouped according to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
We owe a major debt of gratitude to colleagues in the following agencies and institutions, including: Sarah
Barden and Katrin Taylor, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); Karan Sehgal and Maria
Luisa Saponaro, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); Anita Amorim, International Labour
Organization (ILO); Eugenia Rodrigues, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO); Angela Trenton-Mbonde,
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS); Pamela Eser, United Nations Capital Development Fund
(UNCDF); Elizeu Chaves, Jr., United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA); Simona Marinescu, Xiaojun Grace Wang
and Shams Banihani, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); Ian Thorpe, Michelle Barron and Niklas
Stephan, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); Maria M. Sophia Freynhofer, Weixi Gong, Kelleh G. Mansaray
and Rana Pratap Singh, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO); Laura Capobianco,
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women); Carola Kenngott,
Francesco Slaviero, Isadora Ferreira, Maria Pino and Erica Hovanibue, World Food Programme (WFP); Shambhu
Acharya, World Health Organization (WHO); Nathalie Montillot and Marcelo di Pietro, World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO); Savitri Mohapatra, Africa Rice Centre; Hashali Hamukuaya, Benguela Current Commission;
Takanori Satoyama, Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD) Secretariat; Jiajun Xu, Center for New Structural
Economics at Peking University; Ting Shih, ClickMedix; Nicole Siegmund, Hiyas S. Clamor-Torneo and Bella Monse,
German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ); Sara Pais, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV); Marianella Feoli
and Carolina Reyes, FUNDECOOPERACIÓN; Marcela Rojo, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria;
Joaquim Tres, Inter-American Development Bank (IADB); Masato Tokuda, Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA); Francis Burnett, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS); E. M. Venkatesh, Pan-African e-Network
Project-Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL); Hyunkyoung Jeon, Regional Office of the Regional
Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology
for Asia and the Pacific; Blandine Araba, Songhai Centre; Bennet Benoza, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education
Organization Regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO INNOTECH); and Praphan
Phanuphak and Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre (TRC-ARC).
The dedication and hard work of the core team were critical. The organization, research and drafting of this
publication were supervised by Cosmas Gitta, UNOSSC, and Xiaojun Grace Wang, UNDP. We also extend special
thanks to Dingding Sun, UNOSSC, for her overall coordination, research and technical review; Shams Banihani,
UNDP, and Debel Gutta and Julie Lund, UNOSSC, for their technical review and substantive comments on the
original manuscript; and Edem Bakhshish, Joshua Gimba, Denis Nkala, Rogel Nuguid and Ines Tofalo, UNOSSC, and
Orria Goni and Doningnon Soro, UNDP, for their contribution and support. We wish to thank John Apruzzese for his
research, writing and preparation of the original manuscript, Barbara Brewka for editing and proofreading, and the
YAT Communication Company for the design and layout of the final publication.
Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to Helen Clark, UNDG Chair and UNDP Administrator, for supporting
this initiative. Without the financial resources and technical support from UNDP, this publication would not have
been possible.
No Poverty
Zero Hunger
Good Health and
Quality Education
Gender Equality
Clean Water and
Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty
India, Brazil and South Africa Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation:
Partnering with Rural Communities
Industrialization and Job Creation for Africa
Centre of Excellence against Hunger
China-Sierra Leone Food Project
Coalition for African Rice Development
New Rice for Africa (NERICA)
Purchase from Africans for Africa (PAA Africa)
Rice-fish Culture in Sub-Saharan Africa
School Feeding
Strengthening Governance for Nutrition
Better Hospital Performance through 5S-KAIZEN-TQM
Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola
Global Transfer Project: Community-to-community Learning on HIV/AIDS
Lao-Thai Collaboration in HIV Nutrition (Lao-TACHIN)
Latin American and Caribbean Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group
More Doctors (Mais Médicos) Project
Pharmaceutical Procurement Service
South-to-South Learning Exchange on HIV Prevention
South-South Cooperation for Safe Motherhood
Inter-American Centre for Knowledge Development in Vocational Training
National Service for Industrial Training (SENAI)
Pacific Open Learning Health Net
Family Protection, Support, Security and Justice for Victims of Domestic
and Gender-based Violence Programme
Gender-sensitive Social Protection Floors
Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces Global Flagship Initiative
Regional Fit for School Programme
Strengthening Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Services in Ethiopia
Water Management and Sanitation for Dispersed Rural and Indigenous
Communities in Latin America
Affordable and
Clean Energy
Decent Work and
Economic Growth
Innovation and
Sustainable Cities
and Communities
Consumption and
Climate Action
Life below Water
Life on Land
Peace, Justice
and Strong
Partnerships for
the Goals
FGV Projetos for Biofuels
Making Biogas Portable: Renewable Energy Technologies for a Greener
Observatory for Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean
Rural Energy Development Programme
Solar Lantern Project
Initiative to Combat Child Labour in Brazil, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ),
Ecuador and Paraguay
Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labour Regional Initiative
Songhai Centres
Egyptian Traceability Centre for Agro-industrial Exports
Electron Beam Applications for Value Addition to Food and Industrial
Products and Degradation of Environmental Pollutants in the Asia-Pacific
Pan-African e-Network Project
Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre
Assessment-based National Dialogue: Towards the Establishment of
Social Protection Floors
Saudi Youth Exchange Programme
China’s One-stop Service Centre Model: Designing Government Services
for Urban Bangladesh
Road Safety Technical Cooperation Project between Southern Cone Cities
Energy-efficiency Standards and Labelling
Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) Programme
African Risk Capacity
Caribbean Risk Management Initiative
Benguela Current Comission
Programme of South-South Cooperation for Sustainable Development
between Benin, Bhutan and Costa Rica
Promotion of Sustainable Social Forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa
Triangular Cooperation between Costa Rica, Morocco and Germany for
the Sustainable Management and Use of Forests, Protected Areas and
Regional Hub of Civil Service in Astana
Regional Initiative for Civil Service Capacity Enhancement in South Sudan
Strengthening the Technical and Functional Skills of Supreme Audit
Institutions, National Parliaments and Civil Society for the Control of Public
Finances in Portuguese-speaking African Countries and Timor-Leste
Knowledge-sharing on Census
Regional Public Goods Initiative
South-South Cooperation Multilateral Platform on the International
Conference on Population and Development for Latin America and the
List of SDGs and Targets
Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty
A funding scheme to fight hunger and poverty
Although the number of people living in extreme poverty dropped by more than
half between 1990 and 2015 (from 1.9 billion to 836 million), too many people are still
struggling to meet the most basic human needs. Today, eradicating poverty in all its forms
remains one of humanity’s greatest challenges. It is true that in the past two decades,
rapid global economic growth and increased agricultural productivity have reduced the
proportion of the world’s undernourished by almost 50 per cent and many developing
countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs
of the most vulnerable. Much more is needed, however, to end hunger and eradicate
poverty by 2030. Extreme hunger and malnutrition remain huge barriers to development
in many countries. In 2014, it was estimated that over 795 million people were chronically
undernourished, often as a direct consequence of environmental degradation, drought
and loss of biodiversity.
Towards a Solution
The Government of Chile considers international cooperation for development of
vital importance in accelerating progress towards the achievement of internationally
agreed development goals, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and
shares its social and economic transformation experience with other countries through
South-South cooperation. Chile’s development progress offers valuable lessons and
guidance to other countries, including in the design, implementation and assessment
of policies that can accelerate social and economic progress. In each context, one of
Chile’s foreign policy priorities is to increase development cooperation. In 2006, the
Government approved Law N° 20.138 earmarking up to $5 million per year to finance
initiatives targeting the eradication of hunger and poverty in lower- and middle-income
countries. It raises funds through passenger contributions on international flights,
with $2 of the airport tax paid by every passenger devoted to international action
against hunger and poverty in the world. In 2012, UNDP, jointly with the Government
of Chile, launched the Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty in order to promote Chile’s
international cooperation policy in accordance with its commitment to the MDGs and
©Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty
The Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty uses three innovative delivery mechanisms
to achieve results: (a) calls for proposals for projects designed by Chilean civil society
organizations; (b) projects presented by public institutions or United Nations organizations
with representation in Chile; and (c) responses to requests for humanitarian assistance.
The success of this initiative is based on an open, competitive process that civil society
organizations, government institutions and United Nations organizations undergo. The
proposals that they submit compete according to pre-established technical criteria
designed to promote feasible and sustainable projects. Only projects that have received
a high technical score are granted funds. The Government of Chile and UNDP are
responsible for the design, preparation, assessment
and supervision of the activities financed by the Fund.
A steering committee has been established that is
responsible for all decisions regarding project selection
and the monitoring of their implementation.
The creation of the Fund has provided a platform
for civil society organizations and other institutions
to systematize good practices, share knowledge
and collect suggestions to improve the next call for
proposals. This has included organizing workshops to
improve coordination and synergy among participating
countries and publishing best practices and successes
to promote knowledge-sharing.
Since 2012, the Fund has awarded over $3.5
million to 34 South-South cooperation projects in
over 30 countries in Africa, Latin America and the
Caribbean, and the Pacific implemented by civil
society organizations, Chilean public institutions
and United Nations organizations. Moreover, the
Fund has fast-tracked an additional $815,000 to
support humanitarian responses to crises in Gaza,
Mali, South Sudan and beyond. Owing to the success
of the initiative, the Government of Chile has extended
the Fund for an additional four years with an increased
budget of $12 million. It has also ensured its financial
sustainability through Law N° 20.138, which provides
year-to-year predictable resources and financial stability,
making sure that the Fund is replenished despite
changes in government or an eventual financial crisis.
Ms. Marcela Quezada, South-South Cooperation
Coordinator, UNDP Chile
[email protected]
Mr. Marco Fernández, Executive Secretary of the Chilean
[email protected]
Project name: Chile Fund against Hunger and Poverty
Countries: Chile and over 30 countries in the Africa region, the Asia and the Pacific region, and the Latin America and
the Caribbean region
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.a, 2.1, 2.2, 17.1, 17.3
Supported by: Government of Chile
Implementing entity: Chilean International Cooperation Agency
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2015-2018 (first phase: 2012-2015)
URL of the practice: www.fondochile.cl
India, Brazil and South Africa Facility
for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation:
Partnering with Rural Communities
Better, diversified agriculture and access to energy improve
livelihoods of rural inhabitants in Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau, like many sub-Saharan African countries, faced the turmoil of the global
food crisis of 2007 and 2008 when skyrocketing international and domestic prices hit the
country hard. Once a major exporter of rice, Guinea-Bissau now imports almost half of its
food, including up to 90,000 metric tons of rice per year. As a staple crop, rice accounts for
most of the country’s food imports. However, despite the significant hydro-agricultural
potential of eight of its regions, many people living there have been forced into poverty
because they remain isolated from food production areas and lack resources.1
Towards a Solution
Since 2013, the India, Brazil and South Africa Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation,
known as the IBSA Fund, has been working with Guinea-Bissau to address this challenge.
The primary objective in Guinea-Bissau is to reduce food insecurity by helping farmers
to improve agricultural techniques for rice cultivation and to diversify their crops. It also
focuses on agro-processing that provides a greater product life span and enables access
to markets. In addition, providing energy access to rural populations has made nighttime education possible while the ability to charge cell phones at any time has provided
greater connectivity.
The IBSA Fund provides a network linking best practices and expertise which participants
are able to access. For example, thanks to the network, 25 villages in Guinea-Bissau
increased their access to energy as a result of solar energy equipment developed in
India; experts from Brazil shared agricultural techniques and knowledge with farmers in
Guinea-Bissau, resulting in a 12-per cent increase in rice yield and the diversification of
crops and diets; and enhanced rice seeds developed by a public agricultural research
institution in Brazil were shared with and cultivated in Guinea-Bissau.
© IBSA Fund
The key methodological approach includes:
• Acting in phases/pilots and building on successes: Projects in a number of villages
showed results and were expanded to other communities. Subsequent projects
deepened successes or tried different approaches where challenges were greater;
• Designing activities through participatory processes: Projects involved villagers in the
specifications, demand and implementation of activities and partnered with ministries,
decision makers and key government entities;
• Signing mutual accountability compacts: Projects established clear, signed agreements
with villages and government partners in which they committed to providing
counterpart/in-kind resources in order to benefit from the partnership; and
• Leveraging local and Southern expertise: Projects capitalized on similar or relevant
experiences in neighbouring or other developing countries.
The projects were evaluated with input from
stakeholders, confirming both the development
results and adherence to South-South principles
(such as national ownership and leadership, equality,
horizontality and non-conditionality). The village that
capitalized the most on the project activities and gained
its own development dynamics became a model
village – serving as a field school for the possibilities
of agricultural development interventions. Overall, the
projects improved agricultural production by training
over 4,500 farmers in enhanced agricultural techniques
for rice cultivation. They supported diversification of
production by offering alternatives for new crops and
introduced new seed types that improved yield and
permitted agricultural production even during the rainy
season. They rehabilitated low-lying lands for cultivation
and trained partner farmers in water management and
in processing and conservation of agro-products. Taking
a multisectoral approach to development, the projects
trained about 1,000 adults in functional literacy and
provided solar energy equipment to 25 villages along
with support for the villages to sustainably manage their
solar utilities.
The projects were successful at bringing the spirit
of change to rural communities. Through training
by Brazilian and Indian experts and technology
transfer from India and Brazil, the projects planted the
seed of innovation by building the confidence that
improvements in villagers’ diets, education and quality
of life are possible and by supporting practical steps that
enhanced livelihoods.
Ownership and leadership of local communities and
government were key to the accomplishments and
sustainability of those projects. Up-front training and
support to communities so that they could develop a
revenue stream from their solar equipment in order
to purchase spare parts and repair equipment were
important. However, the communities had to proactively
engage in those management processes in order to
assure sustainability.
Conditions required for replication are: (a) resources
and technical expertise shared to broaden impact;
(b) villagers interested in learning and applying better
agricultural techniques; (c) villagers’ commitment to
manage and obtain sustainable revenue from solar
energy equipment; and (d) villagers’ interest in gaining
functional adult literacy.
UNDP Guinea-Bissau implemented the projects in close
partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development and the Ministry of Energy and Natural
Resources of Guinea-Bissau. The IBSA Fund financed the
projects, and the United Nations Office for South-South
Cooperation served as fund manager and as the Board
of Directors secretariat and supported partnershipbuilding.
The India, Brazil and South Africa Facility for Poverty
and Hunger Alleviation (IBSA Fund) is a remarkable
example of cooperation among three developing
countries and constitutes a pioneering initiative
to implement South-South cooperation for the
benefit of other Southern countries in partnership
with the United Nations system. Its purpose is to
identify replicable and scalable projects that can
be disseminated to interested developing countries
as examples of best practices in the fight against
poverty and hunger.The IBSA Fund supports projects
on a demand-driven basis through partnerships
with local governments, national institutions and
implementing partners. Initiatives are concrete
expressions of solidarity and objectives range from
promoting food security, to addressing HIV/AIDS,
to extending access to safe drinking water – all with
the aim of contributing to the achievement of the
Sustainable Development Goals.
Ms. Ines Tofalo, Programme Specialist, United Nations
Office for South-South Cooperation
[email protected]
Project name: IBSA Facility for Poverty and Hunger Alleviation: Partnering With Rural Communities
Country: Guinea-Bissau
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.1, 1.2, 7.b, 12.2, 13.3
Supported by: IBSA Fund
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Completed
Project period: August 2009-May 2015
URL of the practice: IBSA Fund
Industrialization and Job Creation
for Africa
How African countries are coming together to use industrialization
to galvanize their economic transformation and reduce poverty
Africa now has some of the fastest-growing economies in the world but in many cases,
it has not been able to translate that progress into lower unemployment rates and a
reduction in poverty levels. Given the continent’s vast human and material resources,
including petroleum wealth in some countries, resolving the paradox of growth without
jobs is one of Africa’s major contemporary challenges.1
Towards a Solution
A group of African countries came together in 2011 to create the Industrialization and
Job Creation for Africa Initiative to respond to that challenge. The Initiative aims to
make Africa the next manufacturing hub for global markets by helping it to seize the
opportunity for industrialization arising from the relocation of light manufacturing from
China and other emerging market economies. In doing so, Africa will realize its potential
for sustainable industrialization, shared prosperity and job growth.
The project helps governments to adopt a proactive approach to investment promotion
and improve infrastructure and the business environment in special economic zones/
industrial parks to attract export-oriented light manufacturing firms. These firms have the
technological know-how and the confidence of international buyers in China and other
emerging economies so they relocate production. The project creates quick wins
that produce a snowball effect, attracting foreign direct investment and domestic
investment and serving as a source of inspiration and experience for other African
countries interested in kick-starting their efforts towards sustainable and inclusive
The Initiative was inspired by Professor Justin Yifu Lin’s new structural economics, regarded
as the third wave of development thinking after structuralism and neoliberalism. New
structural economics proposes that developing countries focus on what they can do
well (potential comparative advantages) based on what they have (factor endowments).
With this guidance, the initiative has achieved quick wins and is being scaled up through
demonstration and triangular cooperation.
© Made in Africa Initiative
Industrialization and Job Creation for Africa uses a five-step approach: (1) quick wins:
African governments use existing resources and implementation capacity to establish
industrial parks and special economic zones with adequate infrastructure and a good
business environment so that investors can reduce transaction costs to achieve quick
wins in job creation and export promotion; (2) scaling up: success stories foster national
champions and scaling up in host countries and across the African continent; (3) triangular
cooperation: partners build on collaboration between African countries with comparative
advantages in the supply of labour and raw materials to attract investors from emerging
economies with manufacturing capability and international buyers/retailers in Europe
and the United States; (4) participation: high-level
commitment from African governments is essential
for triangular cooperation and crucial to building
the capacities of countries to design and implement
sustainable industrial policies and special economic
zones; (5) engaging international organizations in
scaling up: UNDP China signed a memorandum of
understanding with the Made in Africa Initiative in 2015
to build on early success. The Centre for New Structural
Economics at Peking University and the Made in Africa
Initiative are working with UNDP to leverage its global
network and convening power to advance the agenda
of pan-African industrialization.
The Initiative has shown promising early successes. The
number of jobs created by the Huajian shoe factory that
had invested in Eastern Industrial Park in Ethiopia rose
from 600 in January 2012 to 3,500 in December 2013. The
success in attracting FDI to Ethiopia created a snowball
effect, with the 22 factory units in Bole Lamin, a new
industrial park, leased out in just three months in 2013.
Ethiopia has shared its pioneer experiences with Rwanda
and Senegal. Delegations from other African countries
have also visited Ethiopia to learn from its experience.
In light of Ethiopia’s success, Rwanda is ready to explore
similar partnership with the Made in Africa Initiative and
the Centre for New Structural Economics. With their
facilitation, C&H Garments invested in the Kigali Special
Economic Zone in February 2015 and production
began within two months. Over 500 jobs were created
by August 2015 and 300 women were trained in
embroidery to enable household manufacturing. In
Senegal, with advice from the Made in Africa Initiative
and the Centre for New Structural Economics, the first
special economic zone was created in 2015 to attract
FDI in light manufacturing and international buyers,
such as Carrefour. Success stories have further sparked
high-level political commitment to achieve quick wins
for pan-African industrialization. Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti,
Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda and the United Republic of
Tanzania have expressed interest in creating quick wins
in sustainable and inclusive industrialization.
The sustainability of the Initiative depends on a number
of factors such as: (a) political commitment from
top leaders in host countries; (b) building of special
economic zones/industrial parks to boost infrastructure
and the business environment, attract FDI and spark
international buyers’ confidence; (c) creation of local
industrial clusters by encouraging local entrepreneurs to
master manufacturing know-how to achieve economies
of scale; (d) targeting of international markets; and (e)
ensuring corporate business responsibilities.
This model is highly replicable and has spread from
Ethiopia to many African countries. It is ready to be
replicated as long as there is adequate funding to
incubate successes and systematic action-oriented
research to distil lessons. Pilot success stories in
international forums and media have already given rise
to high-level political commitments in African countries
to have similar quick wins. There is momentum
for learning from quick wins for industrialization.
Stakeholders include African governments at the
national and local levels, manufacturing companies
such as C&H Garments and the Huajian shoe factory,
developers of special economic zones/industrial parks
and international buyers, and international institutions
including UNDP and UNIDO.
Ms. Helen Hai, Goodwill Ambassador of UNIDO, CEO of
Made in Africa Initiative
[email protected]
Dr. Jiajun Xu, Executive Deputy Director, Centre for New
Structural Economics at Peking University
[email protected]
Project name: Industrialization and Job Creation for Africa
Countries: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal and other African countries
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.8, 9.2, 9.3, 17.9, 17.11, 17.16, 17.17
Implementing entities: Made in Africa Initiative, Centre for New Structural Economics at Peking University
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2011 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.nse.pku.edu.cn/
Related resources: Ethiopia: On the Verge of the Third Miracle; Ethiopia: GTP at the Crossroads – Achieving Targets
and Seizing Opportunities; How Africa Can Succeed Asia; C&H Garments; New Global Partnership for Sustainable
Development Round Table.
Centre of Excellence against Hunger
The Brazilian model helps countries to improve food security,
social protection and school attendance
Despite progress to date in reducing hunger in developing countries, 11.3 per cent
of the world’s population remains hungry. Roughly 805 million people around the
world go undernourished. Approximately 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient
deficiencies, impeding human and socioeconomic development. More than 66 million
primary-school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world, with
23 million in Africa alone 1
Towards a Solution
The WFP Brazil Centre of Excellence against Hunger is a partnership between WFP and
the Government of Brazil that helps to make the experience of Brazil in addressing the
Zero Hunger Challenge available to other developing countries for learning, sharing
and adaptation through South-South and triangular cooperation. The Centre advocates
for developing nationally owned, sustainable programmes and policies for school
feeding, social protection and nutrition improvement. It aims to help governments
to create long-term, lasting solutions to defeat hunger and poverty by building local
skills and knowledge, promoting food and nutrition security through school feeding
programmes, and contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs).
The Centre’s methodology , jointly developed by WFP and the Government of Brazil,
draws on the Brazilian experience in school feeding as a component of its Zero Hunger
programme (Fome Zero) and on the WFP vision to reduce hunger among school children
through capacity development and technical assistance to national governments. The
methodology addresses specific areas of school feeding and how they work with social
protection and zero-hunger strategies. It focuses first on policy goals, including the
legal and political framework, institutional capacity and coordination, ability to design
and implement programmes, funding capacity, and the participation of the local
community and civil society. Once this groundwork has been done, the Centre uses a
set of tools to facilitate policy dialogue, planning and capacity development processes,
which include study visits, national workshops, and technical missions and assistance.
The Centre has broadened its knowledge-sharing and capacity development activities
with developing countries through South-South and triangular cooperation. In 2015,
it provided continuous support to 24 developing countries previously engaged with
the Centre’s activities and to two other countries engaged with those activities for the
first time: Cambodia and Nepal. Technical missions, workshops, training and national
consultations took place with Governments in the process of strengthening national
and sustainable policies on food and nutrition security – especially home-grown school
feeding integrated with social protection and inclusive growth.
Participating Governments acknowledge the
importance of regional cooperation and coordination
in their sustainable national school feeding
programmes. In June 2015, 21 countries approved the
creation of the School Feeding African Network, which
will contribute to the design and improvement of
school feeding policies, including increasing national
budgets. In January 2016, the African Union decided to
adopt home-grown school feeding programmes as a
continental strategy with support from the WFP Centre
of Excellence against Hunger.
The Centre’s multisectoral approach and method
mean that partners can unite to tackle multiple
development goals through the adaptation of
home-grown school feeding programmes specific
to local country contexts. The strong capacity
development and national ownership components
of the Centre’s methodology ensure the long-term
sustainability of programmes once they have taken
root locally. The Centre’s work has made an impact
at both country and regional levels in the forms of
national policy reforms (school feeding policies),
regional cooperation, regional strategy reforms and
regional agreements.
replication in many developing countries through
their own adaptation of the initiative. Factors critical
for success are adequate funding and a multisectoral
approach by governments.
The Government of Brazil and WFP are the
implementing partners. The Government of Brazil
provides funds and technical expertise and WFP
provides experience and a presence in over 80
countries. Other donors fund the documenting of
lessons learned, monitoring and evaluation, and
Participating stakeholders: There are 37 participating
governments (delegations), schools and local
communities (teachers, parents, culinary professionals,
children, farmers, producers, civil society and the local
Mr. Peter Rodrigues, Deputy Director, WFP Brazil
Country Office
[email protected]
Ms. Carola Kenngott, South-South and triangular
cooperation, WFP HQ
[email protected]
The school feeding programme of Brazil is easily
replicable, as proven by its organic expansion and
Project name: WFP Centre of Excellence against Hunger
Countries: Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana,
Haiti, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, Zambia,
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
Supported by: Multiple government, public- and private-sector donors
Implementing entities: Government of Brazil, WFP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2011 to present
URL of the practice: https://www.wfp.org/centre-of-excellence-hunger
China-Sierra Leone Food Project
Sierra Leone builds on Chinese expertise to bolster its agricultural
output and guarantee quality food to communities most in need
Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy in Sierra Leone, employing over 65
per cent of the labour force. Although the country has enormous agricultural resource
potential, there are still many communities that have inadequate access to food. To
compound this, an insufficient amount of large-scale holdings, limited market access,
inadequate operational funds and lack of agricultural expertise have all hindered
further agricultural development.1
Towards a Solution
The China-Sierra Leone Food Project has taken on this challenge and is working to
combat poverty and hunger by transferring sustainable farming techniques and
inclusive agricultural value chains to the grass-roots level in Sierra Leone, with expansion
to other least developed countries. The project is part of the much larger FAOChina South-South Cooperation Programme. It promotes the transfer of agricultural
techniques at the grass-roots level to enrich agricultural production via the exchange
of experts and technicians from China to developing countries.
A team of Chinese experts and technicians works with national and local governments
to increase the performance of the agricultural sector, improve irrigation systems and
increase rice, field crop, vegetable and agroforestry yields. The experts and beneficiaries
collaborate by sharing resources and techniques. Since its inception, the project
has helped to introduce new technologies, exchange best practices, and share
knowledge and experiences in a number of areas such as 68 new agricultural
techniques, 56 new crop varieties and 35 types of equipment and tools to help
to boost production. Examples include:
(a) introducing virus-free potato planting technologies from China to the mountain
regions along with demonstrations on potato planting methods;
(b) improving livestock farming by introducing the production of corn as animal
feed, which has led to farmers’ increased income;
(c) raising rice yield from 0.9 to 2.1 tonnes per hectare by using a Chinese hybrid
rice variety along with animal waste fertilizer; and
(d) increasing the yearly rate of vegetable cultivation so that farmers can plant three
crops of vegetables per year and sell the harvest to generate additional income.
The initiative’s model is demand-driven and offers an entire package of services
to address a country’s needs, from assessments to skills and from the introduction
of machinery to gauging impact. The project approach includes a strong capacity
development component that ensures the assimilation and long-term sustainability
of the new techniques and expertise provided that adequate financial resources
are made available. Regular contact is maintained between Chinese experts and
beneficiaries, and the knowledge transferred through
the programme has been effectively adopted at the
local level, supporting national and household food
security as well as agricultural intensification and
diversification. To build on the achievements made
to date, more partnerships and increased investment
in agriculture are required. Given adequate resources,
the technologies and varieties introduced through the
scheme could be applied on a much larger scale.
Farmers and local producers have effectively adopted
the new skills and techniques, which has led to greater
food security and intensified, diversified farming
and yields. China and FAO have begun working on a
second phase of the umbrella programme. The project
will apply lessons learned and the adoption of good
practices in countries where the demand matches the
skills and technologies that China has to offer.
The main project partners include FAO, Sierra Leone
and China, which provide financial and technical
Mr. Zhongwei Liu, Coordinator, FAO/China SSC Programme,
South-South Cooperation (SSC) Team, FAO
[email protected]
Project name: China-Sierra Leone South-South Cooperation Project
Countries: Sierra Leone (similar projects in other African countries)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 2.3, 2.4
Supported by: Government of China, FAO (FAO-China South-South Trust Fund)
Implementing entities: China, FAO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2008 to present
URL of practice: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4700e/i4700e08.pdf
Related resources: China and FAO Achievements and Success Stories; FAO-China South-South Cooperation Programme.
Coalition for African Rice Development
Bringing sub-Saharan Africa close to doubling its rice production
by 2018 for greater food security and economic growth
It is estimated that some 388.8 million people in sub-Saharan Africa – or 42.7 per cent
of its total population – live on less than $1.90 a day. The region’s population growth
rate continues to exceed the growth rate of regional food production, a situation
compounded by fluctuating food prices and the insecurity that it engenders in
developing countries. Food security therefore remains a major challenge. This situation
is only worsened by the high risk of environmental degradation that comes with
unsuitable production, irresponsible consumption of land resources and weak national
research programmes for the development of appropriate technologies. 1
Towards a Solution
In May 2008, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Alliance for
a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) partnered with the New Partnership for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD) to launch the Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD).
The goal of the initiative is to contribute to food security and economic growth at the
household, national and regional levels by doubling rice production in sub-Saharan
Africa in ten years – from 2008 to 2018 – in an environmentally sustainable manner.
The initiative aims to harmonize efforts of key stakeholders to develop the rice sector in
sub-Saharan African countries, based on Government-identified needs in their national
rice development strategies. To date, the Coalition has assisted the Governments of 23
sub-Saharan African countries in formulating their national rice development strategies
and needs assessments. Each country’s needs are then matched with the comparative
advantages of different development partners, both public and private.
The member organizations of the Coalition Steering Committee contribute to the
initiative with their respective strengths:
• Research and technical institutions contribute to the Coalition’s activities in the
development of the rice sector at both the regional and national levels with their
knowledge and technical assets.
• Financial Institutions provide technical contributions to ensure the quality of the
Coalition’s activities, particularly its socioeconomic and policy aspects. Their financial
resources are used to implement rice projects in some Coalition countries. In
addition, IFAD financially supports the operation of the initiative.
• The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa helps the Coalition to reflect the private
sector’s views in its activities and to strengthen its partnership with private-sector
players in the rice business in Africa. It also hosts the Coalition secretariat at its head
office and provides administrative support.
• JICA provides its experience in project implementation, especially in rice development
in Africa, and financial resources to implement rice projects in some Coalition
countries. It also provides financial and human resource support to the Coalition
• N
EPAD ensures the alignment of the Coalition’s
activities with the overarching development
framework at both the regional and national levels
and provides political guidance.
Partner countries share knowledge and experience
in rice-sector development through South-South
cooperation activities such as capacity-building
(study tours, training, remote learning programmes).
Concrete examples of good practices in South-South
cooperation include:
(a) setting up a mechanization platform in order to
exchange knowledge and ideas on mechanization.
A group of platform participants (including
government officials, researchers, farmers and
the private sector) organized a study tour to
Thailand and Viet Nam to learn how to establish a
mechanization chain in African countries;
(b) organizing a remote learning programme that
targets government officials and farmers from
African countries. Resource persons from Asian
countries, including the Philippines, Thailand
and Viet Nam, gave lectures, with technical
backstopping by the International Rice Research
Institute and AfricaRice. This remote learning
programme will be adopted and scaled up by
the World Bank under its West African Agricultural
Productivity Programme; and
(c) creating a capacity development programme
for African human resource development in the
rice sector. This training has been conducted in
partnership with the Government of the Philippines
and the Philippine Rice Research Institute.
59 per cent according to 2013 FAO data, indicating
that Africa is close to reaching the Coalition’s
goal of doubling rice production by 2018. More
than 100 Coalition projects are currently being
implemented in more than 15 countries, and
stocktaking of Coalition projects is ongoing. The
initiative has had significant impact on increasing
rice production and household incomes and has
contributed to job creation, social inclusion, incomegeneration, infrastructure development, education,
the growth of cooperative networks, environmental
protection and the overall health of populations.
The initiative capitalizes on existing human, material and
financial resources, consisting mainly of government,
development partners and the Comprehensive Africa
Agricultural Development Programme, rather than
creating a new modality of resource mobilization.
National governments, in most cases the ministries
of agriculture, are the main actors of the initiative at
the country level. Farmers, rice producers, the private
sector, local government and other stakeholders are
the beneficiaries. Governments learn and incorporate
farmers’views into the formulation and implementation
of the strategy.
Mr. Takanori Satoyama, General Coordinator of the
CARD secretariat
[email protected]
Mr. Yuichi Kumagai, Technical Coordinator of the CARD
[email protected]
Since the Coalition’s beginnings in 2008, rice
production in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by
Project name: Coalition for African Rice Development
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 2.3, 2.4, 8.4
Supported by: AGRA, AfricaRice, the African Development Bank, FAO, the Forum for Agricultural Research
in Africa, IFAD, the International Rice Research Institute, JICA, the Japan International Research Centre for
Agricultural Sciences, NEPAD, the World Bank
Implementing entities: AGRA, NEPAD, JICA
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2008 to 2018
URL of the practice: http://riceforafrica.net
New Rice for Africa (NERICA)
Promoting self-reliance in rice production in Africa for food and
nutrition security
Although rice is a staple food for people in West Africa, most of it is imported. FAO
estimated in 2006 that rice imports to the West and Central Africa subregions had
reached more than 6 million tonnes, costing over $1 billion. The cost of importing rice
is a heavy burden on trade balances in the region. It is important for all West African
countries to collaboratively develop and invest in domestic rice production and the
development of the regional rice market; otherwise they will remain heavily dependent
on Asia and the United States to supply rice to feed their growing populations. 1
Towards a Solution
In the 1990s, 17 West African countries sought to promote self-reliance in rice
production in the region and across Africa in order to reduce the expenditure on rice
imports. In 1991, the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), now named
the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), started a programme to develop new rice varieties
by crossbreeding African and Asian rice species. In 1994, WARDA breeders succeeded
in developing new rice varieties that inherited the best traits of the two species by
adopting modern biotechnology and conventional backcrossing technology. In 2000,
the varieties were named New Rice for Africa (NERICA).
NERICA is not genetically modified rice. There are two types of NERICA varieties,
upland and lowland, adapted to both rain-fed and irrigated lowlands. The upland
NERICA varieties are well-adapted to the rain-fed upland ecology in sub-Saharan Africa
where smallholder farmers have very limited access to irrigation and fertilizers. Upland
NERICAs have brought specific benefits to African rice growers, in particular shorter
growth duration and tolerance to specific biotic and abiotic stresses.
Many NERICA varieties have been successfully adopted in 31 sub-Saharan
countries. A recent study led by AfricaRice estimates the area under upland
NERICA varieties at 1.4 million hectares in 2013 across sub-Saharan Africa. It
also showed that the adoption of NERICA varieties had lifted about 8 million
people out of poverty in 16 countries in 2013. The adoption has helped adopters to
increase significantly their rice yield by 319 kg per ha, leading to an increase of $465 per
household. The African Development Bank extended loans of $26.77 million to seven
pilot countries (Benin, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) for
NERICA dissemination. Seed production in those seven countries increased steadily
from 2,733 tonnes in 2005 to 13,108 tonnes in 2008, and harvesting took place more
than once a year. NERICA has had an adoption rate of up to 68 per cent by farmers. Rice
imports are reported to have declined in sub-Saharan Africa. Projections by AfricaRice
show that a 20-per cent increase in NERICA planting in sub-Saharan African countries
could result in a 5-per cent reduction in the rice import bill.
Additionally, NERICA has helped to improve school
attendance rates thanks to a less labour-intensive way
of farming and the revenues generated. A review of
findings from NERICA adoption and impact studies in
the target countries showed that NERICA had a positive
impact on women. NERICA varieties mature quickly
and cope well with drought and other constraints
in upland rice farming in West Africa. This feature is a
major attraction for women rice farmers who do most
of the weeding in rice fields.
A collaborative regional research network was
established by the African Rice Initiative. It included
national partners and regional and international
research centres of excellence, and was supported by
donors and multilateral institutions through triangular
cooperation arrangements. Triangular cooperation
brings technological complementarity between
advanced and conventional technologies and connects
lab and field. The Consultative Group for International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and research institutions
from developed countries conducted genetic analysis
with advanced technology, while African institutions
engaged in applied research to evaluate how new rice
varieties adapted to local conditions.
AfricaRice explored a range of partnership models
and adapted several participatory approaches among
partners and stakeholders in the region and across
Africa. For example:
• Participatory variety selection (PVS) introduced
a revolutionary relationship of scientist-farmer
interaction. PVS has been instrumental in the release
of varieties in several African countries, including
Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali,
Nigeria and Togo.
• Participatory adaptation and diffusion of
technologies for rice-based systems (PADS) used the
community-based approach to encourage farmers
to take the lead in seed supply. Local networks and
communication channels were used to promote the
improved rice varieties, fertilizer management and
the use of bio-pesticides.
• Participatory learning and action research (PLAR)
involves farmers, non-governmental organizations
and research institutions. Regular field visits are
organized to build farmers’capacities. Knowledge and
information about technologies are shared among
farmers on a regular basis. Financial and market risk
implications are analysed. Rural knowledge centres
are set up to facilitate peer learning among farmers
from neighbouring communities with similar land
The NERICA varieties have been disseminated
through the African Rice Initiative with support from
Japan, UNOSSC, UNDP, the African Development
Bank, the Consultative Group for International
Agricultural Research, the Rockefeller Foundation,
the International Fund for Agricultural Development,
the World Bank, the European Union, Belgium,
Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway,
Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States
through the United States Agency for International
Development. Research and development partners
include the International Rice Research Institute,
the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, the
Japan International Cooperation Agency, the Japan
International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences,
the Institut de recherche pour le développement,
Cornell University, Tokyo University, Yunnan University
and the national rice programmes of African countries.
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
[email protected]
Project name: New Rice for Africa (NERICA)
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic
of the Congo, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.1, 1.5, 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 4.1, 4.2, 5.b
Supported by: Japan, UNOSSC, UNDP, the African Development Bank, others mentioned above
Implementing entity: African Rice Initiative
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1991 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.africarice.org/warda/guide-compend.asp
Related resources: NERICA Fact Sheet.
Purchase from Africans for Africa
(PAA Africa)
From fields to meals: how building the productivity and marketing
skills of smallholder farmers in Africa has led to a sustainable
supply of locally purchased food for thousands of school children
In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 200 million people are chronically hungry. Child and
infant malnutrition rates are among the world’s highest. While smallholder farming
accounts for approximately 80 per cent of the food produced in the region, smallholder
farmers, however, face difficulties accessing the market. In fact, there are estimates that
some 60 per cent of the rural population has poor market access despite living in areas
of agricultural potential. And while some 50 million African schoolchildren go hungry,
school feeding programmes to date rely heavily on development partners for funding
and food provision.1
Towards a Solution
Building on the Brazilian Food Purchase Programme (PAA) focused on social protection
for rural communities since 2012, Purchase from Africans for Africa (PAA Africa) promotes
food and nutrition security, community resilience and income-generation for farmers and
vulnerable communities in Africa by strengthening the productive capacities of family
farmers and improving education access for students. It does so by engaging partner
countries to share knowledge and develop policies on institutional public procurement
and social protection tailored for each context. It also helps governments to implement,
pilot and scale up a comprehensive school feeding programme with locally sourced
food, fostering local agricultural production while improving livelihoods, nutrition
and education access for students. The programme uses a Southern-grown model
tailored to sub-Saharan Africa’s socioeconomic and cultural environment that promotes
sustainability and regional self-sufficiency.
PAA Africa combines emergency action for agricultural recovery and food assistance
with development strategies that link smallholder farmers to local markets, therefore
improving the resilience of rural communities and preventing food crises. It builds
farmers’ skills so that they become more involved in producing and marketing food
while helping to supplement and diversify diets. The model also supports the delivery
of locally produced food for school meals and promotes home-grown school feeding as
a driver of public food demand for economic and social development. Pilot operations
at the country level were completed through knowledge exchange and policy dialogue
involving South-South cooperation between African countries and Brazil, as well as civil
society and farmer associations at the regional level.
Since PAA Africa was first launched, it has built the productivity and marketing
skills of some 11,300 farmers in the five participating countries and has guaranteed
a market for their products. PAA Africa has provided some 462 schools with
locally purchased food, giving some 158,000 children school meals. It has improved
infrastructure, built capacities, and prompted public
policy dialogue and knowledge exchanges with
representatives from government, United Nations
organizations, civil society and private-sector groups in
order to identify implementation challenges and best
practices for national plans. Overall, these events have
helped to consolidate lessons learned.
PAA Africa’s innovation lies in its adoption of a
participatory and cooperative approach to protect local
famers so that they can secure agricultural production
and provide food security to their communities,
thereby moving away from the conventional
technology transfer and food aid model. The use of
joint knowledge-sharing and operational activities
(field visits, flexible staff movement and training) has
proven successful in promoting cooperation among
implementing partners and participating governments.
The initiative uses innovative “social technology” built
on a multidimensional approach to food security and
nutrition. It pilots innovative food procurement at the
decentralized level, where schools issue contracts to
farmer associations to supply diversified foods.
The programme’s strong, central capacity-building and
community-participation and leadership components
guarantee sustainability and expansion in the long
term, provided that local producers’ privileged
status in local markets remains intact. In particular, it
promotes government capacity-building for public
food procurement. For example, in 2015, PAA Africa
organized knowledge-sharing workshops in Malawi
and Mozambique to foster capacity-building and
sharing of practices, which entailed implementation of
context-specific efforts to support government policy.
The challenges faced by government institutions are
informing a broader dialogue on adaptation in public
procurement regulations. In January 2016, the Africa
Union adopted home-grown school feeding as a
continental strategy to enhance education access and
boost income-generation in rural communities. The
progressive embedding of PAA Africa in national policies
and strategies for social protection ensures sustainability
in the long run. The programme also will ultimately help
countries to achieve the SDG targets.
PAA Africa’s approach and content are easily replicable
and depend on government and donor investment.
Its support to government initiatives for home-grown
school feeding and for efforts to integrate agricultural
aspects into the planning and implementation of
policies (for example, nutrition-sensitive agriculture and
smallholder farmers’ access to institutional or public
markets) enables the replication of the model. PAA
Africa is being scaled up in countries as a model for
economic and social development, fostering reinforced
food systems for local development.
Smallholder farmers, farmer associations, schools,
students and rural communities are the main
beneficiaries in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger
and Senegal. Farmer associations have gained the ability
to supply high-quality food, and communities support
and participate in school committees. On the partners’
side, Brazil and the United Kingdom Department for
International Development offer technical expertise and
financial support. FAO provides technical assistance to
farmers and farmer associations to increase agriculture
productivity and improve processing and managerial
skills, and WFP purchases food from farmer associations
and distributes it to local community schools.
PAA Africa [email protected]
WFP: [email protected]
Mr. Francesco Slaviero, PAA Africa Coordinator, WFP
[email protected]
FAO: [email protected]
Ms. Carola Kenngott, SS/TC, WFP HQ
[email protected]
Mr. Israel Klug, PAA Africa Coordinator, FAO
[email protected]
Ms. Florence Tartanac, FAO
[email protected]
Project name: Purchase from Africans for Africa (PAA Africa)
Countries: Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 2.1, 2.3, 2.4
Supported by: Funded through national budgets, with additional financial support from other development
partners, including Brazil, United Kingdom, FAO, WFP
Implementing entities: Participating governments, FAO, WFP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2012 to 2019
URL of the practice: http://paa-africa.org
Rice-fish Culture in Sub-Saharan Africa
By raising fish and planting rice in one common ecological system,
sub-Saharan African countries increase yields, raise incomes,
stimulate tourism and diversify livelihoods
In sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria, irrigation and aquaculture play a
crucial role in guaranteeing food security – the basis for national economic growth
and poverty reduction. Aquaculture development, however, has lost momentum
in recent years despite the progressive depletion of marine and inland fisheries and
only limited irrigation of cultivated land areas. This situation requires multiple water
uses within irrigation systems and better awareness of the connection between water
management activities and aquatic ecosystems.1
Towards a Solution
The rice-fish culture South-South exchange between China and Nigeria begun in 2002
has sought to tackle this challenge. The initiative does so by utilizing the centuriesold, successful, integrated rice-fish system – which makes it possible to raise fish and
plant rice simultaneously in rice fields in a symbiotic relationship – in order to enhance
rice and fish yields, increase farmers’ income, create an ecological agricultural system
and protect the environment. Rice-fish co-cultures lessen the environmental impact of
agricultural chemicals and help to make rice farming more profitable.
This initiative offers a regional and global network of expertise, experience and skills
that are expanding a cutting-edge approach to farming throughout the South that
addresses multiple development challenges at once. Through the FAO-China Trust
Fund, over 80 Chinese rice-fish experts have been fielded to countries in Africa, Asia and
the South Pacific for a two-year period. Other tools for knowledge exchange, including
training courses and workshops, have been organized in China for participants from
partner countries.
Introducing the rice-fish system in developing countries begins with orientation
workshops followed by pilot activities that have a low investment cost (about
$1,000 per site). Once pilot results are monitored, the rice-fish model is scaled up to
other potential sites in the country. These activities go hand in hand with capacity
development activities that include sharing of knowledge and experience to bolster
local capacity. The introduction of new technologies is part of the overall rice-fish
system assimilation process.
The rice-fish system has been effective in doubling yield: on average, 6.7 to 7.5
tons of rice per hectare, and a total of 0.75 to 2.25 tons of fish per hectare. The
output value is some $8,550 to $17,100 per hectare, very high by international
standards. The system has had a notable impact in participating countries such as
Nigeria, where it has been successfully implemented on over 10,000 hectares through
more than 35 demonstrations with different models,
patterns and fish species. Farmers have accepted the
low-cost, high-yield rice-fish culture, and many private
farms and farmer groups have managed to include a
large number of households. They have reported a 22
to 100 per cent increase in rice yields and an increase
in net income of 29 to 96 per cent. Similarly, in Uganda,
fish fertilization rose from 26 to 81 per cent, the
survival rate of catfish fingerlings improved from 80 to
90 per cent, fish formulas for different growth stages
improved, and farmers’ uptake of the system increased
along with their incomes.
This system has been considered as a globally
important indigenous agricultural heritage system.
Using an integrated technology, it allows fish culture
to grow rotationally or concurrently with rice crops in
rice fields and at different levels of intensity. Rice plants
offer shade to fish while fish nourish rice plants, soften
soil and oxygenate the water. The system minimizes risk
to resource-poor farmers, increases their net income,
and reduces pesticide, herbicide and fertilizer use. The
ecological soundness of rice-fish systems, twinned
with landscape beautification, stimulates ecotourism
and ultimately diversifies local livelihoods.
The strong capacity development and training
components of this initiative ensure its longterm sustainability, success and socioeconomic
impact, including for food security and nutritional
programmes, and has been adopted at the policy
level in participating countries. The transfer of the
following skills and expertise ensures that sustainable
agricultural practices are observed and adapted to
work in harmony with the local community: rice field
infrastructure improvements; fish/fry rearing and fish/
fry stocking; rice cultivation technologies and support
to the selection of the most applicable rice varieties
for local climate and soil conditions; high-yield hybrid
rice with compact plant types with strong resistance
to diseases and pests (reducing the need for pesticides
and fertilizers); effective field management practices;
and guidance on harvest, pond storage and marketing.
The integrated solution has a huge potential for scaling
up and is relevant and applicable to most rice fields,
especially in countries with terrain suitable for rice
farming. It has already been replicated in African and
Asian countries, and new partnerships are continually
being negotiated.
A wide range of partners and stakeholders benefits:
government officials, agriculture extension officers,
business companies, and local communities and
farmers in both rural and urban areas. China and FAO
have set up the FAO-China Trust Fund to finance the
initiative and provide technical support and training.
Mr. Zhongwei Liu, Coordinator, FAO/China SouthSouth Cooperation Programme, SSC Team, FAO
[email protected]
[email protected]
Project name: Rice-fish Culture: An Exchange between China and Nigeria
Countries: China, Nigeria (with replication in Ethiopia, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda
Sustainable Development Goal target: 2.4
Supported by: FAO/China Trust Fund
Implementing entity: FAO
Project status: Ongoing
Related resources: FAO Rice-Fish Culture: An Exchange between China and Nigeria Pamphlet; FAO Scaling-Up
integrated Rice-Fish Systems Pamphlet
School Feeding
A good, healthy diet for all students means success on multiple
It is estimated that some 66 million primary-school-age children go hungry every day,
with 23 million hungry children in Africa alone. Some 80 per cent of these 66 million
children are concentrated within 20 countries. Additionally, 75 million school-age
children (55 per cent of them girls) do not attend school; 47 per cent of them live
in sub-Saharan Africa. Research shows that providing in-school meals, mid-morning
snacks and take-home rations through school feeding programmes can alleviate shortterm hunger and increase children’s abilities to concentrate, learn and perform specific
tasks. It has also been linked to an increase in the enrolment of girls. These effects seem
to be greater among children who are also chronically undernourished, usually the
poorest children.1
Towards a Solution
Since 2009, the Brazilian School Feeding initiative has successfully addressed this issue
and inspired others. The model uses school feeding as a social safety net that ensures
education and health for the most vulnerable children, thereby increasing enrolment
rates, reducing absenteeism and improving food security at the household level.
School feeding is now changing the way in which the poorest countries address the
combined challenges of hunger, education and small-scale agricultural production,
building on the successes, lessons and structures in countries of the South such as
Since 2009, with funding from the National Fund for Educational Development, the
initiative has supported school feeding programmes to advance the Hunger Free Latin
America and the Caribbean 2025 initiative. It focuses on sharing Brazilian knowledge,
technical know-how, policies and practices for school feeding with 14 countries.
Through it, technical support and experiences are being exchanged with each of the
countries concerned, engaging more than 5,200 qualified experts.
The initiative takes a holistic approach that puts national and local governments in
charge of school feeding, focused on improving food access and availability, enhancing
farmers’ productivity, providing technical assistance for policy and programming, and
supporting the building and sharing of knowledge. School feeding ensures: (a) good
food: making sure that school meals are provided to all students, as a matter of public
policy, through systematic, continuous programmes with guaranteed government
resources; (b) strengthened capacities: of institutions as well as the skills of managers
and technicians involved; (c) community incentives: establishing school feeding
initiatives, such as public buyers of locally produced food from family farmers; (d) broad
participation: involving a wide range of community and government actors, including
civil society, cooperatives and parliaments, contributing
to the design and implementation of school feeding
policies and practices; and (e) appropriate policies:
articulating school feeding policy alongside other
policies, programmes and actions that strengthen food
security at the country level.
In Africa and Latin America, more than 150,000
schoolchildren have benefited from healthy food
during school days, leading to their better health
and higher rates of school attendance. Partner
countries have created school feeding policies and
provided hundreds of schools with locally purchased
food and improved infrastructure and skills. School
feeding also reduces the costs of sending girls to school,
thereby allowing for their increased attendance rates
and improving gender equality. Since its inception,
this initiative has: (a) guaranteed regular school meals
and improved the nutritional status of children; (b)
improved the school-feeding legal framework in
participating countries; (c) raised awareness of the
problem and the solution; (d) integrated school feeding
into the human rights framework; (e) elicited broad
participation; (f ) renewed interest in gardening as a
means of learning about food and hygiene; (g) made
participating schools model schools; and (h) created a
new South-South experience sharing model.
School feeding uses on-site meals that children
consume at school along with take-home rations
containing basic food items for home consumption.
Many countries have adopted home-grown school
feeding that requires the majority of food distributed to
schools to be locally grown, thereby combining better
health and nutrition for children with smallholder
farmers’ access to markets.
School feeding programmes are community-specific
and require good planning and a steady flow of financial
and human resources to ensure sustainability. They are
also context-specific, so each community should alter
them based on local demographics, geography and
other patterns. Countries must determine if school
feeding is the most effective approach to tackling the
needs of the children in their communities who are
the neediest. Building on the success of the initiative,
the stage is set to scale up and further strengthen
school feeding, its policies and institutions in alreadyparticipating and in additional countries. The aim is to
continue to scale up school feeding to 18 countries in
Latin America and the Caribbean by 2017.
Children in schools are the main beneficiaries, while
the Governments of participating countries and nongovernmental organizations are the main national
partners. In Brazil, the National Fund for Educational
Development provides financing while the Ministry
of Education, the Brazilian Cooperation Agency and
the Ministry of External Relations set up the policy
framework and lead the South-South exchange
component. FAO and WFP provide technical support
and expertise.
FAO: Ms. Najla Veloso,
[email protected] or [email protected]
Project name: School Feeding
Countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, Nicaragua,
Niger, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of )
Sustainable Development Goal target: 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 5.c
Supported by: National Fund for Educational Development, Ministry of Education of Brazil, FAO and WFP
Implementing entities: FAO, WFP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2009 to 2025, as part of the Zero Hunger Initiative
URL of the practice: https://www.wfp.org/school-meals
Related resources: Brazil-FAO Strengthening School Feeding Programmes; FAO Brazilian School Feeding Model
booklet; Organization of American States.
Strengthening Governance for Nutrition
Improving governance for food security and nutrition within
the framework of the Guatemala Zero Hunger Plan through the
exchange and adaptation of experiences
Guatemala suffers from high food insecurity and chronic undernutrition, and its local
government and community leaders have limited awareness of food and nutrition
security issues. As a result, these crucial issues are not reflected in local decision-making.
Meanwhile in the same region, Chile has successfully addressed child undernutrition
since the 1940s. Its success can be attributed to a political and technical consensus that
has allowed the integration and sustaining of policies over time, based on laws and
regulations relating to prevention, treatment and control.
Towards a Solution
In 2013 and 2014, Chile partnered with the World Food Programme (WFP) to create the
Strengthening Governance for Nutrition Initiative to assist Guatemala with this challenge.
The objective of the Initiative was to support the implementation of the Guatemala
Zero Hunger Plan and generate participatory mechanisms at the community and local
levels to improve child nutrition – focusing on the critical window of opportunity for
preventing undernutrition that exists during the 1,000 days between conception and a
child’s second year of life – and to strengthen governance for food security and nutrition.
Chile and Guatemala jointly designed the project with WFP support and guidance.
Consensus was reached through information exchanges. A preliminary work plan was
forged based on the national priorities in the Guatemala Zero Hunger Plan. The project
also carried out a gap analysis exercise. The analysis revealed that Guatemala had low
local empowerment for food and nutrition security. Chile had the methodologies and
capacities needed to transfer its own experience. Chile’s experience in child nutrition is
considered a success because it has achieved outcomes that are verifiable, particularly
those for capacity-building.
The implementation phase of the project followed a participatory approach at the
national and local levels aimed at improving local management capacities and
coordination and at defining the roles and responsibilities of the different food and
nutrition interventions within the established legal and regulatory frameworks. In
order to strengthen food and nutrition security in the San Carlos Alzatate and Jalapa
municipalities, Chilean experts outlined the following methodological approach:
1. Provide project information to local authorities.
2. Recruit and induct local managers.
3. M
ap actors.
4. S ystematize, analyse and approve the mapping of actors.
5. C
onduct workshops.
6. D
esign community action plans.
7. Develop the final project report.
8. P
resent results to the National Commission on Food
and Nutrition Security.
The latest reports of the Guatemalan Secretariat for Food
Security and Nutrition indicated that the Government
had validated the project model. The model is in
alignment with the new national strategy, 2016-2020,
that the Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition will
The participatory approach ensured direct
involvement of community and institutional actors
in the development of the action plans. The model
and methodology also fed into the Secretariat-led
communications strategy for development in food
security and nutrition.
The sustainable elements of the project included:
(1) alignment with national priorities, laid out in the
Guatemala Zero Hunger Plan; (2) verifiable outcomes;
(3) strengthening of methodologies and capacities in
the recipient country; and (4) development of effective
transfer and exchanges.
Replication depends on: (a) creating a technical group
at the central level to support local-level planning and
implementation of each component of the action plans;
(b) monitoring implementation of the action plans; and
(c) conducting evaluations and expanding the model to
the rest of the country.
The project target groups included local political
authorities, local implementing authorities and
community leaders: women’s associations, local farmer
associations, and local representatives from schools and
churches. Beneficiaries included local communities, local
political authorities, local implementing authorities and
national authorities linked to food and nutrition security
(the Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition and the
Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance). Users and
partners included local political authorities (governor,
mayor, and development council), the municipal
development council, the community development
council, food security and nutrition commissions, health
centres, the ministries of agriculture, social development
and education, the University Centre, the Secretariat for
Food Security and Nutrition, and the Ministry of Public
Health and Social Assistance.
Chile was the main donor. Implementing partners
included the Chilean Institute of Nutrition and Food
Technology, the Chilean Corporation for Child Nutrition
and WFP. UNICEF participated in some workshops and
meetings and was interested in using the methodology
for its communications strategy.
Mr. Marco Antonio Monzon, SESAN
[email protected]
Mr. Mario Touchette, WFP Guatemala Country Office
[email protected]
Ms. María Teresa Oyarzún, Technical Coordinator, Chilean
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA)
[email protected]
Mr. Arturo Vergara, Chilean International Cooperation
Agency (AGCI)
[email protected]
Ms. María Pino, WFP Regional Office for Latin America
and the Caribbean
[email protected]
Ms. Carola Kenngott, South-South and triangular
cooperation, WFP HQ
[email protected]
Project name: Strengthening Governance for Nutrition
Country: Guatemala
Sustainable Development Goal target: 2.2
Supported by: Chile through the Chilean International Cooperation Agency (AGCI)
Implementing entity: WFP
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2013-2014
URL of the practice:
Related resources: Cooperación Triangular de Chile: Marco Conceptual y Experiencias.
Better Hospital Performance through
This innovative Southern-grown model is transforming hospital
health-service management in more than 500 health facilities in
Africa, the Arab States and Asia
Hospitals in developing countries face serious problems with health-service quality
owing to a lack of adequate human resources, poor management of equipment
and medicines, and operational inefficiency. Global development discourse, in the
meantime, has neglected the issue of hospital performance, giving more attention to
strengthening primary-health-care disease-specific programmes.
Towards a Solution
The Southern-developed 5S-KAIZEN-TQM model offers a tried and tested solution to this
challenge. It was originally developed in the Japanese industrial sector and launched
in the Castle Street Hospital for Women in Sri Lanka. Later, the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA) developed it into a simple, feasible way to improve hospital
management and health-care quality in resource-constrained settings using a changemanagement approach.
A simple, affordable tool and implementation method, 5S-KAIZEN-TQM emphasizes
a team-based practice and a step-by-step methodology. These features ensure
incremental and thoughtful collective action that gives hospital personnel a positive
outlook on the potential to improve service quality. As such, 5S-KAIZEN-TQM creates
processes and spaces for mutual learning among participating countries.
How does 5S-KAIZEN-TQM work?
• “‘5S” represents a set of five entry actions for creating a better working environment:
Sort, Set, Shine, Standardize and Sustain;
• “KAIZEN” is a participatory performance and productivity improvement approach
through incremental and reflective team actions; and
• “ TQM” (Total Quality Management) is the approach for system-wide management in
pursuing higher-quality products and services.
A total of 22 countries, including more than 500 health facilities, have adopted
the model in Africa, the Arab States and Asia through JICA cooperation, promoting
knowledge-sharing and co-creation among participants. The United Republic of
Tanzania is a 5S-KAIZEN-TQM champion and serves as a pivotal country for its expansion
throughout Africa. A recent JICA survey shows a net improvement in the country’s
hospital cleanliness, waste segregation, work environment, patient satisfaction, patient
waiting time, incidence of phlebitis associated with intravenous cannulation, the
number of rejected laboratory samples, and overcrowding of patients. Hospital revenue
has in turn risen thanks to better application of health insurance. JICA continues to
facilitate the model’s knowledge-sharing and co-creation aspects among Southern
countries, providing financial, technical and logistical support.
5S-KAIZEN-TQM involves ministry officials and key
medical professionals in programme design and
implementation and as such is institutionalized into
the national health management system. The model
is user-friendly – designed to help users to learn and
apply it in their own work environment. It is suitable
for diverse country and sector contexts, its application
entails minimal costs, and its simple design means that
there is no need for expensive technical consultants.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
[email protected]
Project name: 5S-KAIZEN-TQM: Better Hospital Performance
Countries: Armenia, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt,
Eritrea, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South
Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.3, 3.b, 3.c, 3.d
Supported by: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Implementing entities: Ministries of Health and health facilities in participating countries
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2007 to present
URL of the practice: JICA 5S-KAIZEN-TQM Approach
Delivering adequate health-care services to the poor via mobilephone-enabled services
Millions of people in developing countries in Africa, the Arab States, Asia, and Latin
America and the Caribbean have little access to qualified physicians. The reasons for
this situation range from lack of physical access (patients having difficulty reaching a
doctor in remote or even urban communities) and lack of funds (patients cannot afford
the high cost of health care and governments are unable to subsidize underserved
populations) to lack of medical resources (most countries face severe shortages of
trained health-care professionals, especially medical experts).
Towards a Solution
ClickMedix, founded in 2010 by faculty and students of the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University, has been bringing affordable, quality
health services to underserved patients in the developing world. It does this by
enabling health organizations to reach more patients through mobile phones or
tablets, using an application for remote diagnosis: wherever the patients are, doctors
are able to discuss a patient’s care and prescribe a course of treatment in real time. The
platform also offers the possibility of remote training and staff supervision, thereby
building physician capacity while reducing costs. This global interconnected service is
a prime model of triangular cooperation that is changing the way in which health-care
systems and professionals across countries interact with one another, share data and
offer their patients quicker, affordable, quality health-care services.
© ClickMedix
Building on a three-year pilot, ClickMedix created a highly reliable, secure, user-friendly
tele-health, disease management and care coordination system that is compliant
with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and that can
be deployed quickly to health practitioners and connect patients with medical
experts worldwide. ClickMedix collaborates with local health enterprises such as the
Jodhpur School of Public Health, whose health workers collect information from visits,
including risk screening and triage, using smartphone applications, which ClickMedix
customizes to the local context. The programme administrator can then view realtime data and patient progress in any preferred format. ClickMedix obtains doctors’
contact information from local enterprises and sets up remote consultations to enable
local health-care workers to send patient information to a remote consulting doctor
who provides a course of treatment that the local health-care worker administers and
updates in the application, all available in real time. If a remote consultation is not
available, the health workers refer the patients and help them to set up appointments
with locally appropriate doctors based on the patient’s condition.
ClickMedix has been used to reduce patient waiting time from months to less
than 72 hours, has enabled doctors to serve 4 to 15 times more patients without
spending more time, and has created a more skilled
workforce as well as new jobs for communitybased and home-based health-care services. It
has treated more than 200,000 patients, trained
over 1,000 health professionals and saved more
than $10 million globally. For example, by utilizing
the ClickMedix platform, community health workers in
New Delhi and Hyderabad were able to record basic
patient data, conduct a physical ear screening with a
Medtronic otoscope, and refer patients to ear, nose
and throat specialists at hospitals. Those specialists
confirm diagnoses and issue treatment plans remotely
or suggest to patients that an outpatient treatment
appointment is available. At health camps, small
infections were treated while complex cases were
referred to a hospital for further treatment. ClickMedix
worked together with Medtronic to implement a
screening process that took no more than three
minutes, screen more than 200,000 patients with just
nine health workers, double the number of treatments
performed in partner hospitals, and extend service to
in-hospital and patient counsellor follow-up care.
The ClickMedix-connected mobile health platform
(called mHealth) connects health providers,
reduces costs of service delivery and uses tiers of
a country’s existing health-care system for patient
care. Community health-care workers or clinic nurses
with ClickMedix-enabled mobile phones or tablets
can treat a patient thanks to their connection to the
mHealth platform and to the entire health system.
Once established, ClickMedix promises reliable
transmissions (even where data connectivity is weak
or intermittent), secure data processing, easy user
interface, cell/tablet/laptop accessibility, integration
into other information technology systems, and user
control. It can be replicated in any country with mobile
technology infrastructure, and it is easily scalable
with more smartphones/tablets. A single device with
a health worker or nurse can serve more than 1,000
patients per month.
Partners include global health organizations, health
ministries, academia, medical professionals, public
health practitioners, technologists, development
activists, entrepreneurs and, of course, patients. More
specifically, ClickMedix receives technical and financial
support from an array of actors, including Medtronic,
Ashoka, Western Diabetes Institute, Tata Trust, Cartier,
Toyota, Grameen Health and Research, and Harvard
University. These institutions have used mobile phone
technology applications (e.g., Mobile Tele-Diabetes,
Mobile Tele-Cardiology, Mobile Tele-ENT (Ear, Throat,
Nose) and Mobile Tele-Dermatology) to treat diabetes,
heart failure, skin and cervical cancer, Hansen’s disease
and HIV/AIDS, among others, and have assisted with
improving patient outcomes in countries such as
Ghana, India, Mexico and the United States.
Ms. Ting Shih, Founder and CEO
[email protected]
ClickMedix Headquarters
[email protected]
Project name: ClickMedix
Countries: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, China, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Trinidad
and Tobago, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.8, 3.9, 3.d
Supported by: ClickMedix
Implementing entities: Health ministries, hospitals, clinics, medical education institutions, health corporations
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2010-present
URL of the practice: http://clickmedix.com
Related resources: ClickMedix PowerPoint presentation; ClickMedix Facebook; ClickMedix Twitter; ClickMedix YouTube.
Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica
and Hispaniola
A three-pronged approach built on proven strategies paves the
way for the elimination of malaria in the subregion and serves as
a model for others
Despite the decreasing global incidence of malaria, the disease remains a public
health problem worldwide, affecting mainly developing countries in Africa, Asia and
Latin America. It continues to be endemic in 21 countries of the Americas, with an
estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10 per cent of these cases occur in
the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission
in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of about 85 per cent, whereas in the Caribbean
region, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti) experienced an overall rise in
malaria transmission due primarily to a steady increase in Haiti, while in the Dominican
Republic, there was a significant drop in transmission.1
© The Global Fund
Towards a Solution
This recently observed significant reduction in malaria in the region has galvanized the
launch of the initiative for the Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola to
finally eliminate local cases of malaria in participating countries by 2020 and achieve
full World Health Organization (WHO) certification by 2025. The initiative embraces a
three-pronged approach : (a) stimulating a shift from malaria control to pre-elimination
and ultimately elimination; (b) incentivizing countries to accelerate the pace towards
malaria elimination; and (c) reducing local malaria cases by linking achievements to a
results-based financing mechanism. All countries work to revise their national strategies
towards elimination. Results and advancement towards elimination are confirmed
annually through an evaluation mechanism coordinated by WHO/the Pan American
Health Organization (PAHO).
Preliminary data have shown the impact of the initiative throughout the region and
especially in the Dominican Republic, where interventions have reduced the number
of malaria cases and have had the simultaneous impact of reducing lymphatic filariasis
and controlling dengue, underlining how steps in malaria elimination can also decrease
the level of neglected tropical diseases. The initiative introduces coordinated efforts in
participant countries, supports individual national efforts in the transition from control
to elimination, and coordinates technical assistance and support of multiple partners in
a single visible objective. All revised national strategies therefore focus on elimination.
In some cases, stratification at the municipality level makes it easier to more accurately
focus available resources to tackle the disease using the most appropriate techniques,
such as the “Test, Treat and Track”-focused use of bed nets, case investigation, targeted
interventions and intersectoral, cross-border collaboration.
The initiative has a strong partnership focus, the political commitment of participating
countries, national ownership and the expected availability of additional national
investment, which together guarantee the long-term
success of this approach. It has been used as a model
for adapting similar interventions in other malariaprone regions where there is the possibility of reaching
regional consensus (governments, technical agencies,
affected communities) to eliminate the disease.
The Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and
Hispaniola receives support from a global network
of expertise (bilateral, multilateral and private) that
enables the countries involved to share best practices
and experiences on the path to malaria elimination.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and
Malaria provides catalytic funding that enables the
initiative to accelerate the process of elimination, with
the understanding that efforts in these countries were
already being coordinated.
Partners include beneficiaries of participating countries;
national and local governments; health institutions; the
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria;
the Council of Ministers of Health of Central America;
PAHO; WHO; the Governments of Canada, Colombia,
France, Germany, Mexico and the United States; the Bill
& Melinda Gates Foundation; the Clinton Health Access
Initiative; the Andean Development Corporation; the
Carter Center; Population Services International; and
the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal).
Partner participation includes direct funding, technical
assistance, support to grant development and
reinforcement of national capacities.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
[email protected]
Project name: Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola
Countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Sustainable Development Goal target: 3.3, 3.b, 3.d
Supported by: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Implementing entity: Population Services International
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2014 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/
Global Transfer Project
Community-to-community learning project on HIV/AIDS
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) is reporting the lowest
levels of new HIV infections in this century at 2.1 million. In the last three years alone,
new HIV infections have fallen by 13 per cent. AIDS-related deaths are at their lowest
since the peak in 2005, having declined by 35 per cent. To get on track, new targets
will focus on closing the gap in access to HIV treatment and prevention by setting new
targets for 2020, including a bold target of providing access to antiretroviral treatment.
The treatment target – known as 90-90-90 – would enable 90 per cent of people living
with HIV to know their HIV status, 90 per cent of people who know their status to access
HIV treatment and 90 per cent of people on HIV treatment to achieve viral suppression.1
Towards a Solution
The Global Transfer Project aims to strengthen partnership and collaboration between
governments and communities in an effort to fast-track the AIDS response in countries
by 2020. It provides opportunities for countries to learn about successful systems,
processes and strategies from one another, increasing their potential for positive results.
Consultations have been carried out in participating countries to facilitate discussion
on HIV prevention services and bring interventions to scale in mega cities and large
urban centres, focusing on socially marginalized groups of men having sex with men,
transgender people, sex workers and people who inject drugs. Sharing cities’ EpiData,
vulnerabilities, socioeconomic conditions and the HIV burden of key affected populations
through consultations has helped Cambodia, India, Indonesia and Thailand to revisit their
programme plans and prioritize strategies that work for marginalized groups.
Inter country exchanges, visits to HIV-prevention learning sites and community-tocommunity interaction have: (a) encouraged the promotion of community-led models; (b)
highlighted the need for a self-sustaining community response to AIDS; and (c) exposed
country representatives to different epidemics, responses and contexts, including locally
sustainable models. For example, the Humsafar Trust (Mumbai, India), a learning site, had
taken steps to diversify its services and mobilize funds through its community research
and advocacy division. Indonesian delegates visiting India were exposed to the use and
implementation of telemedicine for the case management of patients in rural settings.
Centres of excellence are rolling out this strategy to help in scaling up service focused on
increased quality and provide mentoring among clinicians.
A multi-pronged strategy has been adopted by a South-to-South (S2S) platform for
facilitating knowledge and skills transfer between countries. It includes: (a) country
needs assessments; (b) mentoring community-based organizations; and (c) thematic
workshops and guided exposure visits and missions to countries. Four community-based
organizations (Ashodaya Samithi and the Humsafar Trust in India; the HIV Foundation in
Thailand; and KHANA in Cambodia) were selected as learning sites. These organizations
are being funded based on their core HIV competencies and the innovative approaches
that they adopt to increase service coverage of key
populations. Some of their innovative approaches
include community-based HIV testing approaches
(testing for triage) to reach out to unreached key
populations, case management of HIV prevention, and
treatment cascade through demand creation using
peer health navigation for effective referrals and links
with public health and other social protection schemes.
The recipient countries were aided by twinning
arrangements between cities, bi-directional learning
missions, and agreed frameworks for knowledge
transfer of best practices in identifying areas and ways
to strengthen prevention and treatment approaches.
Short-term fellowships and on-site technical support
and virtual platforms have been mapped to promote
South-South learning.
The project has helped India to learn from Cambodia’s
experience in community-led HIV testing approaches.
Cross-fertilization of ideas has provided further impetus
for India to initiate a revision of its national guidelines.
A similar promising learning example under the S2S
collaboration platform was found in the Indonesian
mission to India and Thailand. Indonesia adopted the
test-for-triage approach to scale up testing services for
men who have sex with men and other key populations,
and it also discovered how to optimize coordination
between public health systems and communities.
Through cross-learning and cross-fertilization of ideas,
countries partnering in this initiative could appreciate
the need to: (a) strengthen their response systems in
the area of clinical excellence; (b) conduct training in the
psychological aspects of care; (c) engage in operational
research; and (d) pursue management excellence to
reinforce the AIDS response. Community-to-community
exchanges facilitated the creation of platforms for
members to share implementation approaches,
curriculums and pedagogical approaches for increased
HIV testing, information on scaling up treatment, and
ways to improve links to social protection schemes.
Many of these innovative community-owned and
-led approaches help to develop resilience among
key populations and respond to emerging needs in
a meaningful way. The learning sites have built their
internal systems to address policy issues and legal
reforms. Similarly, national AIDS control councils that are
keen to revise their programme guidelines and standard
operating procedures relating to HIV prevention and
treatment services based on exchange missions are
direct, significant developments under S2S platforms.
Partners include governing-board members of national
AIDS control councils, administrative heads of public
health research institutes, programme managers at
government and non-government levels, research
agencies and communities and national AIDS control
bodies and organizations at the national and subregional
levels. The role of governments is to recommend centres
of excellence, non-governmental and communitybased models and public-private partnerships that
promote partnerships between institutions and
communities. The Head of the National AIDS Control
Organization in India and the Secretary of the National
AIDS Council in Indonesia chaired the missions at the
national level, exchanged countries’ progress, and
reviewed opportunities for future collaboration and
focus areas to share best practices. Representatives of
community-based organizations from key populations
were part of country missions as equal partners and
agreed on common agendas and priority areas for crosslearning. In addition, technical experts from centres
of excellence extended their support by providing
technical assistance to improve the quality of HIV
services in the area of prevention and treatment for key
affected populations and people living with HIV. This was
facilitated by UNAIDS country offices in the respective
countries involved in this project.
Mr. Tony E. Lisle, Regional Programme Adviser, UNAIDS
Regional Support Team for Asia and the Pacific
[email protected]
Ms. Nandini Kapoor-Dhingra, Senior Community
Mobilization and Networking Adviser, UNAIDS India
[email protected]
Project name: Global Transfer Project Community-to-community learning on HIV/AIDS
Countries: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Viet Nam, selected African countries
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.5, 5.1, 10.2
Supported by: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Implementing entities: UNAIDS
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2013 to 2016
Related resources: www.nswp.org; www.humsafar.org; www.infosem.org
Lao-Thai Collaboration in HIV Nutrition
The Lao People’s Democratic Republic teams up with Thailand to
treat HIV through better nutrition in the Greater Mekong subregion
The Greater Mekong subregion, one of the world’s fasting-growing areas, has been
especially vulnerable to and affected by HIV. As a land bridge between South and East
Asia, it is well positioned for trade with its neighbours, yet this same advantage and
connectivity expose it to the rapid spread of HIV. The subregion was an original epicentre
of the HIV epidemic in Asia, and in the previous decade, it was estimated that more than
1.6 million people in the subregion were living with HIV/AIDS. Nearly a quarter of those
affected were women, and the proportion was rising.
Towards a Solution
In 2008, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic came together with Australia and Thailand,
in partnership with the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre and the Albion Centre,
to create the Lao-Thai Collaboration in HIV Nutrition project, known as Lao-TACHIN.
The project built on the successful experience of the similarly named Thai-Australian
Collaboration in HIV Nutrition (TACHIN) project. The aim was to ensure better, universal
access to comprehensive HIV treatment, care and support in the Greater Mekong
subregion through a strong focus on nutrition.
The Lao-TACHIN project offers a vast global network of services for capacity-building
and the sharing of knowledge and experience that has helped countries to provide
adequate HIV treatment. The good practices of integrating HIV-nutrition service into HIV
treatment in the southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic demonstrated the benefits
of supporting and improving quality of treatment. As a result, other regions and countries
have taken up the practice. The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre and the Albion
Centre played the key role in advocating and supporting the Lao People’s Democratic
Republic to network with other organizations and countries in order to expand the HIVnutrition project through South-South cooperation.
The project takes a multidimensional approach to treating HIV and its impacts, focusing on
providing people living with HIV the right nutrition to ensure survival and a better quality
of life. The approach includes strong capacity-development and system-strengthening
components, with a focus on local partnerships. The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre
used the South-South approach for capacity development and system strengthening
of HIV-nutrition services in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, providing technical
support to health-care providers and peers of people living with HIV while supporting
the provincial hospital to work with the provincial health office and the peer support
group for people living with HIV to integrate HIV-nutrition services into HIV prevention,
treatment, care and support.
During its five-year run, the Lao-TACHIN project showed significant progress both in
HIV treatment and nutrition in 11 participating provinces, and it has now expanded to
others. The project trained peer educators and provided
nutrition education in 12 provinces, where it also offered
HIV counselling and testing and the prevention of
parent-to-child transmission, which are now ongoing. In
short, the initiative has demonstrated the importance of
a nutrition approach to HIV treatment.
In 2012, the project shared its lesson at the regional
HIV-nutrition workshop in Bangkok that was attended
by a number of policymakers and health-care providers
from Asia-Pacific countries. Cambodian policymakers
and providers of HIV health care in turn asked for an
onsite visit. The project has since been used as a best
practice in Cambodia and Myanmar, following the LaoTACHIN innovation of a multidisciplinary approach to
HIV treatment with a strong focus on nutrition.
The strong capacity-building and system-strengthening
components of this Lao-TACHIN project guarantee its
long-term sustainability and assimilation in countries.
Since the end of the project, nutrition assessments
and counselling have been included in the Lao
People’s Democratic Republic national guidelines on
HIV treatment. In addition, the project established and
provided HIV-nutrition services for people living with
HIV in antiretroviral clinics, including printed materials in
the Lao language that were disseminated to other clinics
across the country. As part of the training-of-trainers
component, the Lao-TACHIN project trained healthcare providers, and peer supporters in turn trained the
health-care providers and members of the support
group for people living with HIV in other provinces of
the country.
Replicating the Lao-TACHIN model depends on political
will and adequate funding for capacity development
and training. Similar models have been developed in
countries such as the Dominican Republic, Honduras,
Mozambique, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Zambia
and Zimbabwe. The following conditions are required
to replicate the Lao-TACHIN project: inclusion of
trained health-care providers in nutrition assessments
and counselling, minimal equipment for nutrition
assessments and information-education counselling,
endorsement or support from the directive department,
and partnerships and ownership among all stakeholders.
The main partners included the people-living-withHIV peer support groups, the provincial health office,
provincial hospitals, Lao-TACHIN, AusAID, the Albion
Centre, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, the
Centre for HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections
(CHAS, Lao People’s Democratic Republic), WHO and
WFP. The support group for people living with HIV and
provincial hospitals received technical support and
capacity-building in HIV-nutrition services from LaoTACHIN and provided HIV-nutrition services to people
living with HIV who were members of the peer support
group and to people who sought HIV treatment at the
hospital. Lao-TACHIN, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research
Centre and the Albion Centre acted as implementing
partners whose key roles included providing technical
support on HIV-nutrition services, project management,
monitoring and evaluation, and reporting to donors.
The provincial health office and the Centre for HIV/AIDS
and Sexually Transmitted Infections provided support in
administration and monitoring project implementation,
and advocacy for integrating HIV-nutrition services in
HIV treatment, care and support at the national level.
AusAID provided financial support and reviewed the
project work plan to ensure that its goals were achievable
as planned. WHO and WFP provided guidance to the
Lao-TACHIN project and implementing partners on
advocating HIV nutrition at the national and regional
Ms. Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Thai Red Cross AIDS
Research Centre
[email protected]
Ms. Charmaine Turton, Australia AID
[email protected]
Project name: Lao-Thai Collaboration in HIV Nutrition (Lao-TACHIN)
Countries: Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.3, 3.d, 17.9
Supported by: Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), Albion Centre, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research
Centre, WHO, WFP
Implementing entities: Albion Centre and Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2009 to 2012
URL of the practice: http://en.trcarc.org/?page_id=1089
Related resources: Lao-TACHIN Brochure; Lao-TACHIN Pamphlet
Latin American and Caribbean Horizontal
Technical Cooperation Group
Partnership and coordination for an effective HIV/AIDS response
in Latin America and the Caribbean have bolstered universal
access to prevention, treatment, care and support
In 2014, an estimated 2 million people were living with HIV in Latin America and the
Caribbean and 100,000 people became newly infected. Although the HIV response
has been scaled up in several countries, regionally there has been little change in
the annual number of new infections over the past five years. A major challenge is
reaching vulnerable populations, who are often marginalized owing to discrimination
and encounter legal barriers in accessing services.1
Towards a Solution
The Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group is a technical group that for more than
20 years has helped countries and regional HIV/AIDS networks in Latin America and
the Caribbean to share knowledge, experiences and ideas and to discuss challenges
and priorities at the regional level. The founding premise of the initiative was that all
countries possessed good examples from their national HIV/AIDS responses that could
benefit other and similar countries. The founders of the group therefore saw the need
to create a forum to exchange and discuss those good examples. Since the inception of
the Group, its objective has been to strengthen countries’ national response by sharing
experiences and knowledge.
The Group meets mainly on the fringes of regional meetings in which they participate.
Once a year, however, they hold their “ordinary meeting” during which they agree on
a strategic action plan that includes regional priorities. Group collaboration centres
on spaces and tools for internal and external communication and theme-specific
databases, such as that of drug prices to assist in managing drug purchases. Furthermore,
the Group developed a South-South cooperation strategy for 13 interested countries
in Latin America and the Caribbean that identifies areas where designated countries
need support and which countries could provide that support for each country. The
cooperation can take two forms: country visits and/or virtual capacitation meetings
through virtual platforms that include social networks.
This initiative has made significant progress in improving universal access to prevention,
treatment, care and support by holding technical-scientific events on topics including
the evaluation of AIDS programmes, strategic planning, HIV/AIDS policies, motherto-child-transmission, epidemiological surveillance networks and stock advice. In
this way, it promotes the expansion and diversification of cooperation between
countries through courses and internships, observation missions and participation in
international events.
The Group, nationally managed and led, is an important
tool to enable countries to increase their ownership of
the response to HIV/AIDS and to set the agenda at the
regional level. It has contributed through its 11 years
of existence to setting regional priorities and ensuring
the sharing of best practices. The fact that several of the
activities of the Group are either virtual or take place
in relation to other regional meetings contributes to
the sustainability of the initiative. However, donor
support has been and continues to be important for
its functioning. UNAIDS, for example, has provided the
online WebEx platform for use by the Group to hold its
meetings and has also provided funds for meetings and
for the hiring of a communications adviser. In addition
to sharing experiences, the virtual training carried
out in accordance with the South-South cooperation
strategy has contributed to strengthening human
resource capacities in various countries.
Other training – held with the support of the Joint
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and
WHO – focused on the latest scientific evidence and
helped to improve the evidence-based management
of HIV programmes. Moreover, the joint project on
antiretroviral price information has helped countries
to manage antiretroviral drug purchases by sharing
the approach of other countries in the region, which
has contributed to a more sustainable and efficient
AIDS response. In parallel to the South-to-South
cooperation strategy, the Group in the last two years
has collaborated with UNAIDS, WHO and others to play
a key role in helping countries during two regional
forums to agree on regional targets for HIV treatment,
prevention and zero discrimination. The collective
work to reach those targets now contributes to the
sustainability of the response by ensuring the buy-in of
the main implementers at the national level.
The Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group
comprises the heads of national AIDS programmes and
representatives of regional HIV/AIDS networks. UNAIDS
and WHO financially support the organization of the
Group’s meetings as well as those of the 13 countries
committed to the South-South collaboration strategy.
They also support the virtual meetings by allowing
the project to use their online platforms (WebEx and
Illuminate). UNAIDS provides financial support for the
communication focal points. The mix of virtual and onsite meetings facilitates the replication and adaptation
of the project at the local level. It is also possible to
adapt the model to other thematic areas as long as
partners have the will at the national level to build a
regional network.
Dr. Ana Isabel Nieto, Coordinator of the National HIV/
AIDS/STI Programme in El Salvador and President of
the Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group
[email protected]
Dr. Carlos Falistocco, Director of the AIDS and STI
Programme in Argentina and former President of the
Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group
[email protected]
Project name: Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group (GCTH)
Countries: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of )
Sustainable Development Goal target: 3.3
Supported by: UNAIDS, WHO
Implementing entity: Horizontal Technical Cooperation Group
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1995 to present
Related resources: Facebook GCTH.
More Doctors (Mais Médicos) Project
The project addresses lack of access to primary health care
predominately due to the unequal distribution and shortage of
doctors in Brazil
Brazil’s constitution recognizes health as a human right and strives to provide universal
health coverage and access to it for all Brazilians through their primary health-care system.
Nevertheless, great disparities in health persist, with a sizable portion of the population
lacking access to proper health facilities and medical professionals, a problem that
principally affects the most disadvantaged and remote regions of the country, including
the 34 indigenous health districts. For 22 of the 26 States in Brazil, rates were below the
national average; five of these States had less than one doctor per 1,000 people, while
700 municipalities had no doctor at all.
Towards a Solution
The More Doctors (Mais Médicos) Project emerged as an agreement between Brazil and
Cuba, with technical cooperation provided by the Pan American Health Organization
(PAHO)/WHO, as a strategy to address this issue by transforming medical education
and investing considerably in primary health-care infrastructure in Brazil. It prompted
a widespread exchange of knowledge between local health professionals and foreign
doctors, leading to innovative practices and improved health care. The More Doctors
Project was created as part of the More Doctors Programme by national law in Brazil
in 2013, and the Governments of Brazil and Cuba signed a South-South cooperation
agreement with PAHO to help them to facilitate the large-scale participation of Cuban
doctors because of the need for a significant number of foreign doctors to meet the
demands of Brazil’s poorest municipalities. PAHO facilitates the selection, transportation
and integration of Cuban doctors into basic health-care teams and has already designated
11,429 Cuban doctors to specific communities.
Brazil has set as its goal an increased average of 2.7 doctors per 1,000 people (equal to
the average of the United Kingdom) by 2026. Brazil’s Family Health Strategy will directly
benefit from the work of the More Doctors Project to improve the self-sufficiency of
local doctors and other health-care workers. In particular, it will benefit from efforts to
ensure the well-being of the entire population of Brazil, thereby enabling the country to
continue its trend of rapidly reducing infant and child mortality and contributing to the
provision of universal health-care coverage and access for all Brazilians. The project has
brought about an improved distribution of doctors across the country and will continue
to contribute to reducing current inequalities in access to health and health outcomes.
The More Doctors Project has enabled a significant increase in the availability
of doctors at the first level of care, approximately 18,240 currently participating
from Brazil and abroad, benefiting approximately 63 million people in 4,058
municipalities. This has contributed to a lower infant mortality rate and a decrease in
hospitalizations as a result of the availability of primary
health care. Independent evaluations have revealed that
there was an 89 per cent reduction in waiting lines, a
33 per cent increase in the monthly average number
of consultations, a 32 per cent increase in doctors’
domiciliary visits, and 95 per cent user satisfaction
regarding doctors’ performance, while 86 per cent of the
users reported improved quality of care since the arrival
of additional health-care professionals.
The majority of doctors in the More Doctors Project
working in municipalities with 20 per cent or more of the
population living in extreme poverty are Cuban doctors.
The same is true for those working in the indigenous
health districts, where 99 per cent of the doctors are
Cuban. Cuban doctors constitute around 62 per cent
of participating doctors. Participating Cuban doctors
receive degrees equivalent to those of doctors in Brazil’s
public hospitals, providing excellent opportunities for
knowledge exchange. They are also responsible for
the monitoring and evaluation of the project and for
documenting good practices and lessons learned as
part of overall technical cooperation.
The project aims to set the conditions for the long-term
self-reliance of human resources for health. Brazil is
therefore investing in medical education for its nationals
in the health workforce. The temporary migration
of foreign doctors to offer immediate assistance to
underserved communities has allowed the Government
of Brazil to rapidly expand its universal health access. It
further enabled it to initiate profound transformations
in medical education, which needed to be sustained
and expanded in order to produce the required number
of doctors, taking into account the lag period needed
for their education. The Government is investing R$5.6
million in health infrastructure, specifically in basic
health-care units, and to avoid a brain drain, it aims to
establish 11,500 new health-care centres by 2017 and
new residency positions for specialization in primary
health-care centres. The More Doctors Project fully
complies with the WHO global code of practice for the
international recruitment of health personnel, and Cuba
has extensively contributed to reversing this brain drain
by providing opportunities for free medical education
for poor communities around the world (South and
North) and capacity-building for self-learning.
The More Doctors Project is replicable and would
potentially be beneficial in any country that decides
to adopt it. Consideration should be given to the local
situation, specifically its health system and political
context. Brazil made a substantial economic investment
to carry out the project; however, long-term benefits
have proven to outweigh those investments. PAHO
member States have demonstrated great interest in
learning about the More Doctors Programme and its
South-South cooperation initiative, the More Doctors
The main beneficiaries are Brazil’s underserved
communities, including indigenous populations,
through improvements in Brazil’s federal, State and
municipal governments, including the ministries of
health and education. PAHO has focused on integrating
Cuban doctors into basic health-care teams. Knowledgesharing is one of the most important contributions of
PAHO’s participation and value added. The Government
of Cuba, in particular the Ministry of Public Health, has
provided doctors.
Mr. Renato Tasca, Adviser for Programme Management
and Coordination, Mais Médicos, PAHO Brazil country
[email protected]
Mr. Fernando Antonio Menezes da Silva, PAHO Unit
Chief for Human Resources for Health
[email protected]
Project name: More Doctors (Mais Médicos) Project
Countries: Brazil, Cuba
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.2, 3.8, 10.4, 10.7
Supported by: PAHO/WHO
Implementing entity: PAHO/WHO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: October 2013 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.paho.org/bra/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=12
Pharmaceutical Procurement Service
Ensuring access to affordable, quality medicines for people of the
Eastern Caribbean
Obtaining access to affordable medicine is a big challenge, particularly for individual
small island developing States, such as those in the Eastern Caribbean, with small
populations and the tendency to procure medicine in smaller quantities. As a result,
people are often unable to obtain the medicine and health-care services that they
urgently need or else they must pay exorbitant prices to obtain them.
Towards a Solution
The nine members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) discovered a
collective means to reduce the costs of health-care services for their citizens by pooling
the procurement and management of pharmaceutical and medical supplies for the
public sector. Medicines are either dispensed free of charge or at a nominal cost to the
end user. The initiative also provides countries with a wide range of related services,
including training and technical assistance, common drug formulary manuals, drug
utilization studies and quality assurance, thereby sharing benefits, skills and knowledge
throughout the region.
The Pharmaceutical Procurement Service (PPS), created by OECS countries, aggregates
country demands, issues a centralized tender and pays suppliers from the accounts of
the countries at the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank. When OECS countries first created
the PPS, they deposited one third of their annual pharmaceutical budget to individual
country drug accounts at the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank to ensure payment to
suppliers and to maintain a revolving fund. In turn, the OECS PPS created a buyers’
cartel so that products are purchased exclusively through 18-month contracts. All
approved suppliers are pre-qualified by a vendors’ registration questionnaire. Once
bidding is completed, the OECS PPS awards annual contracts to individual suppliers
and monitors performance. Suppliers ship products directly to participating countries,
which reimburse their Eastern Caribbean Central Bank drug accounts.
Evidence has shown that, with the creation of a sizeable market basket for 20
essential medicines, the regional prices were 20 per cent lower than the prices
that a country would pay if it procured the same medicines on its own. Continuous
annual cost savings accrued after 30 years have reinforced the OECS PPS as an excellent
cost-benefit model of economic and functional cooperation among OECS countries.
The OECS PPS has also expanded its 840-product portfolio to include a diverse set of
non-pharmaceutical items including medical supplies, contraceptives and x-ray items.
By forming a monopsony (a single buyer), the programme has led to significant
economies of scale by increasing its bargaining power with over 50 competing suppliers.
Consequently, as a group, the OECS PPS has leveraged its influence against a single
country’s purchasing capacity. The OECS PPS initially
covered its operating costs by charging countries a
15-per cent surcharge on invoices. Consistent with
the OECS PPS policy to produce greater cost savings
for member States, the OECS ministers of health
implemented a policy to reduce the surcharge to 13
per cent in 2005 and 11 per cent in 2007. The OECS PPS
is currently exploring the possibility of further lowering
the surcharge.
and supply chain management systems; and (c) an
organized and coordinated payment mechanism.
WHO has assisted other regions, such as seven Fiji
Islands and Southern and Eastern Africa, in replicating
the OECS model. The conditions required for replication
include: (a) a common medicines formulary with
standard treatment guidelines; (b) similar procurement
Mr. Francis Burnett, Head, OECS/PPS
[email protected]
[email protected]
Partners and beneficiaries include OECS countries,
the OECS PPS, ministries of health, and the Eastern
Caribbean Central Bank. The Eastern Caribbean Central
Bank operates the individual accounts of the countries
and facilitates payment to suppliers in foreign exchange
at no cost to the OECS PPS.
Project name: Pharmaceutical Procurement Service, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS PPS)
Countries/territories: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sustainable Development Goal target: 3.8
Supported by: Self-financing since 1990 (originally funded by the United States Agency for International Development)
Implementing entity: Pharmaceutical Procurement Service, an OECS entity
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1986 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.oecs.org/our-work/units/pharmaceutical-procurement
South-to-South Learning Exchange on HIV
HIV prevention through shared innovation
An estimated 4.9 million people were living with HIV in the Asia and the Pacific region
in 2012. Regionally, the numbers of new HIV infections have fallen by 26 per cent since
2001, with a number of countries reducing infections by over 50 per cent in that time.
However, the overall number of new HIV infections across the region has remained
largely unchanged in the past five years. The number of people accessing antiretroviral
treatment in the region had risen to 1.25 million by the end of 2012 but the rate of
increase in access to treatment has slowed in recent years.1
Towards a Solution
The South-to-South (S2S) Learning Exchange on HIV is a partnership between
Cambodia, Indonesia and Thailand on HIV prevention outreach and communitybased HIV testing approaches for key affected populations that focuses on adaptation
in Indonesia. The objective of the learning exchange is to strengthen the capacity
of HIV prevention organizations in Indonesia by establishing an ongoing capacity
development partnership with key organizations in Cambodia and Thailand that have a
track record of scaling new and innovative programmes. Both the HIV Foundation Asia
and KHANA are non-governmental organizations that support innovative communitylevel support services and capacity development across the HIV prevention-treatment
cascade. Their proven approaches and systems have the potential to fast-track the
response to HIV and enable countries to achieve the sustainable development target
of ending the AIDS epidemic.
The methodological approach includes a series of learning and exposure visits
by key policymakers and practitioners from Indonesia to study key innovative
HIV interventions in Cambodia and Thailand. KHANA is the largest national nongovernmental organization providing integrated HIV prevention, care and support
services at the community level in Cambodia. For this learning exchange, the focus was
on their pioneering community-led HIV testing approach, which has led to substantial
increases in the rate and coverage of low-threshold testing with key populations. The
HIV Foundation Asia (based in Thailand) is an independent, non-profit organization
focused on the development of innovations at the cutting edge of HIV prevention for
key populations. The learning-exchange focus has been on their HIV case-finding and
case-management approaches, which are increasing the numbers of men who have
sex with men who are identified as HIV positive, initiated and retained in treatment.
The adaption and application of these interventions are expected to contribute to fasttracking the HIV response in Indonesia.
The initial visit to Cambodia and Thailand has already produced tangible results.
Indonesia returned having built ongoing technical-support relationships with
organizations in Cambodia and Thailand. Since the learning exposure experience in
Thailand, the Indonesian delegation has fully adopted
the innovative and more proactive HIV-prevention
approach of community-led case finding and case
management. Through a follow-up consultation on
its return from Cambodia, the Indonesian delegation
adopted a test-for-triage approach to community-led
HIV testing.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/
AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS,
Tuberculosis and Malaria will fund the programme
through 2017. A transition and sustainability plan is
currently being developed to ensure that S2S learning
is an ongoing feature of efforts to strengthen the
response to HIV in Indonesia. Since the country is
large, diverse and spread across a long archipelago,
learning exchange within the country is critical for
local-level application and adaption. The model can
be easily replicated in the HIV response across the
region depending on the willingness of governments
to recognize the crucial value of civil society and fund
their efforts.
Stakeholders include: (a) the Spiritia Foundation
in Indonesia and the 75 subrecipient partner
organizations that it supports at the district level to
implement HIV prevention, care and support; (b)
local non-governmental organizations working with
the men-who-have-sex-with-men and transgender
communities; (c) the Ministry of Health; (d) the National
AIDS Commission; and (e) UNAIDS.
Mr. David Bridger, UNAIDS Indonesia
[email protected]
Mr. Daniel Marguari, Spiritia Foundation
[email protected]
Project name: S2S Learning Exchange on HIV Prevention
Countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.3, 17.9
Supported by: UNAIDS
Implementing entities: Spiritia Foundation in Indonesia, HIV Foundation in Thailand, KHANA in Cambodia
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2015 to 2016
URL of the practice: Thailand – http://hivfoundation.com/
Cambodia – http://www.khana.org.kh/
South-South Cooperation for Safe
By sharing its good practices in safe motherhood, Thailand helps
Bhutan to improve maternal health
In Bhutan, only 88 per cent of pregnant women receive antenatal care, and skilled
health professionals attend only 51 per cent of births. While most pregnancy-related
complications are difficult to predict, they are easily treatable by trained birth attendants
but the chances of a mother dying at birth rise when deliveries are not performed in
hospitals or when they are performed by low-skilled health-care workers. In Bhutan,
225 out of every 100,000 women die during pregnancy or childbirth. Poor access, low
utilization of health services and inadequate numbers of health providers, especially
women, are some of the main challenges.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2011 and 2014, the Thailand International Cooperation Agency teamed up
with UNFPA to implement a South-South cooperation initiative that enabled Thailand
to share its maternal health successes with neighbouring countries. Early on, Bhutan,
along with the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar, were chosen as pilot
countries. The aim was to share Thailand’s knowledge, experience and good practices
in safe motherhood in order to improve women’s and girls’ health and well-being and
to reduce the maternal mortality rate. The project sought to do this by improving the
capacity of the country’s health institutions and personnel in dealing with emergency
obstetric care, referral services, and prenatal and postnatal care and services. This
includes training of health managers and the health workforce tailored to the needs of
Bhutan. As facilitator, UNFPA ensured quality, partnership and sustainability throughout
the process.
The project approach focused on four key principles:
(a) UNFPA as one: The UNFPA Bhutan and Thailand country offices communicated
closely and acted as moderators with local partners. UNFPA facilitated activities at
the country level to ensure that needs and demands were met;
(b) Demand-driven: The UNFPA-Bhutan-Thailand team conducted the participatory
needs and demands assessment of Bhutan’s institutional capacity for safe
motherhood services. All identified needs and action plans were developed and a
memorandum of understanding was signed by three partners;
(c) Partnership: Under the UNFPA role as facilitator, the three parties agreed on roles and
responsibilities, including sharing of resources. All three partners fully participated
in the entire process, including design, implementation, monitoring and review;
(d) Key processes: The key processes included the needs assessment, the design
of the capacity development plan, identification and selection of mentoring
institutions, selection of focal points and key institutions in Bhutan, delivering skills
and knowledge, monitoring the application of knowledge and skills effectiveness,
and programme review. The project took one year
to prepare, three years to deliver and adjust the
knowledge, and a half year to monitor for quality.
As a demand-driven project, all stakeholders from
policymakers to practitioners, trainers, trainees and
UNFPA focal points were fully involved in all processes.
Discussion and debates were regularly conducted
to ensure that all needs were identified. From the
needs assessment to the review phase, concerned
stakeholders were given opportunities to become
involved and engage (for example, via feedback
on programme design, curriculum and teaching
methodologies, and adjustment of technology to best
fit the local context).
Thailand was able to adjust its international learning
programme on midwifery and safe motherhood to fit
with the needs and demands of partner countries. Its
expertise in safe motherhood practices, which it had
developed to share with other countries, fully met
World Health Organization (WHO) and International
Confederation of Midwives international standards,
which were adopted in order to improve the quality of
midwifery training programmes. Online consultations
in turn took place between Thai trainers and Bhutanese
trained health personnel.
After completing the project, the key institutions
working to improve Bhutan’s in-service training
programmes for health personnel and midwife students
used the technology and knowledge transferred to
improve health services and systems. The triangular
partnership and demand-driven approach have been
documented and replicated by UNFPA and Thailand for
other countries, such as the Lao People’s Democratic
Republic, and is recommended as a model to ensure
the ongoing transfer of knowledge and skills.
Partners include health personnel such as doctors,
nurses and midwives in the Bhutan Ministry of Health,
teachers and trainers of midwives of the Royal Bhutan
Health and Sciences University, and pregnant women
in Bhutan. Key implementing partners include: the
Ministry of Public Health of Bhutan and the Royal Bhutan
Health and Sciences University; the UNFPA country
offices in Bhutan and Thailand; and the Government of
Thailand (the Ministry of Health, including its nursing
colleges and Department of Health; the Institute for
Health Workforce Development; and the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs).
Ms. Duangkamol Ponchamni, South-South Cooperation
[email protected]
Project name: South-South Cooperation for Safe Motherhood
Country: Thailand
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.1, 3.7
Supported by: UNFPA and Thailand
Implementing entity: Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2011-2014
URL of the practice: http://www.pinnalauhachai.com/galleries/bhutan/
Related resources: UNFPA Thailand.
Inter-American Centre for Knowledge
Development in Vocational Training
A centre of excellence for South-South vocational training
In the 1960s, many Latin American countries sought to raise their level of manpower
training to improve the quantity and quality of enterprise performance and workers’
living conditions. Argentina, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Colombia
and Uruguay created new national vocational training services, with technical assistance
from the International Labour Organization (ILO), based on close collaboration with
workers and employers and dedicated to the training of apprentices and adult workers.
However, the tasks of organizing those services, preparing and publishing training
programmes, developing the skills of education personnel, and studying installations
and equipment represented a great effort in research and a good deal of adaptation
among participating countries. The need to disseminate the experience throughout
the region soon became apparent.1
Towards a Solution
At the request of Latin American countries, ILO set up the Inter-American Centre for
Knowledge Development in Vocational Training (CINTERFOR) in 1963. The aim of the
Centre has been to create a permanent learning and South-South and triangular
cooperation community among vocational training institutions, disseminating
knowledge, experiences and good practices in the field of vocational training and skills
CINTERFOR now has over 65 member organizations in 25 countries of Latin America
and the Caribbean in addition to Spain and Cabo Verde. It offers a vast network of
expertise, know-how, skills training and partnerships into which countries tap to
achieve a skilled, knowledgeable, highly employable and productive workforce and
address issues relating to human resource development. It is a specialized centre that
articulates and coordinates the largest, most prestigious network of public and private
institutions and entities devoted to strengthening professional skills. One of its primary
tools for knowledge-sharing is its online community.
In its approach, the Centre: (a) promotes and strengthens horizontal cooperation for the
institutional development and modernization of vocational training; (b) contributes to
the design and management of vocational-training public policies in line with decentwork principles; (c) develops a learning and knowledge management community in
vocational training; and (d) promotes vocational training-related research. It actively
promotes and facilitates cooperation, coordination and exchanges between its
member institutions and other entities, facilitates dialogue on issues at the regional
and global levels, and helps to establish and strengthen links between its members. It
systematizes and shares knowledge and practices generated from these exchanges and
collaboration, and it is a key partner in updating the knowledge management platform
available in the world of vocational training. It offers a platform of services that includes:
• A
teaching resources bank: access to over 12,000
resources. After the contribution of the Brazilian
National Service for Industrial Training (SENAI) in
2009, the contributions of other vocational training
institutions in the network were added. The value
of these resources is beyond measure not only in
monetary terms but also because of their content,
quality and relevance;
• A database of experiences: experiences in fields
such as the use of information and communications
technology (ICT) in training, improving productivity,
social dialogue and competency recognition;
• A database of skills profiles: access to over 6,000
occupational profiles, identified and validated by
social partners, in numerous countries and different
productive sectors. Curriculum designs and means
of evaluation and certification are also available;
• A database of specialists: over 150 curriculum
vitae of professionals are accessible, most of them
connected to the vocational training institutions
and ministries that are members of the network; and
• Communities of apprenticeship and practice:
CINTERFOR coordinates several virtual forums and
practice communities.
CINTERFOR is an avant-garde South-South driver in
Latin America, having created a regional network in the
1960s. Today, the organization focuses on researching,
designing and disseminating the most innovative
approaches to development through vocational
training. Capacity-building and training lie at the heart
of its work and thus guarantee the assimilation and
long-term sustainability of its projects. The Centre
promotes capacity-building and the development of
national training institutions, vocational training as a
tool for social inclusion and social dialogue in vocational
training. It has been one of the main partners of SENAI,
including through joint projects on vocational training
and youth employability. The CINTERFOR model is
replicable and able to be expanded to other countries
and regions. Ingredients for its success are political will
and the readiness to engage and share.
CINTERFOR beneficiaries and partners include youth,
professionals, academia, educational institutions,
technical and vocational schools, and the ministries of
education of its Member States. It receives technical
support from ILO and financial support from its
Member States.
ILO Focal Point, Inter-American Centre for Knowledge
Development in Vocational Training
[email protected]
Project name: Inter-American Centre for Knowledge Development in Vocational Training (CINTERFOR)
Countries: Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain, Cabo Verde
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.6
Supported by: Member States
Implementing entity: ILO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1963 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.oitcinterfor.org/en
Related resources: CINTEFOR Facebook; CINTEFOR Twitter; http://www.oitcinterfor.org/
National Service for Industrial Training
With decades of success, the Brazilian model has provided millions
of professionals with the skills for innovation that are making
industries internationally competitive
Brazil, like many developing countries, has had to face the challenge of how to grow
its industrial sector, upgrade existing industries with cutting-edge technologies, and
develop manpower capable of driving and managing the process. Forming a qualified
workforce from a very early age therefore became paramount through technical
training and education programmes, along with continuing training and education for
seasoned workers.1
Towards a Solution
The National Service for Industrial Training (SENAI), a non-profit organization, was
formed in 1942 to provide technical and vocational education and training in industrial
areas of expertise and to promote applied research and technology transfer for the
benefit of Brazilian industry and competitiveness. SENAI is one of the major Brazilian
players in South-South cooperation. Moreover, it has been internationally recognized
as a model of technical vocational education and training in Latin America.
SENAI reaches a wide audience and promotes accessibility to its training materials for
students with special needs. By offering a distance-learning platform, it gives access to
hundreds of courses from initial and continuing education to graduate courses. It also
offers solutions tailored to companies’ specific demands. These courses are available 24
hours a day, seven days a week, and cover more than 20 technological areas. Similarly,
SENAI Mobile aims to enhance its educational technology, physical and pedagogic
support through mobile applications, including new learning methods and kits. SENAI
offers a vast network of expertise, know-how, skills training, and partnerships into
which industries and countries are plugging to achieve a skilled, tech-savvy, employed
and productive workforce.
SENAI promotes industrial innovation through technical consulting and a vast training
and educational programme and by encouraging corporate actions that involve
applied research and technical and technological services. Its contribution to the
world of work is consistent with the main public policies on technical education
and vocational training. Methods of implementation involve expanding the skills
certification programme nationwide; increasing the supply of courses in line with
industrial trends through the use of prospective analysis; expanding the SENAI
distance learning network; developing programmes to train teachers, technicians and
managers; guaranteeing annual investments to keep facilities and technologies up to
date; expanding the use of mobile technologies in distant regions; and consolidating a
systematic evaluation of the educational process.
In its 73-year history, SENAI has qualified more than
61 million professionals and has educated more
than 50,000 people through its distance education
courses. Every year it attracts more than 3 million
students from developing countries, with a main
focus on Portuguese-speaking African countries.
Over 80 per cent of its trainees and students
find employment. SENAI has some 1,017 fixed and
mobile units where professional training courses are
run and services are provided in 28 industrial areas.
It also manages 10 professional education centres in
different countries around the world. SENAI is one of
the major Brazilian players in South-South cooperation
and has been internationally recognized as a model of
technical vocational education and training in Latin
America. Its cooperation with the ILO is done mainly
via ILO/CINTERFOR and the Skills Department.
SENAI research and education focus on cuttingedge approaches and technologies, and knowledge
transfer to technical and technological industries,
working with partners bilaterally and through SouthSouth and triangular cooperation. Technology and
innovation are covered in areas of technical assistance,
technology transfer and applied research. SENAI
adapts itself to present and future industrial trends by
constantly modernizing its technological resources
and infrastructure.
Capacity development and training are at the
core of the SENAI approach, which guarantees the
assimilation and uptake of new skills and their longterm sustainability. This project is sustainable due to
its extensive and updated offer of technical education
and vocational training in terms of apprenticeship,
qualification courses, technical courses, undergraduate
programmes and postgraduate programmes. The
SENAI educational and training programme addresses
student and industry needs in line with national
demand and is therefore readily replicable in a new
national context.
The main direct beneficiaries of SENAI are youth,
enterprises, technical industries and government,
with financial and technical support from the British
Council, Tech Union, the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, US-Brazil Connect, Swedish ICT, CITEVE,
Tsinghua University, Acreo, CIEP, the Government of
the Netherlands, the University of Wisconsin, Steinbas
and Fraunhofer.
[email protected]
Project name: National Service for Industrial Training (SENAI)
Country: Brazil (with extensive global partnerships in over 46 countries and 10 education centres)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5, 8.6
Supported by: Government of Brazil
Implementing entity: ILO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1942 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.sp.senai.br/senaisp/
Related resources: ILO South-South and Triangular Cooperation.
Pacific Open Learning Health Net
How Pacific island countries combined forces to create an
e-learning platform that builds the skills of doctors and nurses
and improves health care
Small island developing States in the Pacific and their remote island communities
are often unable to access the highest-quality health-care education and the latest
techniques in disease control and treatment. Medical schools often need to upgrade
their educational programmes, and as a result, physicians and medical experts lack the
skills and information that they need to treat patients adequately.1
Towards a Solution
In 2003, the ministers of health of the Pacific small island developing States came
together to create the Pacific Open Learning Health Net (POLHN). POLHN works to ensure
that health professionals have access to the continuing professional development that
they need. It also builds capacity among local and regional academic institutions to
develop and deliver online, continuing professional development programmes. Since
its creation, POLHN has been delivering democratic, equitable, scalable and localized
online, continuing professional educational courses to health-care professionals in the
Pacific countries.
As a regional collaboration mechanism built on South-South cooperation and based
at Fiji National University, POLHN has been accepting Pacific regional students under
the same conditions as national students, and it has presented rich opportunities
for POLHN country coordinators to learn from one another by sharing practices and
experiences through workshops, exchanges and field visits.
The POLHN model is embedded into the Ministry of Health training plan and is guided
by the Human Resources for Health plan. POLHN Internet-supported learning centres
are managed by ministries of health and located in their facilities. Online courses are
developed in partnership with local universities and ministries of health. The courses
are marketed via the POLHN website, the Moodle learning/teaching platform, social
media, e-mails and licensure boards.
Since its establishment, POLHN has undergone an external assessment, which has
shown that the pilot project was a success, with growing demand from countries
to sustain it and deliver additional courses. POLHN has 45 Internet-supported
learning centres in 14 Pacific island countries and areas. Course subscriptions
are validated through the POLHN country coordinators’ annual report and the
Moodle student management system. Currently, POLHN has approximately
20,000 online course subscribers and has experienced continuous demand for
more online courses from health workers, ministries of health and licensure
POLHN enables health workers to learn while they work,
thereby boosting staff retention. It is cost-effective and
offers learning opportunities to those who cannot travel
abroad. POLHN has created a regional learning network
and enables extensive sharing of learning materials
and courses to low-coverage areas. The programme
has had three broad phases in countries during which
it: (a) relies completely on donor funds; (b) benefits
from cost-sharing among ministries of health, licensure
boards and donors; and (c) is independently managed
by ministries of health and licensure boards. POLHN is
currently in its second phase in most countries. In Fiji, it
is moving towards phase three.
without too much difficulty. While Fiji has led with
the pilot phase, 14 Pacific island countries and areas
have also adopted the programme, and other Asian
countries have shown interest in taking an approach
similar to that of POLHN. Main partners include Pacific
ministries of health and WHO, which provide financing
and technical support, along with universities, licensure
boards and health workers.
Mr. Mohammed Yasin, Technical Officer, Pacific Open
Learning Health Net, Division of Pacific Technical Support
[email protected]
The developing countries in the Pacific small island
region have adopted and implemented POLHN
Project name: Pacific Open Learning Health Net (POLHN)
Countries/territories: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of ), Nauru, Niue, Palau,
Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, American Samoa, Guam
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.c, 4.3, 4.4, 17.6, 17.9
Supported by: WHO
Implementing entities: WHO, Pacific island ministries of health
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2003 to present
URL of the practice: http://polhn.org/
Related resources: POLHN courses 1; POLHN courses 2
Family Protection, Support, Security
and Justice for Victims of Domestic and
Gender-based Violence Programme
Facilitating relief and access to justice for domestic and genderbased violence victims in Iraq through knowledge transfer from
More than one out of every three women in Iraq has either experienced first-hand
or had a family member who has suffered devastating violence, be it sexual assault,
domestic violence, kidnapping or assault. Often, these incidents go unreported and
the survivors are left with no support. Lack of quality information had made it difficult
for a long time to track instances of violence against women.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2012 and 2015, the Family Protection, Support, Security and Justice for
Victims of Domestic and Gender-based Violence Programme developed by UNDP
sought to tackle this issue head on. The programme supported the Government of
Iraq in undertaking policy, legislative, social and economic reforms to enhance the
response of national institutions, improve access to justice, and empower victims
of domestic violence and gender-based violence. UNDP facilitated South-South
knowledge transfers, workshops and study tours to enable Iraqi authorities to learn
from their Jordanian counterparts how to establish family protection systems, facilitate
law enforcement and ensure access to justice for victims.
Through country-to-country cooperation and exchanges, the programme provided
comprehensive technical and advisory support combined with extensive capacitydevelopment interventions for Iraqi stakeholders. Learning from Jordanian experiences,
the programme helped to build the capacity of formal and informal institutions to
establish family protection systems and facilitate law enforcement and access to justice
for the victims of violence, based on a holistic approach to domestic and gender-based
violence in the Iraqi context.
As a result, the project was able to establish family protection units within police
stations across the country. In 2012, over 7,000 domestic violence cases were reported,
and the number of female police recruits increased. In addition, the Kurdistan Regional
Government adopted the Domestic Violence Bill and a similar bill is under review by the
Government of Iraq. A national pool of local trainers has also been created to enhance
the capacity of Family Protection Unit representatives from the Iraqi governorates.
The cultural, social and linguistic similarities, including a common tribal social system,
between Iraq and Jordan made the learning of best practices in a regional context and
geographical proximity a realistic, cost-effective way to fight domestic and genderbased violence. It also helped to reduce the costs of transportation for participants.
Iraq’s adoption of the Jordanian organizational
structure, its institutionalization of the domestic
reporting mechanism within the Ministry of Interior,
its allocation of resources from the national budget,
and its formulation of an Iraqi cross-ministerial strategy
(establishing links among designated committees) are
proof of the strong ownership and sustainability of the
programme in Iraq. The training of Family Protection
Unit managers from all 18 Iraqi governorates and
the creation of a national pool of local trainers have
helped to ensure the sustainability of the capacity
development activities. Local experts of the Family
Protection Units can also share their knowledge with
other countries in the region.
The following conditions are necessary to ensure
replication and scaling up of the project: (a) ensuring
government ownership and leadership by making
it a government-owned initiative; (b) benchmarking
best regional practices that have a similar cultural
background; and (c) tailoring and adopting technical
tools, training and assistance to the local context.
Implementing partners in Iraq included the Family
Protection Units at the federal level and the Directorate
for Tracing Violence against Women at the regional
level. Other participating national partners included
the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, the Ministry of Labour
and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry
of Human Rights, the Ministry of the Environment,
the Ministry of Health, the High Council of Women
in Kurdistan and civil society organizations. In Jordan,
the Ministry of Social Development and the Jordanian
Family Protection Department were part of the Public
Security Directorate. UNDP supported the project as
the coordinating agency in collaboration with UNICEF,
UNFPA and UN-Women. The Governments of Denmark
and Norway provided financial support.
Ms. Nahid Hussein, Project Manager
[email protected]
Project name: Family Protection, Support, Security and Justice for Victims of Domestic and Gender-based Violence
Countries: Iraq, Jordan
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3
Supported by: UNDP, UNICEF
Implementing entities: Ministry of Interior, Family Protection Units at the federal level, the Directorate for Tracing
Violence against Women at the regional level
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2012 to 2015
URL of the practice: http://www.iq.undp.org/content/iraq/en/home/operations/projects/womens_empowerment/
Related resources: Periodic project reports: See Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office Generic Annual Programme Narrative
Progress Report (for reporting periods): 1 January- 31 December 2014; 1 January- 31 December 2013; 1 January-31
December 2012; Iraq UNDAF Fund Annual Report.
Gender-sensitive Social Protection Floors
South-South solutions build national social protection floors for
all in Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Despite high and lasting economic growth and significant progress in reducing poverty,
inequality persists in countries in the Asia and the Pacific region. The growing income and
wealth disparities, including unequal opportunities in countries such as Cambodia and
the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, reinforce each other to create an inequality trap
that disproportionately affects women and society’s most vulnerable.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2012 and 2015, the ILO South-South and triangular cooperation project for the
implementation of gender-sensitive social protection floors at the country level tackled
that issue. The project aimed to improve countries’ efforts to extend social protection
coverage, including social protection floors, and to facilitate South-South and triangular
cooperation. The project did this by supporting the systematic, cross-country transfer of
knowledge, skills and expertise in the area of social protection. Because the challenges
transcended national borders and were highly relevant in the countries of the region, the
24 countries involved shared experiences and established working relationships, which
then continued after the project ended. They capitalized on existing knowledge in other
countries of the South, which were best suited to respond to their national challenges to
extend social protection.
The project facilitated exchanges with technical experts during content production
in order to fuel discussion at workshops. The methodology began with a substantial
investment in preliminary work, focused on supporting requesting countries in
identifying need and matching it with an experience and technical expertise of a country
of the South. The preliminary phase included: (a) conducting desk research on existing
experiences in a specific area from other countries of the South; (b) identifying a relevant
scheme and resource person with whom exchanges could be facilitated; and (c) following
the exchange between requesting country and resource person to determine the exact
terms of reference (study visit/training/participation in a workshop).
The following are some examples of how the exchanges proved fruitful. The experience of
Thailand in strengthening the health protection system and extending health protection
was useful for both the health insurance fund and the strategy to extend into Cambodia
and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The experiences of Brazil, India, Mongolia and
others in setting up a coordination mechanism and/or single database of beneficiaries
were useful for Cambodia’s social service delivery mechanism also currently being piloted.
The experience of India in monitoring and evaluating protocols for social protection
schemes proved useful for Cambodia’s new delivery mechanism currently being piloted.
The assessment-based national dialogue tool that supports the identification of costed
scenarios to extend social protection and facilitate the decision-making process was
developed, tested, applied and fine-tuned through
South-South exchanges.
In Cambodia, national stakeholders learned from
countries’ experiences in setting up a coordination
mechanism following the single-window service
approach (Brazil, India and Mongolia) to facilitate
outreach to rural populations. A monitoring and
evaluation protocol was developed based on
experiences from India, which helped to strengthen
the national health insurance system and staff capacitybuilding. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
exchanges were productive in supporting the extension
of social health protection through the development of
the Social Security Law (2013), national health insurance
scheme regulations, pilot scheme technical guidelines
(2015), and capacity-building of national stakeholders
including the new National Social Security Fund.
The project not only helped requesting countries to
develop technical skills and capacities to implement
social protection floor policies and components but also
inspired them to realize that a universal social protection
floor could be a reality. By making project information
available online or through events, publications and
web platforms (including in particular the Global SouthSouth Development Academy web platform, http://
academy.ssc.undp.org, and the ILO Social Protection
Platform, www.social-protection.org), more countries
are now learning from these experiences and findings.
Whether the experience from another country was
replicable or not depended on whether: (a) adequate
experience was identified in another country during
preliminary research; (b) the country requesting
experience was willing to collaborate and exchange
with technicians from the other country identified; (c)
the persons identified to participate in the South-South
exchange were putting into practice lessons learned
from another experience; (d) the match-making proved
to be adequate in practice; or (e) there was confirmed
engagement on the part of decision makers in the
requesting country to extend social protection.
The direct recipients of the South-South exchanges were
representatives from relevant ministries, decentralized
government, social partners, social security institutions
and other stakeholders involved in social protection from
the 29 participating countries. The ultimate beneficiaries
were the populations not covered by social protection.
Because women are disproportionally represented,
the project focused on promoting a gender-sensitive
approach that specifically contributed to achieving
greater gender equality. The project was implemented
in close collaboration with United Nations resident
coordinators and country teams under the auspices of
UNDP/UNDG and other United Nations organizations,
and partner organizations/donors that are members of
the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for
Coordination joint Social Protection Floor Initiative.
Ms. Valérie Schmitt
Chief of the Social Policy, Governance and Standards
Branch, Social Protection Department, ILO Geneva
[email protected] or [email protected]
Project name: Gender-sensitive Social Protection Floors
Countries: Benin, Cambodia, Côte d’Ivoire, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Togo. In total, 29 countries shared experiences
and technical expertise: Argentina, Benin, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire,
France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Pakistan,
Philippines, Republic of Korea, Senegal, South Africa, Thailand, Togo, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Zambia
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.3, 3.8, 5.4, 8.5, 10.4
Supported by: UNOSSC
Implementing entity: ILO
Project status: Completed
Project period: April 2012 to December 2015
URL of the practice: ILO Social Protection Platform: UNOSSC-ILO Project page
Related resources: Main Page; Coordinated delivery mechanisms, The Single Window Service pilot; Health Extension; Social
Protection Assessment Based on National Dialogue; Health Extension; Global South-South Development Academy web
platform; ILO social protection information; Sharing Innovative Experiences: Successful Social Protection Floor Experiences
(UNDP-ILO, 2011); The Assessment Based National Dialogue Guide; Chapter from South-South Cooperation and Decent
Work: Good Practices, ILO, Partnerships and Field Support Department, Geneva: ILO, 2013; Social Protection Platform; @soc_
protection; [email protected]
Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces
Global Flagship Initiative
Cities unite in the common pursuit of ending violence against
women and girls
Sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence in public spaces are an everyday
occurrence for women and girls around the world. This reality reduces the freedom of
movement of women and girls, including their ability to participate in school, work
and public life. It limits their access to essential services and their enjoyment of cultural
and recreational opportunities. It also negatively impacts their health and well-being.
Although violence in the private domain is now widely recognized as a human rights
violation, violence against women and girls, especially sexual harassment in public
spaces, remains a largely neglected issue.1
Towards a Solution
Since November 2010, the UN-Women’s Global Flagship Initiative “Safe Cities and Safe
Public Spaces” – building on its “Safe Cities Free of Violence against Women and Girls”
Global Programme – has been gathering concerned citizens with diverse stakeholders
from cities across the globe to address this issue. Participating cities commit to: (a)
identify gender-responsive locally relevant and owned interventions; (2) develop
and implement comprehensive legislation and policies to prevent and respond to
sexual violence against women and girls in public spaces; (3) make investments in the
safety and economic viability of public spaces; and (4) bring about social and cultural
transformation to ensure that attitudes and behaviours relating to women’s and
girls’ rights to enjoy public spaces free from violence is improved, including through
activities at the community, institutional and individual levels.
© UN-Women
The approach of the initiative includes: (a) women’s rights- and human rights-based
programming, the major shared principle; (b) the empowerment and centrality of
grass-roots women, focused on the most impoverished, socially excluded groups
of women and girls; (c) evidence-based programme design (participatory, holistic,
multi-stakeholder and multilevel) informed by a study that provides understanding of
local context; (d) prevention (capacity-building of local stakeholders, comprehensive
partnerships and interventions, engaging men and boys, community mobilization and
the media); (e) sustainability (national and local ownership through a participatory and
local evidence-based design process, integration into community/urban development
plans, and gender-responsive budgeting, laws and policies); (f ) accountability
(community-based mechanisms such as local-to-local dialogues and periodic
community safety audits); and (g) monitoring and evaluation (local monitoring
mechanisms, observatory centres, progress reviews, end-line studies and impact
Through strong multisectoral partnerships, each city is achieving results at many
different levels (community, policy, institutional). For example, in Cairo, Egypt, strong
participatory mechanisms at the community level to
prevent and respond to sexual violence have been
established and are operational. In Port Moresby,
Papua New Guinea, where 80 per cent of vendors are
women, the National Capital District Commission (local
government), under the leadership of the Governor,
is collaborating with sector-specific institutions and
women’s safety partners in a gender approach to
urban planning.
The initiative has a strong participatory approach
throughout each stage of the programme. Safe-city
beneficiaries are not simply passive users but active
agents of change who make key contributions
to results, especially grass-roots women’s, men’s
and youth groups, and civil society partners in
intervention communities. The initiative also links the
normative with the operational. The programmes are
informed by and help to inform multiple United Nations
documents relating to women’s empowerment.
The “Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces“ Global Flagship
Initiative lays the groundwork for a sustainable
approach to making cities safe and helps to build
each programme to scale. To achieve results and
sustainability, it engages women, men and boys
working at the grass-roots level. To accelerate and
ensure a multiplier effect, it engages new partners,
expands to new areas and sectors, influences higher
policy levels, produces results faster and contributes
to overall sustainability. At the global level, a package
of guidance notes and other tools is available that
can be adapted to the context of each country. In
collaboration with partners across cities, UN-Women
facilitates an online knowledge and exchange platform
and convenes a Global Leaders’ Forum to promote
exchange and advance knowledge on trends, practices
and lessons learned in “Safe Cities and Safe Public
Spaces” initiatives.
The Global Flagship Initiative engages a vast array
of partners. At the local, national and regional levels,
these include authorities from a range of sectors and
ministries (economic development, urban planning,
transport, community development, women’s
machinery, justice, police, education, health); grassroots women’s, men’s and youth groups; faith-based
and other organizations; United Nations organizations;
regional human rights and women’s rights mechanisms;
research and educational institutions; the private
sector; and the media. At the global level, partners in
global advocacy efforts include UN-Habitat, the United
Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and other United
Nations organizations; Women in Cities International;
the Women and Habitat Network of Latin America and
the Caribbean; the Huairou Commission; and United
Cities and Local Governments.
Ms. Laura Capobianco, Policy Specialist, EVAW Section,
[email protected]
Project name: “Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces” Global Flagship Initiative
Countries: Founding programmes: Quito (Ecuador), Cairo (Egypt), New Delhi (India), Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea)
and Kigali (Rwanda). Additional cities: Marrakech and Rabat (Morocco), Quezon/Metro Manila (Philippines), Dushanbe
(Tajikistan), Medellin (Colombia), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Mexico City (Mexico), Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Maputo
(Mozambique), Cape Town (South Africa), Dublin (Ireland), Winnipeg (Canada), Sakai (Japan), Reykjavik (Iceland), New
York (United States), Brussels (Belgium)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 4.4, 5.2, 11.2, 16.1, 16.3
Supported by: UN-Women, UNICEF, Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation, European Commission,
Republic of Korea, Government of the Netherlands, USAID, Government of Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and
Trade, Government of New Zealand, Government of Japan, National Committees for UN-Women (Australia, Iceland and
the United Kingdom)
Implementing entities: UN-Women, UNICEF, UN-Habitat, UNDP, local and national governments, NGOs, CSOs
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2010 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/creating-safe-publicspaces
Related resources: Corporate Brief on the Safe Cities Global Initiative; Proceedings Report on UN-Women Safe Cities
Global Leaders’ Forum; Safe Cities Global Initiative Global-level Video; Port Moresby Safe Cities Video; Cape Town Safe City
Video; Quezon City/Metro Manila Safe City Video.
Regional Fit for School Programme
A group of Southeast Asian countries is making their children fit
for school through better health that leads to better learning
Many school children in Southeast Asia suffer from ailments such as diarrhoea, acute
respiratory diseases, worms and dental caries, all of which are preventable and
caused mainly by poor hygiene. These illnesses impair a child’s physical and cognitive
development and have a negative impact on their ability to learn and their prospects.
Although many countries in Southeast Asia have recognized the value of school health
programmes and developed their own national strategies, there is still a lack of realistic,
affordable approaches and required expertise to pursue them. Very few sustainable
programmes run on a regional basis. Many are only carried out in a few individual schools
and thus are far from reaching their full potential.1
Towards a Solution
The Regional Fit for School Programme in Southeast Asia was created in 2011 to tackle this
problem head-on. The programme aims to improve the health and learning outcomes of
primary school children by supporting ministries of education in selected Asian countries
to sustainably implement a step-by-step approach to improve water, sanitation and
hygiene (known as WASH) in schools on a large scale.
Fit for School supports South-South regional exchanges, networking and capacity
development for WASH in schools. It provides technical assistance to support ministries
of education in partner countries to integrate the management of the programme into
their existing structures. Schools are transformed to become learning environments that
enable children to realize their full potential in health and education. The programme
supports government partners to develop contextualized implementation models.
Knowledge-sharing and regional/international learning exchanges provide platforms for
collaboration and create momentum for WASH in schools beyond programme countries.
© Regional Fit for School Programme
The programme approach developed in the Philippines through the Department of
Education as the Essential Health Care Programme serves as a model for other countries.
The programme focuses on a simple, scalable, sustainable and systematic approach that
supports ministries of education to improve WASH in schools incrementally. Simple, costeffective, evidence-based preventative measures, such as hand washing with soap and
brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste, form daily group activities in public primary
schools, along with school-based deworming. Including parents and the community in
the step-by-step approach is an integral programme principle that fosters ownership and
responsibility. The main principles apply to implementation and management models,
the aim being to integrate WASH in schools management into existing structures of the
education sector on all levels without overburdening stakeholders.
Impact and process evaluations from the Philippines
show positive effects on school children’s health: 20
per cent fewer underweight children, 30 per cent less
absenteeism, 40 per cent fewer infections from decayed
teeth, and 50 per cent fewer heavy worm infections
compared to control schools. Results from Cambodia,
Indonesia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
show improved oral health and increased access to
washing facilities, hygiene supplies and clean/functional
toilets. A Cambodian study showed increased individual
hand washing with soap after toilet use in programme
schools compared to control schools.
The methodology integrates WASH in schools into
existing governance structures of the education sector,
as the main implementing partner, and finances it
locally. The programme strengthens management and
institutional capacities at the district and school levels as
a driver for effective WASH in schools implementation.
The focus of the second programme phase (20152018) is to support government partners to develop
innovative, contextualized approaches to programme
scaling up following the principles of simplicity,
scalability, sustainability and systemic thinking. At the
individual child level, interventions focus on students’
behavioural change through skills-based daily hygiene
The programme’s step-by-step, evidenced-based
approach in low-resource settings builds on and
strengthens existing structures and mechanisms of the
education sector. It promotes regional learning and
supports partners to develop their own country-specific
sustainable implementation models, which takes more
time and requires a solid research and development
phase but increases ownership and sustainability in
the long run. It also applies a multi-level approach that
includes international and regional integration and
learning exchange, along with strengthening national
policies/implementation models and subnational
education-sector structures to ensure quality
Fit for School has developed realistic, clear
implementation models and capacity development
materials and uses existing educational structures
to facilitate replication. The simplicity and costeffectiveness of the interventions trigger interest and
creativity among stakeholders, encouraging them to
apply and contextualize the approach to their context.
Lessons from regional programme countries are shared
with other countries in the region and beyond. Recently,
the piloting of Fit for School began in the United
Republic of Tanzania, situation analyses were conducted
in South Sudan and Guinea, and India, in collaboration
with UNICEF, has started to integrate group hand
washing into the national school-feeding programme.
The regional partner SEAMEO has a clear mandate
to foster South-South cooperation within Southeast
Asia and collaborates with regional and international
organizations, such as other SEAMEO centres and
the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office, ensuring
alignment of WASH in schools with the education
sector. The Three Star Approach for WASH in schools
developed by the German Agency for International
Cooperation (GIZ) and UNICEF serves as the guiding
concept. Implementing partners in the four countries
include the ministries of education and other relevant
ministries as well as government officials at the district
and community levels, school principals, parents and
local communities.
Ms. Nicole Siegmund, GIZ
[email protected]
[email protected]
Project name: Regional Fit for School Programme
Countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Philippines
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.a, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.a, 6.b
Supported by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Implementing entities: German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), SEAMEO Regional Centre for Educational
Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO INNOTECH)
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2011 to 2018
URL for the practice: http://www.fitforschool.international
Related resources: GIZ Healthy Developments Website and Resource download section Fit for School Website.
Strengthening Water, Sanitation and
Hygiene (WASH) Services in Ethiopia
A partnership between Brazil, Ethiopia and UNICEF aimed at
strengthening the WASH services regulatory framework and
urban sanitation in Ethiopia
Economic studies conducted in Africa have shown that impacts resulting from poor
sanitation and hygiene cost the economies between 0.9 and 2.4 per cent of annual gross
domestic product. This translates into approximately $10 per capita per year. These figures
reflect: (a) the adverse health effects associated with poor sanitation and water supply; (b)
costs of treating these health problems; (c) loss of productivity that results when individuals
are sick and others have to care for them; and (d) time spent to access services. According
to the World Health Organization (WHO), poor water and sanitation contribute 50 per
cent of the indirect effects of malnutrition, which is widespread in Ethiopia, as evidenced
by high rates of moderate and severe stunting and underweight in children under age
five: 51 per cent and 12 per cent, respectively. WHO also estimates that diarrheal diseases
caused the deaths of around 85,000 children under five years of age in Ethiopia in 2008.1
Moreover, the accelerating urbanization rates of Ethiopia add to the challenge of securing
WASH coverage throughout the country. According to the current annual urbanization
rate of 4.7 per cent, approximately 30 per cent of all Ethiopians will live in urban areas by the
year 2030. These figures indicate a potential major gap in WASH coverage. Furthermore, the
cost of installing WASH facilities is high and there is a great lack of qualified professionals.
Ethiopia thus needs construction and service provision companies with well-trained
and sufficient workforces of technicians, engineers and office staff to meet its water and
sanitation goals.
Towards a Solution
Based on the principles of South-South cooperation, specifically the idea of sharing
practices that can be learned, replicated and sustained by the receiving country, Brazil,
Ethiopia and UNICEF have partnered to implement water supply and sanitary sewerage
services in Ethiopia. Inspired by Brazilian experiences, the initiative is changing the way
in which urban communities approach these services in a rapidly urbanizing country. It
is a partnership between governments and international organizations that offers a longterm solution to a pressing challenge for a new urban generation and one that can be
easily replicated.
The initiative aims to benefit the Ethiopian water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector
with policy improvements for basic sanitation in general, with a focus on the WASH
regulatory framework in urban sanitary sewerage. It addresses SDG Goal 6 by seeking
to implement sustainable practices to work towards guaranteeing access to water and
sanitation to all in Ethiopia.
The initiative offers a combination of approaches
and methodologies that involve training, sharing of
knowledge and technical activities to ensure that the
Ethiopian beneficiaries are fully capable of sustaining
and expanding the project. The main methodological
elements are: sharing of technology through practical
and direct technical support; development and
implementation of a condominium sewerage pilot
project; capacity development through peer review of
key documents and on-the-job training; and knowledgesharing of best practices, documents/manuals and
implementation mechanisms.
Initial stages of the initiative have already garnered positive
feedback and results for the project. Capacities have
been developed at the local level in Ethiopia following a
training mission to Ethiopia of Brazilian delegates during
which capacities were developed in four regions of the
country (Oromia, Amhara, Afar and Tigray) in the areas
of independent water regulation for urban settlements,
condominium sewerage for high-density population
areas, and water resource management. The technology
transfer from Brazil to Ethiopia was floated as a tender
to a construction company in January 2016, has now
been awarded and is under construction, with expected
finalization in September 2016. Next steps will include
capacity development sessions and virtual support to
the technical and operational aspects of the pilot project,
followed by the systematization of management and
service provision guidelines.
This model of South-South cooperation works by
pairing two regions of each country that are similar in
terms of geography, challenges, strengths and needs
and by building strategies and measures that are
not merely replicating what has worked in Brazil but
that can be assimilated by Ethiopian managers and
validated by its citizens to move towards solutions that
are efficient, effective and lasting. The Brazilian models
being exchanged offer a proven way of sustainably
tackling Ethiopian challenges in the area of WASH.
Hence, the role of Brazil in the design and supervision of
the implementation process has been essential for the
successful achievements.
The sustainability of the initiative is based on both
countries’ initial willingness to exchange knowledge and
practices, which is being ensured by a formally signed
Trilateral South-South Cooperation Project Document
between Brazil, Ethiopia and UNICEF. This initial
exchange can then pave the way for Ethiopia to continue
expanding the initiative through its own means, based
on the lessons learned and successful implementation of
methods from Brazil.
The initiative is set to be replicated throughout other
areas of Ethiopia following the initial phase in Wukro. The
established model of condominium sewerage being set
up in Wukro has a clear set of steps and guidelines that
will contribute to the ease of implementation in other
areas once the full process has been assimilated by the
Ethiopian counterparts.
The direct beneficiaries will be the managers and
technicians of the following federal, regional and
municipal Ethiopian institutions: Ministry of Water,
Irrigation and Energy; Ministry of Health; Ministry of
Urban Development, Housing and Construction; Wukro
Town Administration in Tigray Regional State; Amhara
Region Water Resources Development Bureau; and the
Oromia Region Water, Mineral and Energy Resources
Development Bureau.
In addition to the institutional beneficiaries, it is expected
that the pilot project will also have a direct impact on
the lives of 859 families residing in the condominiums
of Wukro town. Since the project is set to expand to
other regions of Ethiopia after the initial pilot stage, the
beneficiaries will increase accordingly. Expectations are
that the pilot will serve as the basis for scaling up to
thousands of condominium blocks across Ethiopia.
Ms. Michelle Barron, Manager
UNICEF Brazil South-South Cooperation Unit
[email protected]
Project name: Strengthening the Water Supply and Sanitary Sewerage Services in Ethiopia
Countries: Brazil, Ethiopia
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.a, 6.b
Supported by: Government of Brazil, Government of Ethiopia, UNICEF
Implementing entity: UNICEF
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2015-2017
Water Management and Sanitation
for Dispersed Rural and Indigenous
Communities in Latin America
Using a strong gender and intercultural perspective, Nicaragua,
Panama and Paraguay empower rural and indigenous
communities to manage their water resources and reap its benefits
Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay struggle with similar water and sanitation challenges. In
Nicaragua, less than 20 per cent of people living in the northern and southern autonomous
administrative regions, home to many indigenous communities, have access to drinking
water and adequate sanitation. In Panama, 91 per cent of the indigenous population
in the Ngöbe-Buglé region suffers from extreme poverty, and its dispersion, mobility
and location in remote areas raise the cost of traditional sanitation solutions, limiting
investment and private participation. In Paraguay, only half of the poorest households
have drinkable water, and only 10 per cent of all sewage is treated. Only 6 per cent of
households in indigenous communities have drinking water, and only 3 per cent have
access to sanitation.1
Towards a Solution
From 2011 to 2014, the United Nations Joint Programme on Water and Sanitation for
Dispersed Rural and Indigenous Communities in Nicaragua, Panama and Paraguay sought
to tackle these challenge head-on by organizing a series of knowledge-sharing events
to strengthen labour-based techniques and rights. The aim was to empower rural and
indigenous populations to manage their own water resources and improve the quality
of and access to public water and sanitation services. The project, developed under the
MDG Fund thematic window for democratic economic governance, included exchanges
of experiences by rural and indigenous communities. The meetings focused on three
main topics: (a) technical capacity-building in construction and maintenance to enable
communities to participate in the local labour market (Nicaragua); (b) coordination and
empowerment through the management of water systems and sanitation (Panama); and
(c) planning and consultation with indigenous communities as a way for communities to
identify and prioritize local knowledge on water provision (Paraguay). The target groups
were the Miskito and Afro descendants from Nicaragua, the Ngöbe Buglé from Panama
and the Guaraní from Paraguay.
The programme pursued a participatory approach to share community-based experiences
and discuss technical issues, incorporating a gender and intercultural approach throughout
the project cycle. As a South-South learning initiative, the participation of key leaders,
technical actors and project coordinators helped to identify strengths and weaknesses at
different stages of project development.
The initiative helped to establish social dialogue at the community and inter-agency
levels. It was effective in creating local ownership, greater participation by indigenous
communities and women’s leadership, and it promoted knowledge and awareness-raising
about water management gaps and strategies. The participatory workshops addressed
the process of consultation for indigenous communities
(based on free, prior and informed consent), respecting
their hierarchies and perception of time. The initiative
incorporated indigenous knowledge, using biological
indicators to identify sources of drinkable water (a
combination of empirical expertise and construction
techniques) and raised awareness of women’s domestic
role in water collection. In Panama, four microenterprises
were created to maintain infrastructure services. At the
political level, the testimony of women leaders from other
countries encouraged their peers and traditional leaders
to incorporate women as leaders of water management
This programme highlights indigenous knowledge and
gender empowerment during project implementation
to access quality public services. It is an entry point for
the ILO Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention,
incorporating consultation as a project activity (Paraguay);
enhancing local capacities by developing local units and
small contractors for maintenance of public works with
appropriate technologies (Nicaragua); and highlighting
women’s leadership and the integrated management
of local and traditional authorities and doctors in local
administrative bureaux (Panama). It also contributed
to positioning ILO methodologies for employment,
inclusion and rights promotion of indigenous people
within the United Nations inter-agency partners.
During the workshops, the experience from Panama
provided a basis to better understand the way in which
local administrative management bureaux — comprised
of local and traditional authorities and doctors —
had promoted the establishment of a water-quality
monitoring programme. The debate also pointed out
that while Guaraní indigenous communities face the
challenge of storing and managing drinkable water, the
Caribbean subregion faced problems in managing and
distributing quality water. Both needed to strengthen
their local administrative units for water provision.
Since the Ngöbe-Buglé region of Panama suffers from
extreme poverty, women leaders explained the level of
negotiation that indigenous leaders were pursuing with
national authorities to express local requirements for
quality public services.
The programme in Nicaragua put more emphasis on
the organization of local units and small contractors
for maintenance of public works with appropriate
technologies. Moreover, it demonstrated the
development of apprenticeships for entrepreneurial
builders in which 70 young men and women from
Miskito and Afro-descendant communities were trained
and certified in construction and plumbing.
Programme replication hinges on empowering rural
and indigenous communities. The initiative enables
them to manage their own natural resources to ensure
a supply of potable water and sanitation by using
an intercultural, gender-based approach that can be
applied in and adapted to different settings. In addition,
national counterpart organizations are improving both
their central and local institutional capacities in order to
provide efficient basic services to communities suffering
from extreme poverty and to ensure the sustainability of
project outcomes.
Beneficiaries, target group and users include leaders
from the communities of Kankintu and Kusapin and
local government authorities in Comarca Ngäbe-Buglé,
Ño Kribo region (Panama); Ayoreo, Nivaclé, Guaraní
Occidental and Abaí Guaraní indigenous leaders and local
government authorities from the Boquerón department
(Paraguay); and the Miskito and Afro-descendant
communities and local government authorities of the
North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the
South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) (Nicaragua).
Partners include ILO as one of the main United Nations
implementing organizations, indigenous communities,
national institutions, and the national water authorities
and health ministries of each country.
Employment-Intensive Investment Unit (EMP/INVEST)
[email protected]
Project name: The Water and Sanitation Programme for Dispersed Rural and Indigenous Communities
Countries: Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 6.1, 6.b, 8.3
Supported by: Spain and target countries
Implementing entity: ILO
Project status: Closed
Project period: 2011 to 2014
URL of the practice: http://www.ilo.org/pardev/partnerships/south-south/WCMS_244336/lang--en/index.htm, pp. 3436 of downloadable publication
FGV Projetos for Biofuels
The successful use of biomass in Brazil is now helping tropical
belt countries in Latin America and Africa to achieve clean and
affordable energy
Energy security depends on the constant availability and supply of affordable energy
for consumers and industry. Many countries, however, face risks to their energy
security. These risks come in the form of disruptions to the supply of imported fossil
fuels, limited availability of fuel and energy price spikes, which in turn can have drastic
consequences for national economies and development. The possibility of deriving
biofuels from locally grown sources and using them as alternatives to petroleum
products is therefore attractive to many countries that today depend largely on fossil
Towards a Solution
In the 1980s, the Brazilian higher education institution Fundação Getúlo Vargas (FGV)
created FGV Projetos for Biofuels in order to research and develop viable responses
to this challenge. The aim is to enable countries with little or no oil reserves to
achieve greater fuel security on their own and produce fewer greenhouse gases,
which ultimately contributes to their social and economic development and poverty
reduction through sustainable agricultural production systems.
FGV Projetos, the FGV technical advisory unit in charge of using the academic
knowledge generated and assembled at the FGV schools and institutes, offers a global
interconnected network of expertise on biomass energy (and other development
topics) that is transforming how countries in the tropical belt in Latin America
and Africa approach and adopt modern, clean, renewable energy sources. When
choosing a project, FGV Projetos considers how it would foster social inclusion and
technology transfer, building on best practices in the field at all stages. This includes
the participation of Brazilian experts during implementation and management in
tandem with the commitment of the technical team to provide training and transfer
know-how. Activities take place in agricultural regions that have experienced minimal
environmental impact as well as in those already degraded and outside conservation
areas. They focus on developing business models in participation with communities
of small-scale farmers, and on training and capacity-building of local agricultural
extension workers and individual farmers with respect to issues such as value chains,
technology packages and environmental sustainability.
FGV Projetos rolls out its biofuel projects in phases that include: gathering data;
conducting assessments; developing agrarian development blueprints; undertaking
production capacity surveys; developing pioneer farming projects in priority
areas; performing socioeconomic studies and socio-financial feasibility analyses;
using the FGV Projetos food and bioenergy implementation guide; reaching out to
public- and private-sector actors; and undertaking maintenance, monitoring and
evaluation. The FGV Projetos methodology adopts
innovative technologies for the zoning of land
suitable for cultivation of biomass agricultural crops.
The recommended technology package is based on
positive experiences of crops in similar regions in Brazil
as well as examples of social inclusion, including good
practices in sustainability.
To date, FGV Projetos has conducted more than 60
feasibility studies in 18 countries, contributing to the
development of agriculture, biofuels and infrastructure.
In the tropical belt, it is conducting studies on
the viability of biomass projects under a technical
cooperation agreement between the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of Brazil and countries in Africa, Central
America and the Caribbean. A number of projects
are being undertaken in 12 countries, including
Haiti and other Caribbean countries, Honduras and
Senegal. FGV Projetos is also engaged in ProSAVANA,
a triangular cooperation programme for agricultural
development of the tropical savannah of Mozambique,
conducted as part of an international partnership
between Mozambique, Brazil and Japan. ProSAVANA
aims to transfer Brazilian know-how in agribusiness
by providing technical support to increase agricultural
productivity in the Nacala corridor, located in the north
of Mozambique, thereby contributing to the country’s
food security and the competitiveness of its rural sector.
FGV Projetos has played a key role by developing the
ProSAVANA master plan along with an investment
fund specially designed to attract investments to the
Nacala corridor. In this way, FGV Projetos is helping to
further economic development, social inclusion and
environmental progress in Mozambique.
FGV Projetos, through its unique project approach,
aims to design an agricultural development plan that
contributes to social and economic development by
engaging private and public investment to promote
a sustainable production system and reduce poverty.
The projects have strong capacity-building and
training components, promote new legislation to
drive the uptake of new methods and innovations,
use edaphoclimatic zoning for biofuel production,
develop programmes that regulate investments and
promote productive arrangements, and foster longterm investment strategies. The studies produced
form the basis of other planned projects, such as the
master plan of the Nacala corridor. The Government
of Mozambique has used zoning to guide sustainable
land use.
The FGV Projetos Brazilian model has been reproduced
successfully in participating countries thanks to
technical cooperation protocols with partner
countries to promote the model in regions with similar
climate conditions, strong local partnerships, and an
advantageous agribusiness model that promises longterm cost savings and sustainable benefits.
Beneficiaries and partners include farming communities,
agricultural production facilities, the Governments of
Brazil and Mozambique, the European Community and
the Brazilian mining company Vale S.A. FGV Projetos
focuses on project development, while Governments
such as that of Mozambique provide general support
(logistics, information from previous studies, contact
networks and reviews of project results). The European
Community focuses on a project’s methodology and
the review of final results. The Brazilian mining company
Vale S.A. provides financial support.
FGV Projetos
[email protected]
Project name: FGV Projetos for BioFuels
Countries: Brazil and Mozambique (with experience of 13 other countries in the tropical belt: Argentina, Dominican
Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Liberia, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Senegal,
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 7.a, 12.2
Supported by: Vale S.A.
Implementing entity: FGV Projetos
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1980s to present
URL for the practice: http://fgvprojetos.fgv.br/en/home
Making Biogas Portable:
Renewable Energy Technologies for a
Greener Future
By introducing biogas technologies, Kenya and Rwanda improve
people’s health and livelihoods, especially women’s, and protect
the environment
Access to modern renewable energy services is a key factor in eradicating poverty and
ensuring food security. Today, 2.5 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels (charcoal,
dung, firewood) as their principal source of energy for cooking and heating, and more
than 80 per cent of them (over 1.7 billion) live in either sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast
Asia. The smoke inhaled when burning these fuels during cooking can cause respiratory
diseases and eye infections. Every year, in fact, more than 4.3 million people die from
chronic obstructive respiratory disease due to exposure to indoor air pollution. Replacing
these traditional fuels with renewable sources of energy can significantly change living
conditions in these regions, particularly for women.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2011 and 2015, Kenya and Rwanda collaborated with the International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD) to tackle this challenge by piloting a new generation
of portable biogas systems to promote alternative decentralized sources of energy for
rural communities. The project directly targeted smallholder producers as the chief
beneficiaries. Women were selected because they spend considerable time and effort
collecting firewood at significant distances from home each day. The rationale behind
prioritizing women is that their increased free time can be used, among others things, for
capacity-building, thereby empowering them, reducing the daily labours that cause back
pain and exhaustion, and improving community living standards.
The project piloted a number of biogas technologies in Kenya, one of which in particular
(Flexi Biogas) was endorsed by smallholder farmers. The project then decided to test
and replicate the technology in different national agro-ecological environments and in
another country, Rwanda. Through this process, the project supported cross-country
knowledge and technology transfer via hands-on training and capacity-building
instruments (training of trainers, farmer field schools, demonstration units, farmer-tofarmer site visits). It led to the systematic, cross-country transfer of goods and practices,
although the process was at times slow and bureaucratic.
The methodological approach was based on baseline surveys and progress reports.
Scientific data also corroborated a cross-comparative analysis with similar technologies.
Project success depended on whether farmers would cease to use firewood as their
main source of cooking fuel. The process was highly participatory from design to
implementation. The project partnered with a private company that markets a technology
that smallholder farmers can understand and thus properly operate and maintain with
limited external skilled expertise.
The results were clearly positive once farmers did, in
fact, switch from firewood to a clean source of cooking
fuel. The benefits that accrue from the reduced time
burden of households, and especially women, are still
being documented although there are numerous
examples of how access to energy has qualitative and
quantitative benefits. Results have been gathered in
the past two years with the collaboration and support
of IFAD investment projects in India, Kenya, Rwanda,
and Sao Tome and Principe. The following are the key
benefits recorded: (a) users’ improved health after
years of burning wood in enclosed spaces; (b) higher
incomes; (c) increased food production due to highquality fertilizer (bioslurry); (d) women taking up other
activities thanks to more free time; (e) a better quality of
life, especially for women and children; and (f ) the longterm impact on the environment and the community
as a whole.
The project has brought simple, low-cost, easy-toinstall and portable biogas technologies to smallholder
farmers who were dependent on traditional, inefficient
cooking resources, such as firewood and charcoal.
Biogas is a suitable technology because it is integrated
within farming systems and improves the management
of livestock manure. In addition, the by-product –
organic fertilizer – has a very high nutrient content that
can boost farm production significantly.
The sustainability of the project has yet to be achieved,
however. At present, major challenges include: (a)
poor infrastructure in rural areas; (b) weak institutional
capacities; (c) lack of financial resources for renewable
energy projects; (d) limited technical and managerial
capacity on the ground to sustain proposed innovative
technologies; (e) lack of access to finance (collateral) for
small and medium-size enterprises in the renewable
energy sector; (f ) risk averseness of microfinance
institutions in rural areas; and (g) a need for better
coordination among line ministries to ensure suitable
financing packages.
In Rwanda, the biogas initiative complements the One
Cow per Poor Family Programme very well because
cattle manure can be used as a resource for generating
biogas. The use of biogas is having the following multiple
benefits: (a) labour is saved from the reduced collection
of firewood, leading to a decrease in deforestation and
land degradation; (b) methane emissions are reduced
as a result of better livestock manure management; (c)
soil health is rebuilt through the use of organic fertilizer
(bioslurry), a good alternative to chemical fertilizers;
and (e) dependence on fossil fuels is diminished.
Given the nature of the technology, replication is fairly
straightforward and requires minimal importation. The
main challenge is working with a company that has
intellectual property rights.
The project involved a number of stakeholders. The
beneficiaries and target groups were smallholder farmers
in Kenya and Rwanda. It is important to note that, in the
project design, Rwanda was not included but, given the
potential synergies, the project facilitated this exchange
through its project support units in both countries. The
technology that was piloted involved working with
small and medium-size private-sector enterprises, and
non-governmental and research institutes (in Africa as
well as the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart and the
Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi) for validation of
results. Throughout implementation, the involvement
of government agencies at all levels (village, district,
provincial and central) was of paramount importance,
ensuring that results were institutionalized within the
IFAD results and impact monitoring survey.
Mr. Karan Sehgal, Portfolio Officer, Renewable Energy
Technologies, Environment and Climate Division, IFAD
[email protected]
Project name: Making Biogas Portable: Renewable Energy Technologies for a Greener Future
Countries: Kenya, Rwanda
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 5.b, 7.1, 7.b, 12.2, 12.5
Supported by: Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom
Implementing entity: IFAD
Project status: Completed
Project period: December 2011 to December 2015
URL of the practice: Flexi Biogas Technical Brief: https://www.ifad.org/documents/10180/2b0e6bfe-da33-4c56-99eee2125c188766
Related resources: How to mainstream portable biogas digesters; Video Interview with designer of the technology;
Rwanda: Cooking with Gas: Video with beneficiary farmer; Shamba Shape-up – Biogas episode; Article in Rural 21
(International Journal for Sustainable Development);
Observatory for Renewable Energy
for Latin America and the Caribbean
How regional coordination and integration go a long way in
fostering renewable energy and guaranteeing access to reliable,
low-cost energy
Throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, governments and citizens recognize the
importance of renewable energy sources for their economic, environmental and social
benefits across the board. Reflecting this recognition, many international and regional
organizations actively promote renewable energy from different perspectives in the
Latin America and the Caribbean region. This situation has created the need – while at
the same time offering the opportunity – to set up coordination mechanisms in order
to promote investments in this field throughout the region.1
Towards a Solution
In 2006, the Observatory for Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean
was created as a coordination and integration tool for countries in the region to
face this challenge. The aim is to ensure greater access to modern energy services
and promote renewable energy technologies for productive uses and industrial
applications. The Observatory strengthens the ability of governments to formulate and
implement policies and strategies that promote the production and implementation
of renewable energy technologies as a vehicle of prosperity for those most in need.
It works in partnership with UNIDO, which has developed a series of outputs at the
regional and national levels that focus on capacity-building, policy planning and the
sharing of knowledge and best practices.
The Observatory, in collaboration with UNIDO, utilizes a knowledge platform to offer a
regional network of expertise, technical assistance, best practices, experiences, skills and
knowledge into which countries can tap to tackle their renewable energy challenges.
Using this open source, private and public institutions in different countries continue
to upload information on the platform, including more than 2,000 documents on
renewable energy, financing regulatory frameworks and energy efficiency per country
as well as reports on the state-of-the-art of renewable technologies, renewable energy
baselines and financial scenarios of selected countries.
As part of its work to galvanize regional and global use of renewable energy, the
Observatory provides knowledge from the public and private sectors to mobilize
technical and financial resources. Through a variety of approaches (publishing technical
reports, linking actors, fostering enabling policies, designing a portfolio of projects), it
develops a pipeline of projects and programmes for renewable energy.
Since its beginnings, the Observatory and UNIDO have: (a) set up the main Internet
portal, The Renewable Energy Information and Knowledge Sharing Portal, the Geo1
Referenced Information System for Renewable
Energy, and a mapping system on each country’s
energy balance; (b) developed three technical reports
per country on the state-of-the-art of renewable
technologies, technology baseline reports and
the financial scenarios; (c) published a bimonthly
newsletter; (d) designed projects for each country that
have had a strong impact in rural, isolated communities;
and (e) set up the capacity-building programme
offering cost-free learning in English, Spanish and
Portuguese in seven e-learning modules: energy and
climate change; small wind energy; biogas; small hydro
energy; photovoltaic energy; solar thermal energy; and
energy efficiency in buildings.
The courses have proven to be a novel approach to
technical training in the region since there are limited
middle to high-level courses with online certification
in Portuguese and Spanish. The approach includes
a marketing campaign with the Veduca e-learning
portal and social media, especially Facebook, for
regional users. Since launching in 2014, the courses
have registered 123,333 students, and 171,726 users
have visited the Observatory page, with 4,930,606
visualizations from 131 countries.
The initiative benefits from local participation,
national financing, capacity-building, local and
regional partnerships, resource mobilization and a
communications approach that guarantee its uptake,
assimilation and long-term sustainability. Scaling up
and replication of the projects and programmes are in
fact the main criteria for their selection. The expansion
of the Observatory to the rest of the region is one of its
principle aims, beginning with alliances and additional
The Observatory partners include civil society,
national energy authorities, private- and public-sector
entities, and the Latin America Energy Organization,
which provide technical expertise and knowledge.
The Government of Italy provides funding while
the Government of Spain and the Inter-American
Development Bank provide both funding and technical
Mr. Gustavo Aishemberg Giovannini, UNIDO Office in
[email protected]
Project name: Observatory for Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean
Countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Chile,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Jamaica, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of )
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.a, 7.b, 13.2, 13.3
Supported by: Government of Italy, Government of Spain, Inter-American Development Bank, UNIDO
Implementing entity: UNIDO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2008 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.renenergyobservatory.org
Related resources: Capacity-building programme; Knowledge platform.
Rural Energy Development Programme
Renewable energy means reliable, low-cost power for rural
Globally, some 1.3 billion people still live without electricity and close to 3 billion people
lack modern cooking and heating equipment. It is estimated that 2 million deaths
annually are associated with the indoor burning of solid fuels in unventilated kitchens.
This form of energy is a threat to the environment and the health of the population.
Rural and remote populations in countries such as Nepal are highly dependent on
traditional biofuel for cooking and heating. Despite Nepal’s enormous hydropower
potential, more than 80 per cent of its total energy consumption comes from traditional
biofuels while only 12 per cent comes from commercial energy sources, such as
petroleum and electricity.1
Towards a Solution
Launched in 1996 by UNDP and the Government of Nepal, the Rural Energy
Development Programme has introduced decentralized renewable energy sources to
the most remote populations in Nepal. By building microhydropower and solar heating
(cooking stoves) systems, the programme is effectively providing reliable, low-cost
electricity to rural communities and contributing to decreasing indoor air pollution. Its
decentralized approach not only strengthens local governance but also supports the
development of rural economies and livelihoods.
Initially a small pilot in five districts, the programme is now present in over 75
districts and expanding, providing modern energy services to some 1 million
people in remote rural areas of Nepal. Today, micro- and mini-hydropower plants
generate more than 15 per cent of Nepal’s electricity. These achievements have in
turn created jobs, increased household income, lowered annual household spending
on energy, and created new businesses for each new hydropower station, not to
mention higher school enrolment and better health, water quality and sanitation.
The programme has an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social
development in rural settings. Its partnerships and financing mechanisms are equally
innovative through public-private partnerships and a community-based approach,
further ensuring sustainability and cost-effectiveness and delivering multiplier benefits
for rural populations. The programme process benefits from the strong, long-term
commitment of the Government, which not only provides catalytic public investments
but also enacts policies that further boost the scaling up. Furthermore, the programme
implements capacity development efforts at all levels: national, to create an enabling
environment through policy and strategies; local, to improve energy service delivery;
and community, to empower beneficiaries and promote local governance.
The Rural Energy Development Programme also offers
a global network of expertise and experiences on
which countries can draw to tackle their rural energy
development challenges. It has already informed
several countries in Asia (Afghanistan, Bhutan,
Cambodia, Mongolia, Pakistan and Tajikistan) in various
programmes relating to energy and local service
delivery. Other countries, such as Kenya, Uganda and
the United Republic of Tanzania, have also benefited
from three-month, on-site training by Nepalese microhydropower experts to facilitate the replication of the
To facilitate the programme’s replication, the following
conditions need to be met: (a) strong and long-term
government commitment to scaling up decentralized
energy services; (b) up-front public investments and
the active participation of local communities to ensure
sustainability; (c) a community-based approach in
support of local governance to ensure the long-term
sustainability and feasibility of scaling up rural energy
services; and (d) effective partnerships and synergies
across a wide range of actors to ensure multiplier
development benefits.
Stakeholders include district and village development
communities, private-sector firms, government
organizations, multilateral organizations, the World
Bank, local non-governmental organizations, academia,
international donors (Danish International Development
Agency) and other organizations working in the
renewable energy sector.
Public financing by the Government of Nepal
has proven catalytic in mobilizing resources as
programmes grow, and the Government, via the
Nepal Electricity Authority, has made a commitment
to provide up to 80 per cent of the capital investment
needed for rural electrification construction costs,
while communities are responsible for contributing at
least 20 per cent of the total cost of the grid extension
via labour, household donations and bank loans,
among others. The Government gesture has attracted
long-term commitments from donors and partners,
including DANIDA, the World Bank, UNDP and various
non-governmental organizations, as well as local
governments that contribute financing under subsidy
provisions and capacity-building efforts.
UNDP provided financial and technical assistance
focused on providing energy services (particularly
micro-hydropower systems and improved cooking
stoves) through decentralized, off-grid approaches,
which proved to be particularly efficient in reaching
the poor in remote and rural areas. Owing to the
success of the pilot, the World Bank joined as a
partner, providing financial assistance for expanding
programme activities.
Ms. Anupa Rimal Lamichhane
[email protected]
Project name: Rural Energy Development Programme (REDP)
Countries: Nepal, other countries in Asia (Afghanistan, Bhutan, Cambodia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Tajikistan) and countries in
Africa (Kenya, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 7.1, 7.2, 7.b, 12.2, 13.3
Supported by: Nepal Electricity Authority, Government of Nepal, Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA),
UNDP, World Bank, local banks and communities
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1996 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/ourwork/environmentandenergy/projects_and_
Related resources: Scaling Up Decentralized Energy Services in Nepal; Triple Wins for Sustainable Development (UNDP:
Case Studies).
Solar Lantern Project
Providing off-grid solar light to rural areas in Sierra Leone
Biomass, especially wood and coal, dominates the energy sector in Sierra Leone,
accounting for some 80 per cent of consumption, followed by imported petroleum
products at some 13 per cent. Grid-generated electricity makes up the remainder, or
approximately 7 per cent. Less than 1 per cent of the country’s rural population has
access to electricity. Households almost exclusively use wood fuel, the traditional source
of energy, for cooking and other activities despite significant health and environmental
concerns and failure to provide night-time lighting. People’s health and productivity
are seriously hampered by their dependence on traditional fuels and technologies,
with women and children most at risk.1
Towards a Solution
Since 2012, the Government of Sierra Leone has partnered with the Government of
India and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to tackle
this challenge. The aim is to provide lighting in off-grid rural areas of Sierra Leone
through solar photovoltaic lanterns, thereby improving medical services and children’s
education and empowering women. Through UNIDO, the Energy and Resources
Institute (TERI) based in India, and the company Sunlabob based in the Lao People’s
Democratic Republic, the project provides a network of expertise, know-how and skills
training in solar and renewable energy that is changing the way in which countries
power off-grid communities. India’s expertise and extensive field experience with
solar photovoltaic technologies in rural communities and Sunlabob’s strong technical
support fit well in the Sierra Leonean context.
The fee-for-service/rental model for dissemination of solar lanterns piloted in India in
the early 1990s was adopted in the Sierra Leone village of Kychom, where six charging
stations for 50 solar lanterns each were set up. Each charging station is managed by a
group of individuals who rent the charged lanterns to households. Technical training
on the installation, operation and maintenance of the equipment was provided to local
technicians during and after installation.
The project has had a tangible impact in different areas, such as children’s education
(doubled enrolment and a 60-per cent rise in examination success), job creation (due to
the need for technicians, organizing committees and extended business hours), better
health services (solar energy powering lights at clinics), and women’s socioeconomic
status. Four Sierra Leonean engineers and technicians were trained in India and in turn
trained Kychom residents to undertake the servicing of solar photovoltaic systems and
The use of solar energy to provide light to off-grid
households and communities is the major innovation
of the initiative. It is unique in the sense that Kychom
village had never had easily accessible energy; only
urban residents have access to grid electricity. This
innovation has positively influenced the status quo
by bringing clean electricity to a deprived rural poor
community. It contributes to rural women’s economic
empowerment in particular, within a highly patriarchal
society. For women to be fully involved in all aspects of
the implementation of the project, including technical
training, is extremely encouraging not only for women’s
access to energy but also for the promotion of women’s
economic status and gender equality.
The project has a strong capacity-building and
training component for local technicians, while the
income generated from lantern rentals and mobile
phone charging is used to pay salaries and address
system costs. The Energy and Resource Institute and
Sunlabob have remained in personal contact with
local technicians to ensure continued operation and
maintenance success. The Government of Sierra Leone
realizes the potential of the initiative and intends to
mainstream it in its plans. The Government is planning
to use off-grid solar power services and promote the
creation of markets for solar technologies through the
private sector.
The success of solar lanterns as a viable off-grid
alternative is spreading across Africa thanks to its easyto-use, easily maintained, self-financing character. The
initiative will be rolled out to all rural areas in Sierra
Leone so that remote areas likely off the national grid
will have access to affordable and sustainable energy.
Partners and beneficiaries include isolated, rural
communities and households; the Sierra Leone
Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Energy
and the Ministry of Local Government; the Energy and
Resource Institute (TERI) (India); Sunlabob (Lao People’s
Democratic Republic); and UNIDO. The Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy of India provided equipment
and training through TERI. UNIDO undertook the
implementation of the project and Sunlabob
supplemented the requested technical support while
the government ministries of Sierra Leone continue
to monitor the project for effective operation and
Mr. Rana Pratap Singh
Renewable and Rural Energy Unit/Energy Branch,
[email protected]
Project name: Solar Lantern Project
Countries: India, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Sierra Leone
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 5.b, 7.1
Supported by: Government of India
Implementing entity: UNIDO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2012 to present
Related resources: TERI Facebook; TERI Twitter; TERI YouTube; Sunlabob Facebook; Sunlabob Twitter; Sunlabob YouTube;
Makingit Magazine.
Initiative to Combat Child Labour
in Brazil, Bolivia (Plurinational State of),
Ecuador and Paraguay
By sharing experiences, expertise and networks, countries in
Latin America use monitoring systems, legislation and training to
reduce child labour
While child labour has declined substantially in Latin America and the Caribbean in
recent years, there are still 5.7 million working girls and boys under the minimum age for
employment or engaged in work that must be abolished, according to the International
Labour Organization (ILO) Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. The majority of these
children work in agriculture but there are also many thousands of girls and boys in other
high-risk areas such as mining, dumpsites, domestic labour, fireworks manufacturing and
fishing. Support to defining and mapping hazardous labour, developing child labour
monitoring systems and involving social partners in the response are regional priorities
of the ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2010 and 2012, the ILO Initiative to Combat Child Labour in Brazil, Bolivia
(Plurinational State of ), Ecuador and Paraguay proved effective in increasing the
operational capacity of the labour inspectorate and in strengthening and scaling up
the impact of the initiatives undertaken in each country to combat child labour. Specific
results achieved include the setting up of training programmes for labour inspectors in
Paraguay and the Plurinational State of Bolivia.
The initiative promoted the horizontal exchange of knowledge between Brazil, Ecuador,
Paraguay and the Plurinational State of Bolivia through high-level visits and training
activities. It was supported by a South-South cooperation project financed by Brazil, in
close collaboration with a horizontal cooperation project funded by the United States
Department of Labor. The ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour
played a key role in facilitating the exchange of knowledge and providing technical
assistance. The coordination between these two projects was the first experience of
triangular cooperation implemented by ILO. Its positive results have generated new
formal agreements of triangular technical cooperation among ILO, Brazil and the United
States for the benefit of Haiti and Portuguese-speaking African countries.
Owing to its tripartite structure, the ILO South-South methodology entails the
participation of workers’ and employers’ organizations together with government entities.
The approach also considers Southern demand for cooperation, capacity and innovation
as a guide along with horizontality, mutual benefit and reciprocity. In this specific action,
the main methodology used consisted of joint technical visits. They were organized to
have three components: (a) a technical presentation of the selected good practices;
(b) field visits to know how the practices really worked; and (c) discussion per country
on how the practices would be adapted in beneficiary countries. The methodology
prioritized exchange visits that involved more than two
countries, considering that sharing of experiences at the
same time enriches the process.
The projects went through mid-term and final
evaluations in which several stakeholders in each of the
countries involved were interviewed and had the chance
to validate the exchanged practices through SouthSouth cooperation. Moreover, several public policies
were developed in beneficiary countries, inspired
during exchanged practices, which demonstrated
their effectiveness and validity. The following are some
In the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the Ministry of
Labour developed and put into operation a child
labour monitoring and surveillance system based
on information technology. In Ecuador, the Ministry
of Labour Relations developed a unified child labour
registry, based on information technology, for use by
all ministries that were part of the Inter-Institutional
Committee for the Elimination of Child Labour. The
Ministry of Labour Relations developed an online
platform for self-training of labour inspectors on child
labour. In Paraguay, the Ministry of Justice and Labour
established institutional and inter-institutional guidelines
on child labour and started a training programme
for inspectors on the subject. The exchange visits
demonstrated that developing countries could learn
much by sharing their experiences and that ILO could
play an effective role in facilitating the development of
successful South-South cooperation.
The Initiative to Combat Child Labour in Brazil, Bolivia
(Plurinational State of ), Ecuador and Paraguay has
ensured that the elimination of child labour has been
mainstreamed throughout the labour inspectorate
system, such as in the Plurinational State of Bolivia with
the Monitoring System of Child Labour. It has resulted
in concrete resolutions, agreements, campaigns and
studies that provide the basis for future activities
regarding the elimination of child labour. Finally,
initiatives such as Ecuador’s National Report on
Elimination of Child Labour in Garbage Dumps and a
Protocol for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour
in Garbage Dumps serve as inspiration and a tool for
other countries to adapt to their national context.
In order to be sustainable, the strategy had to involve
national institutions in all phases of the project:
formulation, implementation and evaluation. In this
sense, ownership was generated and ensured the
implementation of national public policies that have
remained after the finalization of the international
cooperation projects. Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and the
Plurinational State of Bolivia have integrated the initial
group of countries that, in the spirit of South-South
cooperation, promoted the creation of the regional
initiative Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child
Labour in the context of the Third Conference on Child
Labour held in Brazil in 2013. ILO was designated as the
technical secretariat of the initiative. Seed funds, political
will and a bottom-up approach based on grass-roots
mobilization are crucial for replication. Public policies
must also adopt a holistic model for combating child
labour through a life-long approach and through
integrated strategies that include social protection
Financing by both the Brazilian Cooperation Agency
and the United States Department of Labor allowed
resources to be combined for joint implementation
and a much more consistent triangular South-South
cooperation strategy. The ministries of labour and the
employers’ and workers’ representatives of Ecuador,
Paraguay and the Plurinational State of Bolivia actively
participated throughout the process of the joint visits.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
International Programme on the Elimination of Child
Labour (IPEC)
[email protected]
Project name: Initiative to Combat Child Labour in Brazil, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Ecuador and Paraguay
Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Plurinational State of Bolivia
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.3, 8.7
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency, United States Department of Labor
Implementing entity: ILO
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2010-2012
URL of the practice: http://www.ilo.org/pardev/partnerships/south-south/WCMS_211770/lang--en/index.htm
Latin America and the Caribbean
Free of Child Labour Regional Initiative
Making Latin America and the Caribbean free of child labour by
In the last 20 years, the Latin America and the Caribbean region has experienced a long
cycle of economic growth and a positive transformation in its efforts to end child labour.
The latest ILO global estimates on child labour, however, indicate that the region has 12.5
million children and adolescents in child labour (or 8.6 per cent of the global share), of
whom 9.5 million are involved in hazardous work. These indicators also show the present
challenge of stagnation: between 2008 and 2011, the incidence of child labour in the
region remained almost unchanged, with 8.2 per cent of children in child labour.1
Towards a Solution
In 2013, the Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labour Regional Initiative
was created by regional ministers of labour in partnership with ILO. The Initiative aims to
channel and scale up public and private efforts to accelerate the pace of reduction of child
labour and ultimately eliminate it. It consists of a targeted response, aimed at bringing
about the first child-labour-free generation in Latin America and the Caribbean based on
a combination of two different types of interventions: preventive for children born from
2010 onwards, in order to break the trajectory towards child labour, and withdrawal of all
children in child labour below the legal age of employment and in hazardous and other
work that is also among the worst forms of child labour.
Countries and stakeholders in the region own the Initiative, which operates through
a network of focal points that represents governments and employer and worker
associations of the 26 member countries. It also includes a technical secretariat headed
by the ILO Regional Office, which is responsible for implementation and monitoring. Both
bodies report to a high-level group comprised of the region’s ministers of labour. Because
member countries exercise leadership of the Initiative, with ILO as technical secretariat,
members of the focal point network have validated every phase of the process. Since
2013, the network has expanded from 12 to 26 member countries.
In order to facilitate the exchange of good practices, the virtual platform of the Initiative
includes a specific tool that maps South-South cooperation capacities of each country:
http://www.oit.org.br/acelerar/. It is designed specifically to enhance South-South
cooperation in priority areas such as education, indigenous communities, agriculture,
youth employment, value chains, decentralization, migration, and information
technologies, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of reduction of child labour
and in which the countries of the region have accumulated capacity and good practices.
In its first phase (2013-2015), the Initiative acted as a catalyst, organizing and systematizing
high-quality information, based on collective consultations with the 26 members, that
previously had not been shared among countries. This process has resulted in fluid,
continuous communication channels among countries.
Based on this, the countries have prioritized exchanges,
for example between Costa Rica and Ecuador, which has
resulted in the creation of a business network against
child labour in Costa Rica based on the Ecuadorian model.
Others have been identified as national priority areas
such as agriculture, decentralization, youth employment,
value chains, new technologies and indigenous peoples.
The innovative feature of this instrument, in line with
aid effectiveness and sustainability principles, is that
leadership emanates from countries, especially the
ministers of labour of the 25 regional members. In
addition, the operational part hinges on the focal points
network, which includes eight regional representatives
of employer and worker organizations, demonstrating
the level of ownership of the response.
South-South cooperation plays an important role in
the sustainability of the Initiative because: (a) it is more
cost-effective for countries to replicate a successful and
validated model; (b) it builds on a well-documented,
systematized database of good practices created
through a consultative process; (c) the strategy for
exchange is based on high-quality information; (d) the
initiative focuses on strengthening of the capacities
of the focal points network as a means to bolster and
accelerate the response of national stakeholders to
combat child labour; (e) the interventions proposed are
based on the strengthening of existing programmes
and policies and the coordination between them in
order to ensure an effective, timely and cost-efficient
approach to child-labour prevention and eradication;
and (f ) the focal points who are representatives from
the responsible institutions and worker and employer
organizations exercise leadership of the Initiative.
The Initiative provides an excellent platform for scaling
up South-South and triangular cooperation projects
among member countries and other regions and has
the potential for replication in other regions of the world.
The conditions for replication include the following:
• A conducive and strong institutional environment
exists at the national level;
• Child-labour prevention and eradication are a priority
in the national and regional policy agendas and legal
• Member countries have a driving force that jumpstarts the Initiative and attracts others;
• Member countries agree on a framework document
containing action guidelines that can be adapted
during the process; and
• Sufficient information technology is in place that
allows for fluid, continuous communication among
Key partners are the ministries of social development,
ministries of education, ministries of economy and
finance, and national development cooperation
agencies. The Initiative and its technical secretariat closely
coordinate with other United Nations organizations
through the Regional Inter-agency Group on Child
Labour, which is led by ILO and includes UNDP, UNICEF,
Technical Secretariat of the Regional Initiative, ILO
Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
[email protected]
Project name: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labour Regional Initiative
Countries: Argentina, Bahamas, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,
Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of )
Sustainable Development Goal target: 8.7
Supported by: Spanish Agency for Development Cooperation, Junta de Andalucía/Agencia Andaluza de Cooperación
Internacional para el Desarrollo, Brazilian Cooperation Agency, ILO
Implementing entity: ILO in its capacity as technical secretariat
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2013 to present
URL of the practice: www.iniciativa2025alc.org
Related resources: The virtual platform will be officially launched in June 2016
www.iniciativa2025alc.org; Facebook; Twitter; Youtube;
Framework document: Spanish; English; French; Portuguese
General briefing note: Spanish; English; French
Brochure: Spanish; English
Banking deposit services empower low-income rural people
While the global outreach of microfinance has grown over the past 30 years, an estimated
2.7 billion people around the world do not use formal financial services. About 56 per
cent of adults worldwide remain unbanked. While access to financial services, particularly
deposit services, underpins the ability of low-income people to achieve sustainable
progress on their own terms, enhance their capacities to weather shocks, smooth income
streams and save for the future, providing these services on a profitable basis to lowincome rural people remains a major challenge for most financial service providers.1
Towards a Solution
The global initiative MicroLead was created in 2008 by the United Nations Capital
Development Fund (UNDCF) in partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in
order to support regulated financial service providers to develop and roll out financial
services, particularly deposit services. It has since been giving the underserved rural poor
in developing countries in Africa and Asia access to and use of financial services, most
notably deposit services, improving the access of low-income people and small firms to
savings and a broader range of financial services for more inclusive economic growth.
The initiative conducts market research, new product and channel development, pilots
and scaling in order to help financial service providers to reach target populations. Annual
partner meetings, quarterly webinars and semi-annual newsletters are used to build a
community of practice and share lessons across projects and programmes. Exchange
visits and sponsorships of training and conferences also contribute to horizontal learning.
The MicroLead approach includes steps to: (a) offer grants and loans that incentivize
financial service providers to start up new or strengthen existing financial institutions that
target underserved low-income people with savings, particularly in countries struggling
to recover from crisis and conflict; (b) select home-grown microfinance providers to
expand their reach by taking a variety of approaches, transform microfinance institutions
into regulated deposit-taking institutions, and provide technical assistance to in-country
financial institutions; (c) support technical advisers who help providers to develop
institutional capacity to extend their reach; and (d) hold annual partner workshops,
exchange visits, sponsorship of training and conferences and generate webinars and
In phase I, MicroLead worked with Southern-based microfinance market leaders to enter
new underserved markets, with a focus on deposit services. In the current phase (II), it
works with a wide range of financial service providers (banks, microfinance institutions,
cooperatives) to support the development, piloting and scaling up of deposit services
and alternative delivery channels for the rural low-income population, with a focus on
women. Deposit services enable poor people to manage their risks and help to prevent
them from falling back into poverty as a result of shocks and unplanned occurrences.
The funding awarded in 21 countries for 30 projects
(working with 40 financial service providers) and
totaling $44.5 million has enabled partners to
reinforce their deposit offerings, reach previously
untapped rural markets, and build the capacity of
financial institutions to pilot and roll out sustainable
financial services. This is especially true for savings,
which will lead to over 2 million additional active smallbalance depositors by the end of 2016, most of whom
are women and rural dwellers. A mid-term evaluation
has revealed high satisfaction regarding products
developed under MicroLead, with women having more
uptake than men. For example, NBS Bank in Malawi
embarked upon a proprietary agent network that now
counts over 235 agents nationwide, facilitating access
to its innovative branchless Pafupi (meaning “close to
you”) savings product. The consolidation of Umurenge
savings and credit cooperatives (U-SACCOs) in Rwanda,
supported by MicroLead in partnership with the World
Council of Credit Unions, has strengthened existing
U-SACCOs, which are key to the stellar progress of
Rwanda in financial inclusion, targeting both individuals
and savings groups.
MicroLead also supported the transformation of Sinapi
Aba Trust from a credit-only institution to a full-fledged
deposit-taking savings and loan organization. The
depositor base grew from 70,000 (mainly borrowers) to
over 200,000 active depositors and the loan-to-deposit
ratio of the organization stands above 82 per cent from a
baseline of 5 per cent. Sinapi Aba Trust has deployed 156
mobile agents equipped with point-of-sale devices that
now handle 10 per cent of total transactions.
In Burkina Faso, MicroLead supports FCPB (the largest
credit union network in West Africa) and SOFIPE
(a medium-sized microfinance institution that is a
subsidiary of EcoBank) in a savings group linkage
project. The project, started in 2014, tests several
innovations, such as (a) the financial-service-provider
approach to savings group linkage; (b) the reliance
on mobile network agents for savings linkage; and (c)
mobile-phone-supported financial education modules
customized to meet specificities of rural women.
Use of digital financial services, doorstep delivery and
linking savings groups are the three major innovations
of the initiative. Examples include branchless savings
accounts for low-income clients; savings products
targeted at savings groups looking to link to financial
institutions; alternative delivery channels that include
cell-phone banking; Netbooks with loan officers and
mobile bankers equipped with point-of-sale devices
to encourage savings uptake; daily deposit collection
for customers (mainly women); and linkage of savings
groups to formal deposit accounts.
MicroLead builds national capacity of financial service
institutions to guarantee long-term sustainability. For
example, in Malawi, NBS Bank is the only bank that has
rolled out a proprietary agent network to reach deep into
rural areas; other banks are now interested in roll-out. In
Ghana, MicroLead worked with an international nongovernmental organization and a bank to link informal
savings groups to the bank. In Liberia, MicroLead was
instrumental in drafting new credit union regulations.
MicroLead partners include microfinance market
leaders, financial service providers (banks, microfinance
institutions, cooperatives), rural low-income populations,
government counterparts, CARE International,
Freedom from Hunger, the World Council of Credit
Unions (WOCCU), Women’s World Banking (WWB),
MEDA, BASIX, OI, national microfinance associations,
community-based organizations, low-income and rural
communities, and women.
Ms. Pamela Eser, MicroLead Programme Manager, UNCDF
[email protected]
Project name: MicroLead
Countries: Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia,
Ghana, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Liberia, Malawi, Myanmar, Rwanda, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Solomon
Islands, South Sudan, Timor-Leste, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 8.3, 8.10
Supported by: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The MasterCard Foundation, LIFT Myanmar, UNCDF
Implementing entity: UNCDF
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2008-2017
URL of the practice: http://www.uncdf.org/en/microlead
Related resources: MicroLead brochure.
Songhai Centres
A place where young farmers become the actors and managers
of their own future
Africa’s population is forecast to double by 2050. Meanwhile, the continent’s average
cereal yields have shown little improvement since the 1960s in contrast to steep rises
in productivity throughout much of Asia. Over the same period, Africa has moved
from being a net exporter to importing a quarter of its food. Rapid population growth,
poor infrastructure and persistent underinvestment have negated the benefits of new
technology, improved seed varieties and increased international trade in food. Tapping
into Africa’s potential for self-sufficiency, building on its inherent strengths, demands a
different approach.1
Towards a Solution
Songhai Centre in Benin was created in 1985 by Catholic priest Brother Godfrey Nzamujo
to address this challenge at the local level. Its mission is to develop sustainable agroecological methods and techniques and train a critical mass of young people equipped
with the technical and organizational capacities to produce efficiently and in a
sustainable manner. The integrated system provides a natural value-chain platform for
the participants.
The Songhai model is changing the way in which rural communities in many African
countries share ideas and experiences, transfer technologies and train new generations
in building sustainable farming practices at the grass-roots level. It is an integrated
system of development, creating and building “green rural cities” designed to tackle
the triple challenge of environment, sustainable food production/poverty and youth
unemployment, and reversing rural exodus. The technologies used are developed
through cooperation with China, Thailand and Viet Nam and many African universities
and institutions.
© Songhai Centre
Songhai offers a unique integrated development system. It is not simply the usual
training, technology transfer or production model. It is an innovative institution that has
four components:
(a) It is a technology park, where new ideas and techniques are developed and
contextualized, and as such, it is a knowledge enterprise through cooperation with
other institutions and countries (in China, Thailand and Viet Nam as well as in Africa)
where sustainable technologies are developed and contextualized;
(b) It is an industrial park and production centre, where techniques and ideas are turned
into enterprises and into different types of production activities in an integrated
(c) It is an incubation/training/human resource development centre, a mother firm/farm,
an effective incubation space where new competences are developed. At Songhai,
trainees are equipped with new techniques and methods developed at the centres
(technology parks) to enable them to become
more productive and efficient. By participating in
production activities, the trainees, facilitated by
mentors who are practitioners themselves, develop
organizational and managerial competences to
enable them to become functional individuals and
entrepreneurs; and
(d) It is a service centre. After training, the job is far from
over. Trainees need to be leveraged with services
such as marketing, input procurement, hospitality
services, and networking, financial/loan and advisory
services to enable them to stand on their own and
create synergy and cooperation among themselves.
Since the beginning of the project, the Centre has trained
over 2,000 young people in sustainable and organic
farming, value-chain practices and business-creation
skills. About 1,200 of these young farmers have gone
on their own to create different centres and facilitate the
creation of sustainable farms in their regions. As a result,
thousands of local farmers are now able to establish their
own Songhai communities, generating employment
and increasing agro-production and their own incomes.
The Songhai aim is to build a critical mass of catalysts.
Songhai service centres and networks also provide new
seeds, new technologies and market opportunities for
Songhai offers a holistic model that builds on the
interrelationship between environment, agriculture,
technology, services and industry and includes skills
development. It encourages the use of local resources,
the combination of traditional and modern practices,
technology adaptation and diversification of activities.
As such, it promotes zero waste and total productivity
through bio and agro-ecological practices. The model
therefore offers rural communities the opportunity
to use and manage their resources sustainably while
promoting local economic development.
The sustainability elements of the Songhai model are as
follows: (a) use of sustainable and authentic technologies,
causing the centre’s productivity to increase every
year; (b) an environment that is not only protected
but enhanced; (c) products that are of high value (for
healthy living, healthy ageing and disease prevention),
in greater demand and fetch higher prices; (d) training
of functional individuals who become productive and
efficient entrepreneurs; (e) a production and service
centre designed to facilitate a value-chain platform
(primary production, value addition through processing,
marketing and an input sourcing mechanism within its
network); and (f ) a design that enables it to become selfsustaining within three to four years after inception.
The Songhai model is being replicated in 15 African
countries, building on its growing numbers of
incubated entrepreneurs who reinvest in their
communities to create new opportunities. The model
is easy to replicate as long as there is adequate support
through linkages and networking among participants.
Partners and beneficiaries include local farmers, women
and youth, national and local governments, universities
and research institutions, the French Development
Agency, Eliminate Poverty NOW, FAO, IFAD, ILO, OxfamQuebec, the Songhai Women’s Capital Fund, UNDP and
Songhai Centres
[email protected]
Project name: Songhai Centres
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia,
Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Thailand, Togo, Viet Nam
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 2.3, 2.4, 8.3, 12.2, 15.9
Supported by: Governments, private sector, Eliminate Poverty NOW, French Development Agency, FAO, IFAD,
ILO, Songhai Women’s Capital Fund, UNDP, USAID
Implementing entity: Songhai Centre
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1985 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.songhai.org/index.php/en/home-en
Related resources: Songhai Centre brochure.
Egyptian Traceability Centre for
Agro-industrial Exports
Egypt’s centre helps countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America
to ensure that their food products are safe, traceable and exportready
Egypt has long been an important producer and exporter of various crops to Europe,
North Africa and the Middle East. Today, its agro-industrial sector accounts for 20 per
cent of the country’s exports, most of which are to the European Union. Because Egypt
benefits from different harvest periods, its farmers can offer a wide range of produce
without competing with European Union farmers. However, Egypt’s lack of traceability
compliance and quality control systems meant that its exporters faced trade barriers
resulting from regulations on food safety and circulation.1
Towards a Solution
In 2004, at the request of the Government of Egypt, UNIDO established the Egyptian
Traceability Centre for Agro-Industrial Exports, known as ETRACE and funded through
the Italian-Egyptian Debt-for-Development Swap programme. The Centre’s aim is to
make Egyptian agro-industrial exports safer for consumers, more competitive and
compliant with stringent global market standards and regulations. The Centre was
further merged with the Food Technology Centre and renamed the Agriculture and
Agro-Industries Technology Centre (ATM); it is part of the network of technology
centres under the Ministry of Industry and Trade.
Since its establishment, ATM/ETRACE has developed a reputation as a domestic and
South-South centre of excellence on traceability, food safety and quality enhancement
and supplier development. In more than 15 countries, the project has supported
national stakeholders on traceability, food safety and agro-industrial value chains and
in guiding farmers, food producers and packinghouses to meet international foodquality, safety and traceability standards. This has resulted in greater assurance that
products are safe for consumers in both domestic and international markets and do not
encounter barriers to trade. By introducing automated traceability systems, ATM/
ETRACE has helped more than 45,000 farmers to reduce the use of chemicals
and to acquire certification for their exports.
The concept has been adapted in partner countries in order to fit a particular subsector
and cultural requirements. Moreover, the project has addressed key pro-poor
development issues by fostering the participation of small-scale growers and suppliers
in formal supply chains in a phased approach by partnering with global retailers such
as METRO/MAKRO and the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI).
Its services have reached China, Costa Rica, the Philippines, the Republic of Moldova,
South Africa and many Arab countries. The project has been institutionalized in
national agro-industries and food technology centres affiliated with the Egyptian
Ministry of Trade and Industry. These interventions
have transformed the way in which countries
approach their agro-industrial production and exports.
The Philippines, for example, has replicated the whole
model as “P-Trace” within the framework of a European
Union project.
ATM/ETRACE has a strong capacity-building and
technical assistance approach in applying traceability
systems and upgrading technology and management
systems, thereby enhancing productivity, increasing
quality and safety, and reducing post-harvest losses.
South-South activities include training and capacitybuilding programmes in partner countries supported
by e-learning and remote assistance as well as the
organization of study tours and technical missions
to various stakeholders in Egypt. In addition, specific
comprehensive cooperation programmes have
resulted in the full replication of the model in the
Philippines (P-Trace) and in a partnership with the
Union of Maghreb Agronomists conducting traceability
assessments in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia (MAGTrace).
The project’s strong capacity development and
experts’ training components (including training
of trainers) also ensure the long-term viability of
the ETRACE approach in implementing traceability
schemes. In Egypt, the project has been transformed
into a national centre affiliated with the Ministry of
Trade and Industry. In addition to its full replication in
the Philippines (P-Trace), the ETRACE model has been
picked up elsewhere in many countries. This includes
its replication in the olive oil and apples subsector in
Lebanon, led by non-governmental organizations
and business associations; for the table grapes sector
in the Republic of Moldova; and for capacity-building
in many other countries, such as Algeria, China, Costa
Rica, Ecuador, Ghana, Morocco and Tunisia. The main
critical factors in shifting from awareness and capacitybuilding to full implementation are national will and
availability of funds.
Partners include farmers, food producers, farming
communities, national agro-industrial companies,
packinghouses, the Egyptian Ministry of Trade and
Industry, Italian Development Cooperation and UNIDO.
Regional partners include ministries of trade, industry
and agriculture; non-governmental organizations;
and retail chains. Italian Development Cooperation,
the MDG Fund (Spain), the Netherlands, the Swiss
Development Agency, UNIDO and the METRO Group
have provided financial support.
Mr. Gerardo Patacconi
[email protected]
Mr. Arabi Fadl
[email protected] or [email protected]
General information:
[email protected]
Project name: Egyptian Traceability Centre for Agro-industrial Exports (ETRACE)
Countries: Egypt (with services reached China, Costa Rica, Philippines, Republic of Moldova, South Africa and many
countries in the Arab States region)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 8.a, 9.3, 9.4, 12.2
Supported by: Italian Development Cooperation (originally through the Italian-Egyptian Debt-for-Development Swap
Programme), MDG Fund (Spain), Netherlands, Swiss Development Agency, UNIDO, METRO Group
Implementing entities: Italian Development Cooperation, UNIDO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2004 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.etrace-eg.org/
Related resources: Trace Me Back (UNIDO pamphlet).
Electron Beam Applications for Value
Addition to Food and Industrial Products
and Degradation of Environmental
Pollutants in the Asia-Pacific Region
Nuclear technologies to ensure safe food and industrial products
and removal of environmental pollutants
Increasingly, unsustainable practices are placing pressure on natural resources to meet
the needs of a rapidly growing global population, resulting in, among other things, soil,
water and air pollution, and deforestation. Respiratory diseases and digestive disorders,
associated with air and water pollution, drive medical costs skyward. Now more than
ever, the demand for healthy food, clean water and fresh air are unprecedentedly high,
especially in the heavily populated Asia and the Pacific region.1
Towards a Solution
To address this situation, the Republic of Korea Facility for Capacity Development
through South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Education, Science and Technology,
in collaboration with the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development
and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific,
implemented a project entitled, “Electron Beam Applications for Value Addition to Food
and Industrial Products and Degradation of Environmental Pollutants in the Asia-Pacific
Region”. This project focused on promoting the use of nuclear technologies (electron
beam accelerators) in (a) providing safe, wholesome and nutritious food through
food irradiation; (b) advancing industrial production through irradiation of electric
cables and automobile tires to make them more durable; (c) treating environmental
pollutants from wastewater discharged from the textile industry, urban household
wastewater, and chemicals in underground water; and (d) removing air pollutants.
The technologies are proven to be especially useful in decomposing, separating or
removing toxic elements from chemical waste, wastewater, sewage sludge, and air
pollutants from power plants.
The project followed a two-step strategy. The first step was to train the national project
coordinators and other participants to use the technologies. In the second step, the
training recipients became trainers and advocators for the use of the technologies in
their own countries.
Results of the project include:
• At the regional level, 70 participants from 13 countries were trained through regional
training courses;
• At the national level, 16 countries reported that the knowledge and skills had been
passed to 3,447 trainees (1,510 female and 1,937 male);
• N
ew facilities were established in China, India and the Philippines;
• A
pilot plant for wastewater treatment using electron
beam technology was installed in China;
• Irradiation research on honey dressings in a new
facility in the Philippines produced honey alginate
dressings for use in treating burned patients at the
Philippine General Hospital;
• Indonesian research on electron beam irradiation
of edible mushrooms and palm oil proved that the
technology can improve the quality of mushrooms
and produce palm oil at a more competitive price;
• Countries without electron beam technology,
such as Myanmar and Pakistan, have promoted
the technology at the policy level. During the final
review meeting, countries without the technology
indicated a strong demand for triangular and SouthSouth capacity development; and
• Indonesia has provided irradiated food for
populations affected by disasters, landslides,
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
The project was selected for scaling up in phase 2
of the Facility (July 2016-June 2020). The Facility will
continue to provide training and facilitate knowledge
exchanges as more and more countries in the region
are interested in learning to use electron beam
technology to ensure safe food and industrial products
and remove environmental pollutants.
The Republic of Korea attributes its unprecedented
jump from an impoverished country to a developed
one in the space of a few decades to investments
made in education, science and technology. To
share its successful experience, the Facility for
Capacity Development through South-South and
Triangular Cooperation in Education, Science
and Technology was established by the United
Nations Office for South-South Cooperation and
the Republic of Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and
Future Planning in December 2010. Under this
Facility, several institutions in education, science
and technology package and share development
knowledge and experience with partner
institutions globally. Since 2011, the Facility has
implemented 15 projects. The Facility beneficiaries
include institutions and people in 30 countries in
Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America.
Mr. Denis Nkala, Regional Coordinator, Asia-Pacific,
United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
[email protected]
Project name: Electron Beam Applications for Value Addition to Food and Industrial Products and Degradation of
Environmental Pollutants in the Asia-Pacific Region
Countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, Viet Nam
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 6.3, 9.a, 9.5, 12.4
Supported by: Republic of Korea; Regional Office of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development
and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific
Implementing entity: Regional Cooperative Agreement Regional Office
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2013 to 2015
URL of the practice: http://www.rcaro.org/rca
Pan-African e-Network Project
African countries build on India’s experience and expertise
to harness the power of information and communications
technology for better health care and education
Providing citizens with suitable education facilities and ensuring access to affordable
health care are two major concerns of developing countries in Africa. Often, however,
the countries lack the infrastructure that their governments need to provide these
services to citizens, especially in remote areas. Recent advances in the provision of
health care and medical education through the use of information and communications
technology (ICT) offer countries viable alternatives. ICT enables them to deliver
education and health care from resourceful urban areas and developed countries to
inaccessible remote and rural areas, providing quality services in a timely and costeffective manner.1
Towards a Solution
Since 2009, the Pan-African e-Network Project, an initiative sponsored by the
Government of India, has been working with countries in Africa to adopt a solution
suitable to their context. The project does this by harnessing ICT (via satellite and fibreoptic networks) to promote instant access to and sharing of experiences from India
with African countries for education (tele-education) and health care (telemedicine) as
well as for resource mapping, meteorology, e-governance and e-commerce. It is one
of the largest e-health and e-education initiatives geographically and has the potential
to reach a large population spread over 54 African countries.
The Pan-African e-Network Project offers an established global and regional network of
expertise and tried and tested models and approaches that countries can access with
the support of the Government of India and the sponsor company, Telecommunications
Consultants India Limited (TCIL). It is a flagship project of the Government to promote
good practices and knowledge transfer to Africa for the mutual benefit of all participating
countries in order to overcome national development challenges in the delivery of
health care and education, which are difficult for any country to tackle singlehandedly.
By harnessing the power of ICT and broadband and satellite technology, the project
allows medical and educational professionals immediate access to innovative systems,
knowledge and information to treat patients and to train and educate students,
especially in least developed countries. The project provides expert consultations and
knowledge of best practices in health care to doctors and nurses in remote areas and
aims to benefit 10,000 students over a five-year period in certificate, graduate and
post-graduate courses delivered under the tele-education programme.
The project is implemented in phases and currently includes 48 member countries
of the African Union Commission. Each country has one Learning Centre and one
Patient End Location equipped with the latest ICT facilities for delivery of telemedicine
and tele-education services. In addition, five regional
university centres and five regional super specialty
hospitals in participating countries are fully equipped
to deliver lectures and educational programmes to all
48 African countries.
During implementation, TCIL organizes training
programmes for African countries to familiarize their
Telecom, ICT and paramedical staff with the equipment
and networks that they will operate on a daily basis.
Their training covers concepts, systems, architecture
and operating procedures. The project also covers
continuing education in medicine for practicing
doctors and nurses in order to update and enhance
their knowledge and skills. TCIL officials present in the
participating countries train local manpower for regular
operation and maintenance of the system. It is also
possible to expand this network by adding appropriate
systems and bandwidth to connect with government,
businesses, merchants and banking systems in order to
provide e-governance, e-commerce and infotainment
services to people in African countries.
The phased implementation process supported
through capacity-building and technical assistance
facilitates the project take-up in interested countries.
Based on network implementation experience in
participating countries, major factors that facilitate
replication include infrastructure availability, accessibility,
availability of skilled manpower, connectivity, financial
leverage and policy initiatives by local government to
create awareness about the objectives of the network.
Over 19,268 students have registered for the
educational programmes since 2008, and
approximately 700 online medical consultations
have taken place among doctors from various
countries. Over 5,643 continuing medical education
sessions have been conducted in different medical
disciplines, 645 of them in French, for health-care
institutions in participating countries. Accredited
educational programmes delivered by universities in
India have helped students of participating countries
to gain new skills and knowledge and enhance their
Pan-African e-Network Project stakeholders and their
roles include:
• Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India,
client/sponsor: approvals for funds and their
• African Union Commission: coordinating and
guiding authority for African countries;
• Member countries of the African Union Commission:
supervision and monitoring of project deliverables;
• Participating university centres in India: preparation
and delivery of e-content and educational
• Participating super specialty hospitals in India:
provision of telemedicine services through online
and offline consultations and CME programmes;
• Telecommunications Consultants India Limited
(TCIL), implementing agency: project execution,
operation and maintenance, and maintenance of
services delivery.
Mr. E. M. Venkatesh, General Manager, Pan-African
e-Network Project, Telecommunications Consultants
India Limited
[email protected]
Project name: Pan-African e-Network Project
Countries: India, African Union member States
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.8, 3.b, 3.d, 4.3, 4.a, 9.1, 9.a. 9.c
Supported by: Government of India
Implementing entity: Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL)
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2009 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.panafricanenetwork.com
Related resources: Wikipedia site on the Pan-African e-Network Project; TCIL Website India-Africa Connect Pan African
e-Network Project; Impacting Lives in Africa EAM inaugurates Government of India’s Pan-African e-Network Projec.
Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre
Viet Nam pioneers efficient, clean production through science
and technology that boosts exports and improves livelihoods
Viet Nam has enjoyed rapid economic growth regularly exceeding 6 per cent in recent
years. This growth, however, has been based on a limited number of sectors and on
export products with low local added value. In order for its growth to continue, Viet
Nam has had to increase – in a sustainable way – the local added value of the goods
and services that its produces. Goods exported to Europe need to meet environmental
and social standards in addition to quality and price. An efficient way to address these
issues is via sustainable product design and the promotion of resource-efficient and
cleaner production methods. 1
Towards a Solution
The Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre has been a pioneer in tackling this challenge
since 1998. The aim of the Centre is to promote clean, renewable industrial production
and consumption by offering clients cutting-edge scientific and technological
approaches and services. Since its establishment, the Centre has played a catalytic role
nationally in improving the environmental performance of industry through its cleaner
production services. These include in-plant assessments, training and policy advice
that contribute to the promotion and dissemination of cleaner production. Through
UNIDO and its partners, the Centre offers a network of expertise, skills, training
and experiences extending across 50 countries that clients can use when
adopting a sustainable approach to industry, production and consumption. The
types of industries and production technologies used in Southeast Asia are very similar
and the Centre’s practical experiences are a major advantage in disseminating and
applying the methodology throughout the region.
The Centre begins by helping companies, especially small and medium-size enterprises,
to assess and identify how their production affects the environment and their economic
performance. In turn, it works with the client to find potentially more efficient solutions
and options for implementation that are also attractive financially and have long-term
economic benefits. The Centre also functions as a research and reference institution
for the dissemination of best practices and learning. It is currently expanding its client
base, geographical reach and regional visibility and will continue to offer its tried and
proven services through a network of service providers. This has made it a centre of
excellence in the region for sustainable and competitive modes of production and a
partner for the Government and international clients in this market niche.
The Centre has successfully helped over 500 Vietnamese companies in various
industrial sectors to boost both their environmental and their economic performance,
including reduced water and raw material consumption and waste generation and the
safe handling of chemicals. It has ensured safer working conditions and job creation
through the green technology service sector and has
helped the private sector to engage more fruitfully
with the sustainable goods and services market.
Through its activities in capacity-building and Resource
Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) assessments in
Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
it has helped to start up RECP centres in these two
The Centre uses South-South technical exchanges to
develop local capacities and bolster local institutions
while it tests and adapts concepts from one country
to another. A strong capacity-building and training
component ensures the assimilation and longterm sustainability of projects. The Centre also helps
to strengthen national regulatory frameworks,
for example, through the introduction of cleaner
production laws and by establishing national centres
of excellence in Cambodia and the Lao People’s
Democratic Republic as well as the National Cleaner
Production Roundtable in Viet Nam.
The model and approach of the Centre have high
potential for replication, given its solid understanding
of the local technical context, easy adoptability, and
strong potential impact on the environment and
the economy. It has already extended to countries in
the region, such as Cambodia and the Lao People’s
Democratic Republic. All industries and companies
must deal with resource productivity and efficiency,
for which reducing production costs and reducing
emissions are key drivers. The enforcement of
environmental laws and the price of energy, water and
materials facilitate the introduction of RECP services
and the replication of RECP centres.
The main partners include local industries, small and
medium-size enterprises, academia, ministries of
industry, UNIDO, UNDP, UNEP, ILO, Switzerland, the
European Union, SWITCH-Asia, RECPnet, BÁCH KHOA,
Hanoi University of Science and Technology, and
industrial associations in Viet Nam. Some of the partners
are clients, donors or facilitators in approaching
industries and in offering capacity-building courses.
Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre
[email protected]
Project name: Viet Nam Cleaner Production Centre
Countries: Viet Nam, with activities in Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 9.4, 9.5, 9.b, 12.2, 13.2, 13.3
Supported by: Self-financing (with fundings to specific projects)
Implementing entity: UNIDO
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1998 to present
URL of the practice: http://vncpc.org/en/
Related resources: VNCPC Facebook; VNCPC Twitter.
Assessment-based National Dialogue:
Towards the Establishment of Social
Protection Floors
South-South solutions build national social protection floors for
all in African, Arab and Asian countries
Today, nearly 73 per cent of the world’s population lacks access to adequate social
protection coverage. In African, Arab and Asian countries, the establishment of social
protection floors has increasingly been recognized as an efficient approach to combating
poverty, inequality and exclusion, as a key element of national development strategies,
and as a human right.1
Towards a Solution
The Social Protection Floors Recommendation (No. 202) was adopted by the General
Conference of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2012, and to help to turn its
provisions into reality, the ILO and its United Nations partners are using assessment-based
national dialogue (ABND) exercises at the national level. The aim is to use the dialogue
exercises as a first step towards implementing social protection floors in countries to
achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. ABND facilitates South-South and triangular
cooperation by capitalizing on knowledge and expertise available in countries of the
South, which are often best suited to respond to challenges that other countries face in
wishing to extend social protection.
The ABND exercise evaluates country social protection systems and helps to identify
policy gaps and implementation issues that are often similar among developing
countries and countries of a certain region. Countries can determine where they stand
with respect to neighbouring countries and how they can tackle their own challenges.
The Social Protection Assessment-based National Dialogue: A Global Guide provides
standardized guidance and training (in print and online) to help users to learn about
the process. It enables users to learn of ABND experiences in other countries that have
conducted similar exercises.
A technical multipartite team conducts the assessment process to develop a social
protection floor. The team, which includes representatives of government, employers,
workers, civil society, academia and development partners, is usually led by a line
ministry and/or a United Nations organization. On the government side, the team
may use existing social protection coordination mechanisms and structures. On the
United Nations side, the team may utilize existing social protection working groups
under the United Nations Development Assistance Framework or other structures.
The methodology is based on national multi-stakeholder dialogue. The team meets
on a regular basis during the assessment process (an average of 18 months) to assess
social protection schemes, discuss policy gaps and implementation issues, and identify
and agree on joint recommendations. This takes place through bilateral consultations
and multipartite workshops. The assessment includes three steps: (a) developing the
assessment matrix, including an inventory of social protection schemes and services in
a country, policy gaps and implementation issues, and recommendations to address
them and install a social protection floor; (b) estimating
the cost of the social protection floor, including the cost
of implementing its recommendations over time based
on different scenarios/parameters; and (c) developing
the assessment report, sharing it with national
stakeholders and obtaining endorsement of the report
by policymakers.
ABNDs have been completed or are ongoing in 16
countries in Africa and Asia. The dialogues have been
completed in Indonesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Thailand,
Vanuatu and Viet Nam. Ten countries – Egypt, Kyrgyz
Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malawi,
Mozambique, Niger, Philippines, Timor-Leste, United
Republic of Tanzania and Zambia – are currently
conducting assessments. ABNDs are also planned in
several other countries of the South.
In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the assessment
exercise was accompanied by several other SouthSouth initiatives, such as supporting the extension
of social health protection (the Social Security Law
adopted in 2013); regulations of the national health
insurance scheme; the technical guidelines for the pilot
scheme; and capacity-building of national stakeholders,
including for the National Social Security Fund. In Egypt,
the assessment exercise is running in parallel with the
reform of the social health insurance system and helps
to build coherence between different processes on
social protection. In Kyrgyzstan, the assessment exercise
will be followed up with a maternity protection scheme
It is important to establish a technical multipartite
team whose mandate is to conduct and complete
the assessment process and propose joint
recommendations to policymakers for endorsement
and follow-up. Continuous follow-up is crucial. Strong
involvement of national stakeholders and particularly
high-level government officials is critical and can help to
foster ownership of the final recommendations.
Knowledge and expertise acquired in countries on
social protection floor policy and component design
and implementation provide a good basis for countries
seeking assistance to overcome challenges. South-South
training for 10 countries of the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN) in October 2012 on ABND
methodology led to the development of a good practice
guide, which three ASEAN countries used to conduct
their assessments. A website, which complements
the guide, contains testimonies, videos and practical
exercises. The ABND exercise can be conducted in
countries planning to define a national social protection
floor, design and adopt a national social protection plan
or strategy, or develop an implementation plan for an
existing national social protection plan or strategy. The
assessment can also be conducted in countries looking
to pursue national dialogue on social protection and
build consensus on priority areas of action.
The direct recipients of the project are national
governments, decentralized government agencies,
social protection institutions, employers, workers, civil
society organizations, academia and other national
stakeholders involved in the design and implementation
of social protection policies and programmes. The
ultimate beneficiaries are beneficiaries of social
protection schemes, workers of small enterprises,
informal-economy workers and those unable to work.
The assessment process takes into account the views of
representatives of women and persons with disabilities
as well as the concerns of beneficiaries and workers
through local governments, civil society organizations
and worker organizations.
Ms. Valérie Schmitt, Chief of the Social Policy, Governance
and Standards Branch, Social Protection Department,
ILO Geneva
[email protected]
Ms. Loveleen De, Social Protection Policy Officer, Social
Protection Department, ILO Geneva
[email protected] or [email protected]
Project name: Assessment-based National Dialogue: Towards the Establishment of Social Protection Floors
Countries: Indonesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vanuatu, Viet Nam (completed); Egypt, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People’s
Democratic Republic, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Philippines, Timor-Leste, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia (ongoing)
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.3, 1.4, 3.8, 5.6, 8.5, 10.4
Supported by: UNOSSC, Japan, Republic of Korea, others
Implementing entities: ILO, UNICEF, WHO, WFP, UN-Women, UNFPA, others
Project status: ABND exercises are ongoing in several countries
Project period: 2011-present
URL of the practice: http://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/ShowRessource.action?ressource.ressourceId=45737
Related resources: www.social-protection.org; Social Protection Assessment-based National Dialogue: A Global Guide;
Brochure; Facebook: Social Protection Platform; Twitter: @soc_protection.
Saudi Youth Exchange Programme
Including Saudi youth in knowledge and cultural exchanges with
Southern countries leads to prospects for employment
The Arab States region has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world, having
reached 11.8 per cent between 2008 and 2013 compared with the global average of
6.1 per cent.1 The working population is made up mainly of men, with only 23 per cent
of working-age females (age 15 and older) in the labour market. Unemployment is
concentrated among youth (between the ages of 15 and 24). Between 2008 and 2014,
the youth unemployment rate in the Arab States was 29 per cent, by far the highest of
any region, while the global average was 15.1 per cent. These figures are more likely to
rise as the youth population grows. It is expected that by 2040, the youth population will
account for 66 per cent of the region’s total population.2 Reflecting this regional trend,
youth unemployment is also a challenge in Saudi Arabia, where it was almost 30 per cent
in 2013.3 Young Saudi women are experiencing much more serious challenges, with an
unemployment rate of 55 per cent compared with 21 per cent for young Saudi men.
Towards a Solution
The Government of Saudi Arabia considers unemployment a major issue and is
introducing programmes that develop and strengthen youth capacity and empower
youth to become active leaders in their local communities, with future job prospects.
One example is the Youth Exchange Programme, a joint initiative between the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and UNDP. The aim of the project is to expand youth participation in local
community development and increase their leadership capacities in international forums
through South-South and triangular exchanges.
More than 10 youth exchange visits took place with various countries (Brazil, China, India,
the Republic of South Korea, Spain and the United Republic of Tanzania) with experiences
in different fields, such as renewable energy, e-education, sustainable cities, biodiversity
conservation, slum management, information and communication technology (ICT) for
development, medical research and architecture. More than 200 Saudi youth (between
the ages of 17 and 27) participated in these exchanges. The programme ensured that an
equal number of males and females were involved while targeting students from minority
groups. It promoted professional and cultural dialogue through peer-to-peer learning,
interaction, exchanges and field visits. It also fostered the acquisition and dissemination
of practical knowledge and experience obtained in host countries and the adoption and
adaptation of best practices in home countries.
As a result, the programme helped to:
• Expose Saudi youth to development models used in leading Southern economies
and developed countries in many regions. This has translated into a new vision
Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development.
UNDP, Green Jobs for Women and Youth: What Can Local Government Do?, May 2013.
World Bank, World Development Indicators, based on ILO data.
among youth of how similar innovations can arise
in Saudi Arabia and potentially be shared with other
developing countries;
• Create solidarity among emerging youth leaders in
their respective fields of practice within strategically
important countries across the South. Maintaining
connections with and among these future leaders
could be important for future South-South
cooperation partnerships and strategic collaborations;
• Facilitate the exposure and transfer of knowledge and
solutions in several key areas of strategic importance
not only to Saudi Arabia but also to the Arab States
region in general. Capturing and documenting
solutions and technical know-how on issues such
as sustainable energy, sustainable cities and ICT for
development would enable regional users to access
key information for enhanced decision-making.
Knowledge management and dissemination coupled
with regular regional meetings of young experts could
be a complementary component in bolstering the
region’s competitiveness in responding to common
In addition to the positive results from helping youth
to enter a career track in a chosen area of study, young
participants in the programme generated inspiring
and innovative ideas for the Government to explore.
For example, after one youth group had returned from
India having learned about the country’s ICT projects,
it formulated a proposal for the Government on
how Saudi Arabia could introduce a new web-based
crowd-sourcing platform for citizen support to global
development. With the goal of channelling assistance
“from the people to the people”, this initiative focused
on developing a new strategic partnership to expand
the role of Saudi Arabia in providing assistance to
global development efforts for achieving Agenda 2030.
The idea was well received by the Government and
has received $1 million for initial activities to design
the crowd-sourcing platform and related steps. The
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Saudi Arabia asked UNDP
to implement this initiative.
In order to ensure its sustainability, the Youth Exchange
Programme was fully aligned with national development
priorities while ownership rests firmly in the hands of the
Government, which has committed to scaling it up to
address other youth-focused interests. The outcome
document from the programme serves as a basis for
other potential South-South and triangular cooperation
initiatives on specific topics of bilateral interest among
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Saudi Arabia worked
actively with UNDP to formulate, design and implement
the programme. In addition, the private sector provided
seed funding at the beginning of the programme. Youth
foundations and organization committees for youth
were involved in identifying potential youth candidates
who had shown leadership attributes within their own
committees. Universities and academic institutions
contacted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs also assisted
in identifying young students who had excelled in their
area of study.
Ms. Haifa Al Mogrin, Project Manager
[email protected]
Project name: Youth Exchange Programme of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2010-2015)
Countries: Saudi Arabia, in exchanges with Brazil, China, India, Republic of Korea, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.1, 10.2, 11.3, 16.b
Supported by: Government of Saudi Arabia, the private sector
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2010 to 2016
URL of the practice: http://www.sa.undp.org/content/saudi_arabia/en/home/operations/projects/human_
Related resources: Saudi-chinese-youth-forum Saudi Young Leaders Exchange Programme.
China’s One-stop Service Centre Model:
Designing Government Services for Urban
Bringing transparent and efficient government services closer to
the people
More than half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas. By 2050, this figure
will rise to 6.5 billion people – two thirds of humanity.1 The rapid growth of cities in the
developing world, coupled with increasing rural-to-urban migration, has led to a boom
in megacities. Bangladesh is one country in South Asia facing very rapid urbanization.
Its cities are growing at more than twice the rate of its rural areas, a trend expected
to continue until Bangladesh transitions from a low- to a middle-income country. It is
predicted that by 2030, the population living in urban areas will double to 80 million.2
Improving the efficiency of public services is therefore a government priority. However,
in a rapidly urbanizing Bangladesh, efficient delivery of basic services has come under
considerable pressure. Citizens could frequently face a variety of difficulties registering a
birth or death, paying bills (e.g., for taxes or fees) or requesting connections to municipal
water supplies.
Towards a Solution
In order to address these challenges, Bangladesh conducted South-South exchanges
with China in 2013 to learn from and adapt its innovative one-stop social service
centre model. Using design-thinking tools, UNDP worked with four mayors from
Bangladesh, beneficiaries of basic services, municipal government officials from
Bangladesh and China, and design-thinking experts from Malaysia and Singapore
to build prototypes of a one-stop shop that would work in Bangladeshi cities by
contextualizing the Chinese experience to suit local needs.
This distinctive approach, which relies on collective action, put the end users (or
beneficiaries) at the centre of policy dialogue so that they could make a direct contribution
to creating solutions. As a result, city planners (mayors and city officials) and beneficiaries
(users) reached a consensus on how best to design and deliver social services. In turn, the
mayors worked with the central government to secure the financing needed to establish
these centres in their respective cities. While cities in Bangladesh are decentralized, they
do not have complete fiscal autonomy and therefore rely on the central government for
funding to establish the centres. UNDP is currently facilitating this process and intends to
showcase the prototype of the one-stop service centre at the Bangladesh Urban Forum
in 2016.
This experience shows that users’ (beneficiaries’) knowledge and experience are a critical
part of the design process, ensuring the customization of products and services to local
needs and demands. Moreover, using the innovative design-thinking principles helped
to contextualize and adapt the Chinese model of a one-stop service centre to the local
needs of urban residents in Bangladesh. The fact that citizens/users played a fundamental
role in the design process directly helped to achieve broader ownership and sustainability.
Consolidating key social services in one location through
the one-stop service centre was administratively cost
efficient and reduced the burden for users, who were
able to take advantage of the multiple services offered
(e.g., civil registration, land registration, banking and
notary services, and social insurance and social welfare
payments) at one single site.
It is possible to replicate this model by using a similar
process and methodology. However, user needs
and input during the design process will ultimately
determine the character of the final output, which
may differ from the model provided. Such experiences
illustrate that perfect replication is neither achievable
nor desirable but rather that successful elements of a
good practice can be adapted to suit local needs in the
recipient country. Towards this end, design-thinking and
social innovation principles were particularly suited to
the transfer of knowledge and aspects of experiential
Mr. Taimur Khilji, Programme Specialist, UNDP
[email protected]
Project name: China’s One-stop Service Centre Model: Designing Government Services for Urban Bangladesh
Countries: Bangladesh, China
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 11.3; 17.16; 17.17
Supported by: UNDP
Implementing entities: UNDP, four mayors from Bangladesh, city administrations
Project status: Completed
Project period: Five months (from September 2013 to January 2014)
URL of the practice:
Part 1: Same-same but different: Can Asia’s rapidly growing cities use ‘design thinking’ for better planning and services?
Available from http://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/rbap/en/home/blog/2014/8/1/same-same-but-different-canasia-s-rapidly-growing-cities-use-design-thinking-for-better-planning-and-services-.html
Part 2: Inspired by China, Made in Bangladesh. Available from http://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/rbap/en/home/
Related resources: Case study of Bangladesh-China exchange.
Design-thinking toolkit for South-South learning and exchange.
Road Safety Technical Cooperation
Project between Southern Cone Cities
Common road safety approaches in three Latin American countries
lead to a significant decrease in road traffic injuries and fatalities
Road accidents are the leading cause of death in children ages 5 to 14 and the second
leading cause in people ages 15 to 44 in Latin America. Buenos Aires (Argentina), Belo
Horizonte (Brazil) and Montevideo (Uruguay) are among the cities with the highest road
traffic injury and fatality rates in Latin America. From 1997 to 2009, more than 1,800
people died in traffic accidents in Buenos Aires, and between 2007 and 2009, more than
33,000 traffic injuries were registered. In Belo Horizonte in 2008, the traffic fatality rate
was 20.1 per 100,000 people, and the hospitalization rate was 92.9 per 100,000 people. In
Montevideo in 2009, the traffic fatality rate was 11.0 per 100,000 people; 34 per cent of
the deaths were motorcycle related.
Towards a Solution
In 2010, in response to road traffic fatalities and injuries, the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) launched its regional report on traffic injury prevention, followed by
the 2011 Plan of Action on Road Safety that offered guidelines to Member States. Both
policies have helped countries of Latin America to meet the goals for reducing road traffic
deaths and injuries across the region. More specifically, PAHO launched, implemented
and assessed a pilot initiative in 2010-2011 in three cities of the Southern Cone region.
That initiative provided financial and technical assistance by organizing workshops in
which representatives of those cities could share their best road safety measures and
transfer both skills and technologies that responded to their local contexts, development,
access to resources and city dynamics.
The pilot of the Road Safety Technical Cooperation Project between Southern Cone
Cities implemented a methodology that facilitated knowledge-sharing among the three
cities. While it required only a relatively small investment of about $150,000, the pilot
was able to yield significant health and economic benefits in return while improving the
cities’ capacity to target road traffic challenges. The project created three solutions to: (a)
improve and strengthen the information systems of the three cities; (b) create a menu of
options for good practices for road safety; and (c) develop community empowerment
tools as a management model for road safety for each of the three cities. Those solutions
also included the following measures:
• Belo Horizonte: analysis of crash events in mass media reports, road safety surveys,
intervention approaches in hot spots, appointment of the Traffic Operation and
Enforcement Unit, sustained investment in road signs, creation of the Trauma Academic
Association and training of emergency teams;
• Buenos Aires: stronger drug and alcohol enforcement, the promotion of helmet use,
implementation of a speed reduction programme, and road safety education; and
• Montevideo: a sustainable mobility programme, an enforcement programme for late
hours (night) and a zero crash programme for private companies.
The project’s development results include the creation
of methodologies to improve the collection of data,
a memorandum of understanding between health
agencies of the three cities to exchange data sets, the
implementation of a road safety education programme
in the three cities and the development of a methodology
to facilitate the transfer of knowledge among actors
from different countries. Results in specific cities include:
• Belo Horizonte: a decrease of 26 per cent in missing
crash data, improved data on injuries sustained by
road users and enhanced geo-referenced information;
• Buenos Aires: issuance of over 39,000 traffic tickets
to motorcyclists, provision of 1,200 helmets to
motorcyclists and issuance of 200,534 traffic tickets
for alcohol consumption; and
• Montevideo: an 8-per cent reduction in drivers who
consumed alcohol, training of 500 medical students
in trauma prevention and a 60-per cent reduction in
car crashes observed among private companies that
participated in the road safety programme.
The project provides strong opportunities for SouthSouth learning and exchange not only in terms of
sustainability and transferability but also policy impact.
Policies targeting road safety tackle the negative
impacts in society beyond health, such as economic
and family costs. Global losses resulting from road traffic
deaths and injuries are estimated at $518 billion, while
government costs, including health-care systems, range
between 1 and 3 per cent of gross domestic product –
more than the total amount that these countries receive
in development assistance per year. For countries such
as Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, the increase in traffic
fatalities and injuries has a considerable impact and high
economic and social costs, which in turn undermine
other development needs that they must address.
The issue of traffic fatalities and injuries goes beyond the
three Southern Cone countries. Further analysis shows
a similar trend throughout the region and subregions.
There are also cities with similar characteristics in other
parts of the world, yet many lack an approach and
a methodology that help them to design their own
solutions to their common challenges. This project’s
methodology enables countries to access new
measures adapted to city conditions and provides a
sense of ownership and motivation in the exchange,
dissemination and creation of measures. Its menu
of options for road safety good practices offers the
collection and systematization of measures that can be
replicated in similar urban contexts in low- and middleincome countries to enhance road safety.
Dr. Eugenia Maria Rodrigues, PAHO Adviser for Road
[email protected]
Project name: Road Safety Technical Cooperation Project between Southern Cone Cities
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 3.6, 11.2, 11.3
Supported by: City governments of Belo Horizonte, Buenos Aires and Montevideo, and PAHO/WHO
Implementing entity: PAHO/WHO
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2010-2011
URL of the practice:
Report in Portuguese: Projeto de Cooperação Técnica de Segurança no Trânsito entre Cidades: http://www.paho.org/bra/
Main road safety webpage:
PAHO road safety: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=1507&Ite
Related resources: Norton, Robyn and Olive Kobusingye (2013). Injuries. New England Journal of Medicine, 368.18, pp.
Pan American Health Organization (2011). Proyecto de Cooperación Técnica en Seguridad Vial entre Ciudades: Belo
Horizonte, Buenos Aires y Montevideo. Brazil: PAHO.
Pan American Health Organization (2015). Report on Road Safety in the Region of the Americas. Washington, D.C.: PAHO.
World Health Organization (2013). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action. Geneva: World
Health Organization.
Energy-efficiency Standards and Labelling
Asian countries use their regional South-South cooperation
experiences and expertise to improve energy efficiency and
mitigate greenhouse gas emissions
Asia’s share in world energy use has been increasing rapidly in the last two decades.
By 2035, Asia is projected to account for 56 per cent of world energy consumption,
up from about a third in 2010. A significant percentage of the region’s total energy
consumption occurs in the commercial, industrial and residential sectors, representing
the use of appliances and equipment, motors and lighting. With high economic growth
in many countries in the region, the demand for major appliances, equipment and
electric power is expected to continue to increase while risking the rise of greenhouse
gas emissions.1
Many Asian countries have shown interest in including energy-efficiency standards and
labelling (ESL) programmes in their national energy and environment development
policies. Persistent regulatory, institutional, technical and market barriers often hinder
these programmes, however. Most local programmes are carried out at the national
level and – despite some regional cooperation efforts – do not benefit from technical
or human resource exchanges with other countries in the region.
Towards a Solution
Between 2009 and 2015, the Barrier Removal to the Cost-effective Development and
Implementation of Energy-efficiency Standards and Labelling (BRESL), supported by
UNDP and the Global Environment Facility, addressed these barriers by providing
training and capacity-building, assessing and transmitting lessons learned, learning
by doing, sharing work among countries and providing technical assistance. ESL
programmes and policies have proven to be an effective way to improve energy
efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. They are also much more costeffective than providing new energy supplies, owing to their potential to bring about
the complete market transformation of different classes of energy-saving products.
The main challenge lay in either harmonizing the ESL plans of countries in Asia or in
reaching mutual recognition of their respective standards. Removing technical barriers
and setting energy benchmarks for the appliances in question have helped not only
to increase cross-regional trade of electric appliances but also to develop a regional
market for energy-efficient and energy-saving products. Adopting applicable and
recognizable energy-efficiency standards and labelling to all products in the region
has helped to achieve these objectives.
The project involved six participating countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan,
Thailand, Viet Nam and China as the host and lead country of the Regional Project
Management Unit. The regional approach aimed to transform the regional product
markets of the targeted appliances and equipment
and address the common barriers to ESL. Participating
countries aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
by an estimated 23.4 million metric tons per year. The
technical and information exchange supported by the
BRESL project facilitated cooperation and dialogue
among the participating countries with a view to
benefiting from ESL harmonization and/or mutual
recognition, reducing costs for product testing, and
promoting the development and trade of energyefficient products within the region.
For example, countries such as China, Thailand and
Viet Nam, which already had ongoing national ESL
programmes when the project started, shared their
experiences and practices with the other countries,
such as Indonesia, which had just begun to implement
its own ESL programmes. The project supported the
compiling and transmitting of lessons learned, best
practices and technical know-how; facilitated regional
consultations; and enabled harmonization of test
procedures, standards and labelling programmes
among participating countries. As a result, Bangladesh,
Indonesia and Pakistan, which initially had no or limited
ESL activities, benefited from the project’s South-South
knowledge and lessons learned, capacity-building
activities and tools on ESL developed by countries
with greater accumulated experiences, primarily China
but also Thailand and Viet Nam. The opportunities for
replication created through the project have been
visible in shorter policy-development lead times and
greater availability of templates and technical knowhow on ESL-related activities.
In addition, the project accelerated the adoption and
implementation of ESL in participating countries and,
through South-South cooperation, resulted in greater
harmonization at the regional level. On the basis of the
feasibility reports, five products now have harmonized
testing protocols and three products have harmonized
performance specifications. Furthermore, seven
mutual-recognition agreements have been signed
among four countries, six of which included Indonesia.
These achievements have laid the groundwork for
future cooperation on labelling procedures among the
To ensure the sustainability and the scaling up of the
BRESL programme, the Regional Energy-efficiency
Standards and Labelling Network was established. The
aim of the Network is to provide relevant and accurate
ESL data and information, facilitate better access to and
exchange of information among the countries, and
increase availability of training and technical assistance
tools and services.
Mr. Priyo Budhi Sayoko
[email protected]
Project name: Barrier Removal to the Cost-effective Development and Implementation of Energy-efficiency Standards
and Labelling (BRESL)
Countries: Bangladesh, China (host), Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand, Viet Nam
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 12.1, 12.4, 12.6, 12.8, 12.c
Supported by: Government of Indonesia, Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Implementing entities: UNDP, GEF
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2009 to 2013
URL of the practice:
Related resources: Annual Project Progress Report, January 2013, Reporting period: January–December 2012; Annual
Project Progress Report, February 2015, Reporting period: January–December 2015.
Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production
(RECP) Programme
Efficient use of resources spurs economic growth and minimizes
risks to people and the environment
The simultaneous global economic and environmental crises in recent years have
brought into relief the urgent need to separate the unsustainable use of natural
resources from economic growth based on industrial production patterns that have
been largely unchanged since the industrial revolution. Today, governments and
citizens alike see the importance of applying preventive environmental protection
standards to industrial processes, products and services in order to bolster efficiency
and reduce risks to humans and the environment.1
Towards a Solution
In 2009, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) collaborated to create the Joint
Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) Programme for Developing and
Transition Countries to pave the way forward. The RECP Programme aims to ensure
efficient, effective development, application, adaptation, scaling up and mainstreaming
of resource-efficient and cleaner industrial production. The RECP concepts, methods,
policies, practices and technologies work together to ensure the efficient use of natural
resources, higher productivity, less waste, less risk to people and the environment,
and greater well-being of workers and communities. The Programme facilitates the
implementation of RECP methods and tools, including retrofitting production sites,
introducing new technologies, phasing out hazardous materials, reducing waste and
increasing efficiency with regard to the use of raw materials.
The RECP Programme helps to make industries at the national, regional and global
levels more efficient, productive, cleaner and safer. It is delivered through the Global
Network for Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECPnet), consisting of over 70
leading RECP service providers in more than 60 countries around the world. A global
coordinator and a team of five coordinators for each regional chapter of RECPnet
administer the system.
The RECP approach applies preventive environmental strategies to processes,
products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to communities and the
environment through:
• Multi-level interventions: macro (government, policy and legal frameworks), meso
(providers of services, technologies and finance) and micro (businesses, consumers
and civil society);
• Complementary role definition: UNIDO and UNEP lead in implementing programme
• Country-level engagement: UNIDO and UNEP facilitate joint programming and
engagement at the country level;
• Synergy and partnership: synergy and active
coordination with bilateral and multilateral initiatives
and broadened partnerships with the private sector
and civil society;
• Enhance existing capacities: active utilization of
capacities of UNIDO-and-UNEP-established national
cleaner production centres and other RECP service
• Multi-dimensional networking: through RECPnet,
the programme is an effective platform facilitating
knowledge transfer and experience-sharing;
• Flexible funding mechanism: a two-tiered funding
mechanism for programme activities and supportive
projects allows flexibility and adaptability.
Thousands of enterprises have benefited from
increased resource productivity and realized
savings opportunities. Over $30 million have
been raised in funds from multiple donors, over
50 national cleaner production centres have
been established by UNIDO and UNEP, and over
70 RECP service providers from around the
world have joined RECPnet. On the policy side, a
number of countries have included RECP in national
legal instruments. A comprehensive data-gathering
exercise is currently under way to assess the aggregate
environmental impact of the RECP Programme. These
data are expected to be available by the end of 2017.
RECP develops, trials and promotes the replication of
environmentally sound technologies and sustainable
product development. In particular, South-South
cooperation allows for a quicker scaling of RECP
solutions in developing and transition countries.
Countries replicate RECP practices, build technical
capacity, bring on board financial institutions to create
green-credit/financing programmes, and advise
government on the resource-efficiency regulatory
framework. The most mature country-level RECP
programmes become financially independent and
sustainable. National and regional policies have come
to include provisions to promote RECP.
Scaling up efforts include four outcomes (a) RECP
service delivery network: global RECP service delivery
capacity enhanced through RECPnet, leading to
effective networking and peer learning; (b) thematic
RECP applications: implementation of RECP by
businesses and organizations with demonstrable,
verified resource use and environmental, economic and
societal benefits; (c) RECP incentives: mainstreaming
RECP in relevant government policies, regulations
and enterprise finance, leading to an effective
enabling environment; and (d) innovation capacity:
strengthening national capacities to implement
environmentally sound technologies and sustainable
product development.
UNIDO and UNEP jointly run the programme, with
funding provided primarily by the Government of
Switzerland. The main stakeholders are the over 70
members of RECPnet and the industries with which
they work. Members share the results of their work,
success stories, case studies and data through the
RECPnet knowledge management system and online
Mr. Smail Alhilali, Officer-in-Charge, Industrial Resource
Efficiency Division, Department of Environment,
[email protected]
Project name: Joint UNIDO-UNEP Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) Programme for Developing and
Transition Countries
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Bulgaria, Cabo Verde, Cambodia,
China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People’s
Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Pakistan,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Sri
Lanka, United Republic of Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe
Nominated by: UNIDO
Sustainable Development Goal target: 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.b, 8.2, 8.4, 9.a, 9.b, 9.c, 11.3, 11.6, 11.b, 12.2, 13.1, 13.2
Supported by: Government of Switzerland, with contributions from Austria, Norway and Slovenia, the European
Commission and selected multi-donor trust funds
Implementing entities: UNIDO, UNEP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2009-2017
URL of the practice: http://www.recpnet.org/
African Risk Capacity
Helping African Union members to better prepare, plan and
respond to natural disasters
Over the last four decades, sub-Saharan Africa has experienced more than 1,000 disasters.
They are a major threat to development, putting recent economic development gains
at risk. Africa’s disaster profile is characterized by extreme hydro-meteorological events
that will likely increase in frequency and magnitude as a result of climate change. SubSaharan Africa’s disaster profile is closely linked to the vulnerability of its population and
economy and their often-low capacities to cope with natural hazards.1
Towards a Solution
The African Risk Capacity initiative offers an African solution to one of the continent’s
most pressing challenges. It was established by African States as a specialized agency of
the African Union in November 2012. The overarching aim is to give Member States the
financial tools and infrastructure that they need to help to break the negative cycle of
drought, low resilience and food insecurity by incentivizing and empowering countries to
improve their capacities to better plan, prepare and respond to extreme weather events
and natural disasters, thereby protecting the food security of their vulnerable populations.
African Risk Capacity is an innovative initiative for pan-African risk management, offering
sovereign-level risk insurance against droughts, floods, cyclones and pandemics through
its financial affiliate, African Risk Capacity Ltd, which is capitalized at $200 million.
Through African Risk Capacity, African Union members pool their natural disaster risk,
shifting the risk burden away from vulnerable populations and their governments to the
international markets, which are better equipped to handle them. Thirty-two African
States have signed the African Risk Capacity Establishment Agreement to form
the Conference of the Parties, representing a transformative moment in African
ownership to manage natural disaster risk more effectively.
Specifically, African Risk Capacity addresses the following Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs): SDG 1, by protecting the poor from natural disasters, thereby helping to
impede the poverty cycle, and contributing to policy dialogue and transformation by
encouraging better risk management and supporting poverty alleviation efforts; SGD 2,
by enabling a timely response following an extreme natural disaster to protect people
against food insecurity before it reaches a critical level; SDG 13, by providing an objective
measure of climate change and channelling financing from the private sector to member
States for climate adaptation; and SDG 17, by building strategic partnerships with
international institutions, government actors and the private sector and by recognizing
that sustainable solutions are dependent on such partnerships.
Countries that choose to join the African Risk Capacity risk pool must enter into a
memorandum of understanding with the agency, which governs participation in the
capacity-building programme. Countries that have received insurance payouts make
presentations on how payout implementation works
during the annual Conference of the Parties and the
Governing Boards of both the African Risk Capacity
agency and the African Risk Capacity Insurance
Company Ltd.
African Risk Capacity focuses on working in a sustainable
manner to develop national capacities, thereby reducing
the reliance on a large agency secretariat, creating
national ownership and lowering operational costs.
It adopts the following approach: (a) initial country
engagement, to conduct scoping missions to understand
country context and ensure integration and national
ownership; (b) in-country working groups, to ensure that
each member State is able to meet the requirements
for joining the risk pool; (c) contingency plans, to design
operations plans to demonstrate how a country would
quickly and proactively implement drought response
activities in the event of an extreme drought; and (d)
insurance payouts: a country is required to submit a final
implementation plan describing the activities that it will
undertake with the insurance proceeds before it can
receive its insurance payout.
African Risk Capacity has an innovative public-private
partnership structure made up of an international
organization that provides government services and a
nationally regulated company that conducts financial
operations. African Risk Capacity operationalizes
pan-Africanism through a ground-breaking financial
instrument, taking a major step towards transforming
the disaster-response paradigm on the continent and
pioneering a move towards African ownership.
In the first year of operation of African Risk Capacity,
Kenya, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal purchased $129
million in drought insurance coverage from African
Risk Capacity Ltd at a total of $17 million in premium
costs paid by those Governments. Following a poor
agricultural season in the Sahel, by February 2015,
Mauritania, Niger and Senegal had received payouts
from African Risk Capacity Ltd totalling over $26 million,
which enabled them to deliver timely assistance to 1.3
million people and over half a million livestock. This
intervention averted a situation that could have forced
millions of families to sell off hard-won household
assets, take children out of school, migrate, or simply
accept that their herds had perished, pushing them
further into chronic food insecurity. In May 2015, African
Risk Capacity added the Gambia, Malawi and Mali. Each
secured drought coverage for the 2015/2016 policy
year, making the total insurance coverage for 2015/2016
$178 million, with a corresponding premium of $24.7
million. Support in the form of returnable risk capital to
African Risk Capacity Ltd of approximately $90 million
– provided equally by the KfW Development Bank on
behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic
Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the United
Kingdom Department for International Development
– demonstrated proof of concept. With requests from
African Governments to access coverage for additional
perils through African Risk Capacity Ltd, the agency is
now expanding its products from drought to cover
flood and tropical cyclone risks across the continent.
African Risk Capacity provides member States with a
package of support that guarantees a holistic approach
to capacity-building, addressing areas that require
development. In addition, it is developing a strategy to
become a self-financing group. Through the growth of
African Risk Capacity Ltd, the agency, as broker and client
manager of the company, can develop a financial strategy
together with the company to support its operational
costs through an allocation of a percentage of the
company’s capital. The agency model is replicable in
other parts of the world, particularly in areas where there
is already a functioning entity for regional cooperation.
Ms. Ekhosuehi Iyahen, Director of Policy and Technical
[email protected]
Ms. Carola Kenngott, SS/TC, WFP HQ
[email protected]
Project name: African Risk Capacity
Countries/territory: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Gabon,
Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger,
Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 1.a, 1.5, 2.4, 13.a, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 17.3, 17.9, 17.16, 17.17
Supported by: African Risk Capacity Ltd, United Kingdom Department for International Development, KfW Development Bank
Implementing entity: African Risk Capacity
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2012 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.africanriskcapacity.org/
Caribbean Risk Management Initiative
Integrated risk management at the local level strengthens the
Caribbean region’s ability to deal with disasters and protect
development gains
With a population of 36 million, the Caribbean region is home to a diverse array of
languages and cultures, islands large and small, major coastal cities and small mountain
villages. Small island developing States in the Caribbean and elsewhere have far higher
levels of relative risk than many other regions. The topography, tectonic setting and
location make the Caribbean region highly prone to natural hazards such as tropical
cyclones, floods, volcanic and seismic activities, droughts and forest fires in addition
to industrial accidents and epidemiological threats. With the likelihood that climate
change will exacerbate the frequency and intensity of the yearly natural hazards,
comprehensive measures are needed to protect at-risk communities.
Towards a Solution
In response to such risks, the Government of Cuba came together with UNDP and
the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative in 2005 to develop the Risk Reduction
Management Centres, a model of local risk reduction management. This model serves
as an instrument to ensure that disaster management and development practices in any
given territory are informed by an analysis of risk and vulnerability. The centre supports
isolated and remote communities, which may not have access to information, so that
they can prepare for potential threats. Communities are provided with equipment and
training to identify, reduce and communicate risk as well as to take effective protective
measures. The Government of Cuba has established a total of eight provincial and 84
municipal centres, linked to 310 communities. Since the model’s establishment, the
centres have helped communities to reduce significantly the impact of hurricanes by
facilitating community awareness and preparedness.
Owing to its success in Cuba, the model of the centre has generated widespread
interest from the British Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic, Guyana,
Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago, which face similar challenges. Cuba, in
collaboration with UNDP and the Caribbean Risk Management Initiative, worked with
these countries and territory to adapt the model to their respective national/territorial
contexts, strengthening risk reduction practices. The transfer of knowledge and
practices from Cuba to the pilot countries has employed various mechanisms such as
building local capacity for risk assessment at the local level, improving coordination at
the national level and enhancing community-based early warning systems. Coherency
in understanding the model and its application at all levels was crucial for successful
implementation since each level has a specific and distinct role to play. The longterm aim of this South-South cooperation initiative is to strengthen local disaster
management systems so that disaster risk and recovery are better integrated into
disaster management planning and territorial development.
The initiative has proved successful and adaptable
in all participating countries while taking into
consideration their local contexts. In Jamaica, early
warning points were established in two locations:
Old Harbor and Linstead. In addition, a central activity
of the Jamaican pilot was the development of the
Disaster Risk Information Platform in St. Catherine
Parish. The user-friendly platform enables improved
management of disaster risk information to be used
to further community planning, development and
disaster risk reduction efforts. In the Dominican
Republic, national counterparts developed an
emergency plan, a contingency plan for floods and an
action plan for disaster risk reduction in community
development. In Guyana, an awareness workshop was
held with stakeholders from various agencies in which
pilot sites were identified to establish Risk Reduction
Management Centres. In the British Virgin Islands,
the Anegada Zonal Disaster Management Team was
established. The team’s role is to roll out the disaster risk
reduction programme for the island, coordinate regular
general meetings and ensure close collaboration with
the district officer responsible for Anegada.
The Risk Reduction Management Centre model is
innovative in that it serves as a local administrative
body to assist local governments in analysing risk and
making risk-informed development decisions. Each
Risk Reduction Management Centre is comprised of a
small professional team that manages an information
hub at the local level. The centres collect, analyse,
compile and coordinate risk and disaster information in
order to inform decision-making by local authorities. In
addition, each centre facilitates the flow of information
to and from communities, decision makers, national
emergency/disaster authorities and key sector-specific
In order to ensure the replicability of this initiative,
it is recommended that the following key steps be
taken into consideration. The first is to understand
both demand and supply. On the demand side, the
need should be well articulated and aligned with
development priorities. On the supply side, the
experience must be sufficiently documented. The
tools, methodologies and capacities of the provider
country should be evaluated in order to ensure that
the experience can be transferred. The second step is
to adapt the model to another context, based on an
understanding of the existing demand and capacity.
The technical tools, training and assistance should be
tailored to specific needs; mechanisms and processes
can then be adapted in the partner country. Finally,
documenting South-South experiences is an effective
vehicle for development of participating countries.
Ms. Jacinda Fairholm
Programme Specialist, UNDP Regional Hub, Panama
[email protected]
Project name: Caribbean Risk Management Initiative: Risk Reduction Management Centres
Countries/territory: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, British Virgin Islands
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 11.b, 13.1
Supported by: UNDP
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2011-2015
URL of the practice: http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/rblac/en/home/library/crisis_prevention_and_
Related resources: https://www.youtube.com/user/crmiundp
Benguela Current Commission
By joining forces, three African countries are better able to ensure
the long-term environmental sustainability of the large marine
The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem stretches northwards in the Atlantic
Ocean from South Africa along the entire coastline of Namibia into Angola. It is one
of the richest ecosystems on earth, with fish stocks and other goods and services
worth an estimated $54.3 billion annually. Today, however, human activities – oil and
gas exploration, diamond mining, marine transport and fishing – are endangering this
natural habitat on which vast marine life depends.1
Towards a Solution
To remedy this challenge, government leaders from Angola, Namibia and South
Africa have jointly established the transboundary Benguela Current Commission,
which aims to improve the management of the ecosystem. The Commission
promotes a coordinated regional approach to the long-term conservation, protection,
rehabilitation, enhancement and sustainable use of the Benguela Current Large Marine
Ecosystem to provide economic, environmental and social benefits to participating
countries without damaging the environment. It is considered an outstanding model
of South-South cooperation that benefits countries throughout the region.
© Benguela Current Commission
The Commission applies the large marine ecosystem approach to ocean governance,
guided by explicit goals, executed through regionally agreed policies, protocols and
practices, and made adaptable through research and monitoring. It does so using the
best available understanding of the ecological interactions and processes needed to
sustain ecosystem composition, structure and function. The method uses the tried and
tested transboundary diagnostic analysis that identifies major transboundary stressors
and focuses on positive actions to offset threats to the ocean in order to recover
depleted fish populations, restore degraded habitats and reduce coastal pollution.
Although still in its early stages, the actions of the Commission have led to analyses and
the creation of a strategic action programme and a regional scientific advisory body,
which together provide a shared vision for action to protect participating countries’
economic and community interests in the Benguela Current.
As a result, the countries have committed more than $18 million to the action
plan, including staff, laboratories, equipment and the use of research vessels.
The Commission has also set up a regional support structure that features a regional
network (connected to a global network) to share experiences, skills, knowledge and
good practices that are changing the way in which participating countries develop
and manage their common marine ecosystem.
Sustainability is built into the Commission’s legally
binding convention and its strategic action programme,
with a strong capacity-building component for
stakeholders and governments. Other regions and
countries have already picked up on the Benguela
example, such as the Humboldt Current Large Marine
Ecosystem Project, the African large marine ecosystem
projects (for the Canary, Guinea, Agulhas and Somali
currents), the fisheries refugia in the South China Sea,
and the Global Ballast (GloBallast) Water Management
Programme. The replication of the model hinges on
close cooperation and the funding of participating
Dr. Hashali Hamukuaya
Executive Secretary, Benguela Current Commission
[email protected]
Project name: Benguela Current Commission
Countries: Angola, Namibia, South Africa
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 14.1, 14.2, 14.4
Supported by: Global Environment Facility (GEF), UNDP
Implementing entities: Benguela Current Commission and participating countries
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2013 to present
URL of the practice: www.benguelacc.org
Programme of South-South Cooperation
for Sustainable Development between
Benin, Bhutan and Costa Rica
Reciprocal projects among selected countries generate results
that empower local communities and influence national policies
There is little doubt that countries across the globe face similar development challenges
whether they are based on geography, demographics, language, culture or other
connections. Many people, however, remain sceptical of the benefits that Southern
countries can gain from collaboration among themselves. They mention overhead and
management costs, lack of resources, limited funding, absence of political commitment
or the improbability of vastly different Southern countries on different continents
actually being successful in a Southern-owned initiative.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2007 and 2012, Costa Rica, Benin and Bhutan created and implemented the
Programme of South-South Cooperation for Sustainable Development that focused on
reciprocal projects of common interest and mutual benefit. Its success demonstrates
the real potential of South-South cooperation. Building on a $13.2 million grant from the
Netherlands, the partners focused on four components of sustainable development:
economic development, social development, environmental protection and gender
equality. The programme aimed to develop projects that would generate knowledge
and empower stakeholders, including national governments, civil society, and the
academic and private sectors. It also sought to contribute to sustainable development
and poverty reduction in partner countries by taking into account environmental,
economic and cultural dynamics.
The programme had 36 projects that promoted the exchange of knowledge and
experiences among countries, communities and beneficiaries. For example, experts of
the National Mushroom Centre of Bhutan provided technical support and monitored
the progress of mushroom microenterprises in Costa Rica. Experts at the University
of Costa Rica in turn shared skills in marketing mushrooms and mushroom products
while the country’s National Biodiversity Institute gave technical assistance to Bhutan
on how to turn traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge (and develop a
biodiversity information system). Farmers from Benin learned from their Costa Rican
counterparts how to grow organic pineapples three times larger and to market them.
Benin ensured local community involvement in the project, in particular women. The
joint efforts of farmers and experts in both countries benefited small-scale producers
in Costa Rica and Benin.
© Fundecooperación
Each of the activities emphasized mutual needs and interests, reciprocity, equality
between members and participation not only of government but also of civil society,
academia and the private sector. Replication to achieve success depends on a specific
methodological approach:
• P
olicy consultation and dialogue between partnercountry stakeholders: the main thematic areas,
strategic approaches to thematic areas, and
preliminary ideas for projects emerged from regular
consultations, usually a series of workshops. In
addition to stakeholder meetings, they also held
videoconferences and electronic conferences (via
• A participative open call for proposals: through an
open call for proposals, 36 reciprocal projects were
selected for implementation at the local level. Once
a year, a call for proposals was issued for projects
from local communities;
• Promotion of exchanges of knowledge and
experience among projects: reciprocal projects,
guidelines, workshops, feedback seminars, and
training workshops between Benin, Bhutan and
Costa Rica were systematized;
• Management arrangements among countries:
the nucleus of the programme was formed by
the national mechanisms designated by the
Governments of Benin, Bhutan and Costa Rica,
which were responsible for the programme’s daily
management in their respective countries. Each
national mechanism had its own administrative
implementation budget. Overall administration was
the responsibility of the secretariat, whose main
roles included implementing management board
decisions, monitoring progress, administering funds,
preparing and storing official documents (multi-year
plans, annual reports, annual audits), and promoting
programme results and impact. At the top, the Joint
Committee, comprised of high-level government
and civil society representatives from each partner
country, provided political support and policy
direction to enhance implementation, viability,
sustainability and, eventually, the enlargement of
the South-South partnership and concept; and
• Triangular cooperation: the Embassy of the
Netherlands in Costa Rica was kept informed of
programme activities and decisions and was free
to offer suggestions or express reservations at any
point in the process. The Embassy received financial
and technical reports and was often consulted by
the programme’s staff in Costa Rica.
The value of allowing the Southern partners to
take ownership was reflected in the impressive
results achieved. The programme involved over
180 organizations, and more than 200 communitybased organizations benefited. It recognized that the
participation of local and community organizations
ensured project continuation in the medium and long
terms by creating a strong sense of ownership among
the stakeholders.
Ms. Marianella Feoli, Executive Director,
Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo Sostenible
[email protected]
Project name: Programme of South-South Cooperation for Sustainable Development between Benin, Bhutan and Costa
Countries: Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 5.a, 5.b, 5.c, 5.5, 7.a, 7.b, 12.a, 12.2, 12.8, 13.b, 13.1, 13.3, 15.a, 15.1, 15.4, 15.9,
17.14, 17.15, 17.17, 17.18
Supported by: Netherlands
Implementing entities:
Benin: Centre de partenariat et d’expertise pour le développement durable
Bhutan: Sustainable Development Secretariat
Costa Rica: Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo Sostenible (FUNDECOOPERACIÓN) (the Programme secretariat)
Project status: Completed
Project period: 2007 to 2012
URL of the practice: http://www.southsouthcooperation.net
Related resources: http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/BENINBHUTANCSOTARICA.pdf
Promotion of Sustainable Social Forestry
in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Kenyan Farm Forestry Field School Approach ensures
greater production, higher incomes and better livelihoods while
protecting the environment
Climate change has had a devastating effect on Africa’s forests. Today, the continent’s
forest coverage has significantly diminished and land productivity has slowed as
a result. While climate change is the main culprit, people’s heavy dependence on
firewood and charcoal for energy at home has also played a big role. To make matters
worse, the more frequent and severe droughts of recent years have compounded the
land degradation of the continent.
Towards a Solution
Since the 1980s, the Kenya Forestry Research Institute, the Kenya Forest Service and
the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have worked together to promote
a social forestry approach in Kenya that meets local communities’ economic and
forestry conservation needs. They have developed an effective and innovative social
forestry and extension model known as the Farm Forestry Field School Approach.
Based on Kenya’s successful experience, since 1996, the three partners have engaged
in triangular cooperation to expand this initiative to all of sub-Saharan Africa with the
aim of helping other sub-Saharan African countries to establish an effective approach
to forest conservation and sustainable rural development.
The Farm Forestry Field School Approach is based on: (a) a social forestry model suited
to the semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa; and (b) cost-effective extension methods
that the Kenya Forestry Research Institute, the Kenya Forest Service and JICA jointly
developed. Its effectiveness lies in its social forestry extension methodology, which is
based on the farmer field school model initially developed by the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as an agricultural extension methodology.
Its purpose is to build farmers’ capacity to analyse their production systems, identify
problems, test solutions and encourage participants to adopt practices suitable to their
farming systems. The Farm Forestry Field School Approach also provides farmers with
the opportunity to practice, test and evaluate sustainable land use technologies and
introduce new ones, comparing them to their traditionally and culturally grounded
technologies. Training programmes were organized in other sub-Saharan African
countries that face similar problems.
A systematic, quantitative survey of the initiative’s impact has yet to take place.
Interviews with Kenyan farmers, however, have revealed that training and follow-up
practices have led to increased numbers of seedlings and trees planted and higher
incomes. Furthermore, the interviews showed that the Farm Forestry Field School
Approach has had a social impact on participant farmers, especially women, and on
farmers’ groups in targeted communities. Graduates
from the Farm Forestry Field School stated that farmers,
including female farmers, who were previously afraid
to speak in public now have the confidence to express
their views and improve their livelihoods. The training
also helped many farmers to better manage their
activity resources.
The initiative’s innovation is twofold. Its social forestry
model is made up of several innovative elements,
including a cost-sharing system, a seed/seedling plan
information system, a farmer-to-farmer extension
method and a core farmer selecting method. These
self-sustaining elements, which are built into the
model, have enhanced farmers’ resilience to drought,
conserved the environment and decreased poverty.
Its extension method integrating the tried-and-tested
farmer field school model with Kenyan social forestry,
has enabled the Kenya Forestry Research Institute and
the Kenya Forest Service to widely disseminate their
experiences to local people and share their knowledge
with other African countries as a good practice.
In the Kenyan experience, the key to sustaining the Farm
Forestry Field School Approach is government political
commitment. The Government of Kenya considers
forest conservation a priority and the Farm Forestry
Field School Approach its core extension approach.
More importantly, the Farm Forestry Field School
Approach is inherently sustainable: it contributes to
environmental protection and to poverty reduction.
Individual farmers and farmers’ groups continue to
produce seedlings and to plant trees by applying the
sustainable social forestry approach. Through these
activities, farmers have deepened their awareness of
methods to improve their livelihoods, a key factor for
has mainstreamed the initiative into its forestry
extension approach, which was then adopted by
FAO, UNDP and the World Bank for their own projects.
The model in turn has expanded outside Kenya: to
JICA’s forestry management project in Ethiopia, its
rural development project in Niger, and its Green
Zone Development Support Project supported by
the African Development Bank in Kenya, for example.
In addition, the Kenya Forest Service and JICA, with
FAO support, have developed the Farm Forestry Field
School Implementation Guide for governments and
donors interested in the approach. The Kenya Forest
Service and JICA have also developed the Facilitator
Training Tool for Forestry Field School Session Quality
Control, a multimedia learning guide.
The initiative’s stakeholders include: (a) the Kenya
Forestry Research Institute, the Kenya Forest Service,
and Kenyan national institutions under the Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources, which together
serve as a centre of excellence committed to sharing
their knowledge and experience with other African
countries; (b) officials and experts of the forestry sector
in 20 countries of sub-Saharan African, who are the
direct beneficiaries through whom many farmers and
stakeholders have gained practical knowledge and
methodologies on sustainable social forestry; (c) JICA,
which facilitated the Institute’s knowledge-sharing with
other African countries, providing financial, technical
and logistical support; and (d) FAO, which supported
the Kenya Forest Service and JICA in developing an
implementation guide for social forestry methods.
Office for Global Issues and Development Partnership
Operations Strategy Department, JICA
[email protected]
The Farm Forestry Field School Approach is highly
replicable in similar development settings. Kenya
Project name: Promotion of Sustainable Social Forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa
Countries: Kenya and about 20 countries in sub-Saharan Africa
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 15.1, 15.2, 15.3
Supported by: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Implementing entities: Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya Forest Service
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 1996 to present
URL of the practice: Internal Ex-Post Evaluation for Technical Cooperation Projects by JICA. Available from
Related resources: Farmer Field School Implementation Guide: Farm Forestry and Livelihoods Development; Facilitator
training tool for forest field school session quality control (brochure); Multimedia learning guide.
Triangular Cooperation between Costa
Rica, Morocco and Germany for the
Sustainable Management and Use of
Forests, Protected Areas and Watersheds
Costa Rica, Morocco and Germany share knowledge on conserving
forest ecosystems, addressing water scarcity and drought, and
combating desertification
Climate change is forcing many countries to struggle with desertification, forest
fires and the unsustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems. Since the mid-1990s, the
Government of Costa Rica has sought solutions that enable it to improve its watershed
management practices and prevent and fight forest fires. Morocco meanwhile has
long-standing expertise in this field and, for its part, is interested in harnessing Costa
Rica’s world-famous experience in exploiting the socioeconomic potential of its
national parks and protected areas as well as its experience in handling payments for
forest environmental services.1
Towards a Solution
In 2013, Costa Rica, Morocco and Germany launched a cooperation project to
strengthen the sustainable management and use of forests, protected areas and
watersheds. The project responds to the needs of each country through knowledgesharing on topics in which the partner country has expertise. For example, in the last
20 years, Costa Rica has made a great deal of progress in environmental protection
and the sustainable management and use of natural resources. It has thus shared its
knowledge and experience in the conservation of forest ecosystems and ecotourism
with Morocco. Morocco in turn has shared with Costa Rica its experience and knowledge
in addressing water scarcity and drought and in combating desertification as well as
its highly efficient techniques for watershed area management. The two countries
organized training sessions. With Moroccan support, Costa Rica is now creating
software that enables it to use static and dynamic risk maps of forest fires for the Costa
Rican pilot region of Guanacaste. Meanwhile, Morocco is planning to implement a
national strategy on protected areas to preserve natural and cultural heritage as part
of a vision of sustainable development, an area for which the Costa Rican experience
will be of great interest. Germany has been an active partner in the implementation of
the project, including through planning, organization of technical exchanges, capacity
development and funding.
© Fundecooperación
The key methodological approach of this partnership includes:
• Exchange and knowledge-sharing activities during implementation: workshops,
field trips and training (17 visits guided by the institutional focal points in Costa
Rica and Morocco) were conducted involving 86 representatives of ministries,
administrations, private enterprises and non-governmental organizations of
both countries. Technicians travelled to the other partner country to support the
implementation of pilot projects, using support through e-mail, Skype and other
technological resources. Regular communication
was promoted among focal points and beneficiaries
to attain a successful result that responded to the
needs and realities of each country;
• Application of knowledge in the field is also essential:
Pilots projects are implemented in each country in
light of the other country’s successful actions;
• Active participation of beneficiaries beginning at
the conceptualization phase: In order to respond
to the project’s aims, the active participation of
beneficiaries from the outset was a key factor in
validating the process of knowledge-sharing and
in identifying the needs of each country in specific
thematic areas; and
• South-South cooperation replication: Experiences
of this cooperation were shared with other Arab
States and North African countries and cooperation
The approach adopted is based on a mutual learning
process, the integration of ongoing national actions
and the implementation of new pilot actions in the
main thematic areas of mutual interest and benefit to
the two countries. This approach has ensured strong
national ownership and commitment, which will
significantly increase project sustainability.
The project was implemented with financial
contributions from the three countries and the active
participation of national organizations. Germany
supported the implementation of the project in both
countries, with funding from the German Ministry
for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Fondo Regional para la Cooperación Triangular en
América Latina y el Caribe and management by
colleagues of the German Agency for International
Development (GIZ) based in Rabat and working on
the BMZ-supported Silva Mediterranea-Collaborative
Partnership on Mediterranean Forests (CPMF). In
Costa Rica, the Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo
Sostenible was the focal point in alliance with the
Ministry of Environment and Energy, supported by or in
cooperation with relevant institutions and organizations
such as the National System of Conservation Areas
(SINAC), the National Forestry Financing Fund
(FONAFIFO), the Costa Rica Tourism Board (ICT), the
Advisory Commission on Land Degradation (CADDETI)
and the Foundation for the Development of the
Central Volcanic Range (FUNDECOR). In Morocco, the
High Commission on Water, Forests and Combating
Desertification was the focal point, supported by
or in cooperation with relevant institutions and
organizations active in the field of sustainable forest
management and the sustainable use of forest goods
and services in the context of climate change.
Ms. Marianella Feoli, Executive Director
Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo Sostenible
[email protected]
Mr. Abderrahim Houmy, High Commission on Water,
Forests and Combating Desertification
[email protected]
Mr. R. Alexander Kastl, GIZ
[email protected]
Project name: Triangular Cooperation Project between Costa Rica, Morocco and Germany to Improve the Sustainable
Management and Use of Forests, Protected Areas and Watersheds in the Context of Climate Change
Countries: Costa Rica, Germany, Morocco
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 13.b, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 15.a, 15.b, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.9, 17.9, 17.16, 17.17
Supported by: Costa Rica, Germany, Morocco
Implementing entities:
Costa Rica: Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo Sostenible, the Ministry of Environment and Energy, relevant institutions
and organizations
Morocco: High Commission on Water, Forests and Combating Desertification, relevant institutions and organizations
Germany: GIZ
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2013 to 2016
URL of the practice: https://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/28717.html
Regional Hub of Civil Service in Astana
Strengthening civil service capacity and effectiveness through a
Southern-led centre of excellence
Recent development trends show that in order for civil service to contribute to the
achievement of national development objectives, new skills, responsibilities and
systems are needed that transform it into a civil service that promotes the publicinterest functions effectively and fairly in the exercise of public authority, delivers public
services efficiently and gains the public’s confidence.
After gaining independence, many countries in the Commonwealth of Independent
States region embarked on institutional and civil service reforms. There was a growing
recognition in the region that learning from neighbouring countries was an important
channel, given the many development similarities, including challenges to be faced.
However, the region’s existing models of civil service vary significantly, especially on
issues relating to legislative regulations of civil service management, the mechanisms for
the selection and career development of civil servants, and the presence of authorized
bodies. The region’s experience in the last decade has shown that successful reform
of the civil service requires not only specific national legislation and public debate
but also strong capacity development to implement reforms, extensive knowledge
management, and experience exchange with countries in similar situations through
the creation of hubs of excellence.
Towards a Solution
Between 2013 and 2017, the Government of Kazakhstan is collaborating with UNDP
on the Southern-led centre of excellence known as the Regional Hub of Civil Service
in Astana. The Hub was established to (a) serve as a multilateral institutional platform
for continuous exchange of experience and knowledge in the field of civil service
development; (b) stimulate civil service transformations through capacity development;
and (c) produce innovative approaches through evidence-based solutions informed
by a comprehensive research and policy agenda. Hub membership has grown from
an initial 25 participating countries to 34. Its expanding geographical range
from the Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States region, the
Caucasus and Central Asia region and the North America region to the countries
of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations shows that civil service reform is a
constant and universal need.
Since its inception in March 2013, the Hub has championed the exchange of civil
service experience through joint initiatives, peer learning, capacity development
events, research and knowledge products across its participating countries. It has also
promoted regional as well as interregional cooperation on civil service system reforms.
The Hub has provided participating countries with a platform for seeking common
solutions and sharing their own practices and ideas. It also has strengthened ties
among the national civil service agencies at the institutional level. For example, the
Ministry of Information Society and Administration of
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is studying
the model of the Academy of Public Administration
of Kazakhstan as part of a process to establish its
own public administration academy. Similarly, the
civil service commissions of Azerbaijan, Belarus and
Kyrgyzstan have drawn inferences from laws and bylaws of Georgia and Kazakhstan on civil service when
drafting their own legislation.
The Hub also invests in innovative approaches. For
example, with substantial support from UNDP, the
Hub launched the Innovative Solutions Scheme
aimed at supporting initiatives for the modernization
of public administration and encouraging innovation
and creativity in public institutions. The purpose of the
scheme is to recognize effective innovative solutions in
civil service and encourage more effective civil service
systems and more efficient public service delivery.
The scheme helps to improve countries’ competitive
advantage and create a knowledge management
framework, which will help governments to establish
networks, increase awareness and information-sharing,
develop learning tools, promote capacity-building and
foster policy development. It functions as a multistage
mechanism that enables the identification of successful
innovative solutions in public administration.
In order to ensure the sustainability of such an initiative,
the following conditions must be met: effective
communication with all national and international
stakeholders; a sustained demand-driven agenda;
facilitation of dialogue without politicization; an
effective resource mobilization strategy; innovative
capacity development and research modules; and a
sustained sense of ownership and involvement of the
participating countries. In this regard, the Steering
Committee and the Advisory Board, which include
representatives and experts from different regions,
play an important role.
In 2014, the Government of Kazakhstan signed
an agreement with UNDP to provide institutional
and financial support to the Hub, with Kazakhstan
allocating $14 million until 2017. The Hub enjoys close
and fruitful cooperation with the UNDP Global Centre
for Public Service Excellence, the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development, the UNDP
Istanbul Regional Hub, the United Nations Public
Administration Network and the American and Asian
Societies for Public Administration, to name a few.
Mr. Yernar Zharkeshov, Portfolio Manager/Team Leader
of the Regional Hub of Civil Service in Astana
[email protected]
Mr. Murat Narkulov, Programme Associate, Governance
and Local Development Unit, UNDP country office in
[email protected]
Project name: Institutional Support to the Regional Hub of Civil Service in Astana
Countries: Kazakhstan-led centre of excellence with 32 participating countries
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 16.a, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.9, 17.9, 17.16, 17.17
Supported by: Government of Kazakhstan, UNDP
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2014-2017
URL of the practice: http://www.regionalhub.org/
Related resources: Hub e-journal: International Journal for Civil Service Reform and Practice.
Case study of anti-corruption drive in Georgia.
Joint Hub-UNDP Global Centre for Public Service Excellence paper on meritocracy
Summary report of the workshop on developing research capacities.
Regional Initiative for Civil Service
Capacity Enhancement in South Sudan
Strengthening civil service capacity and effectiveness through a
Southern-led centre of excellence
South Sudan is the youngest country in the world. Following independence on 9 July
2011, there was widespread understanding that the country’s stability and security were
of prime importance. South Sudanese people were living in some of the world’s worst
human development conditions and they demanded a state capable of delivering
security and basic services. The functioning of the South Sudanese State depended on
the emergence of a relatively viable State apparatus staffed by civil servants capable
of and willing to provide governance and to deliver services to the population – an
extraordinarily scarce resource after decades of devastating conflict. Building and
strengthening state institutions remained a top priority not only for the country but
for the entire region.1
Towards a Solution
Between 2011 and 2015, the Regional Initiative for Civil Service Capacity Enhancement
in South Sudan, established by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development
(IGAD) and the Government of South Sudan, tackled this challenge. The Initiative built
on existing bilateral agreements while IGAD provided the project’s political framework
and regional legitimacy. Under the Initiative in the first phase of the project, which
ended on 30 September 2013, three neighbouring countries – Ethiopia, Kenya
and Uganda – seconded to South Sudan 200 civil servants in key functions
identified by the Government of South Sudan. Kenya deployed 80, Ethiopia 60
and Uganda 60 personnel. These deployments served as a capacity boost towards
developing local capacity through ‘before and after twinning’ before and with South
Sudanese counterparts in peer-to-peer coaching partnerships. The deployed civil
servants remained on their sending countries’ payroll throughout the project, making
these individual contributions among the largest of any South-South assistance for
post-conflict State-building to date. Norway funded civil servants’ technical allowances
and the costs of project support and management.
The IGAD Initiative is an example of triangular-organized, donor-supported South-South
cooperation in coaching and mentoring for civil service capacity. The model has been
gradually promoted for fragile states, with the growing understanding that involving
neighbouring countries is the most suitable approach to capacity development since
they can benefit from their cultural and linguistic affinity, and knowledge of local and
regional conditions. Furthermore, compared to traditional technical assistance, the
Initiative provides a cost-effective model with an average price tag of around $50,000
per civil service support officer per year, including all project costs.
The project’s first phase provided technical support for
institutional strengthening through the formulation
of legal, regulatory and policy frameworks, including
regulation of conduct of business enacted by the
National Legislative Assembly. In addition, the project
helped to harmonize and develop sectoral policies
in support of the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology, the Ministry of Housing and Physical
Planning, the Ministry of Labour, Public Service
and Human Resource Development, the Ministry
of Agriculture, Forestry, Cooperative and Rural
Development, the Ministry of Livestock and Animal
Resources and the Ministry of Interior. A second phase
of the programme was implemented in October 2013
and will continue to December 2018, based on the
same triangular cooperation model.
In order for this initiative to be sustainable, the project
ensured coordination between the Ministry of Labour,
Public Service and Human Resource Development and
the receiving institutions and ministries. The creation
of forums for direct and regular consultation with all
levels of government, enhanced communication and
engagement in project implementation, monitoring
and evaluation. Flexibility is also necessary to optimize
results on capacity development. Furthermore, to
strengthen the recruitment process of civil service
support officers in IGAD countries, South Sudan was
involved at all recruitment phases in order to identify
the skills and experiences that it needed. Finally,
policy measures for crisis response were also crucial to
address unforeseen insecurity incidents, which could
cause delay in the deployment of civil service support
officers. Replication of this initiative in other postconflict countries would need to take into account
similar issues and challenges.
The Initiative complements the UNDP Rapid Capacity
Placement Initiative, which placed United Nations
Volunteers at the state level, and other interventions
supported by the United States Agency for International
Development, the German Agency for International
Development (GIZ), South Africa, and the Government
of Kenya’s technical cooperation, among others. IGAD
worked closely with these partners to support the
establishment of a management services directorate
in the Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human
Resource Development. UNDP supported the project
as the technical, administrative and management
partner for all actors involved.
Ms. Catherine Waliaula, Project Manager, Support to
Public Administration, UNDP South Sudan
[email protected]
Project name: Regional Initiative for Capacity Enhancement in South Sudan
Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda
Sustainable Development Goal target(s): 16.a, 17.9
Supported by: Norway
Implementing entities: Intergovernmental Authority on Development, Government of South Sudan, UNDP South
Project status: Completed
Project period: Phase I (December 2010 - September 2013), Phase II (October 2013-December 2018)
URL of the practice: http://www.ss.undp.org/content/south_sudan/en/home/library/south-sudan--other-reports/
Strengthening the Technical and
Functional Skills of Supreme Audit
Institutions, National Parliaments and
Civil Society for the Control of Public
Finances in Portuguese-speaking African
Countries and Timor-Leste
A partnership to promote economic governance through SouthSouth cooperation
In the past decade, the Portuguese-speaking countries of Angola, Cabo Verde, GuineaBissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, and Timor-Leste have experienced
significant progress in economic governance. Recent public finance management
reforms are the main reason for this success. However, weaknesses, including
inadequate institutional capacity, skills and human resources, continue to hamper
their public administration systems. This situation has undermined effective public
finance management, budgetary oversight and control of public resources, which has
significant adverse impacts on other governance and development sectors.1
Towards a Solution
Since 2014, the European Development Fund (EDF), National Authorizing Officers
(NAO) of Timor-Leste and the African countries using Portuguese as an official language
(PALOP), in coordination with the European Union, have had a partnership with UNDP to
strengthen good economic governance. The initiative is funded through the 10th EDF
Governance Initiative and cooperation between the NAO and the European Union with
the aim of bolstering the effectiveness of external political, judicial and civilian controls
of public finances in these countries. It does so by strengthening the technical and
functional skills of supreme audit institutions, parliaments, parliamentarians, civil society
and the media. These beneficiary institutions, in particular supreme audit institutions and
parliaments, fulfil an important role in the prevention of corruption and mismanagement
of public funds and facilitate a more efficient and effective use of public resources.
The project’s multi-country intervention logic, grounded in the principles of mutual
benefit, sovereignty, national ownership and equality, creates conditions for participating
institutions to develop synergies and dynamics through the exchange of experiences,
joint learning and South-South cooperation that involve partners in different countries.
The project supports partners’ access to good practices and knowledge in the area of
external control, legislative oversight and public scrutiny of public funds. While addressing
capacity needs in each of the programme countries, the initiative also develops activities
tailored to identify and meet the common needs of PALOP.
The project is working to ensure sustainable access to existing databases and information
in Portuguese. A platform was set up in collaboration with AGORA, the largest online
platform for parliamentary strengthening in the world,
and with the International Organization of Supreme
Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) and the Organization
of Supreme Audit Institutions of the Community
of Portuguese Speaking Countries (OISC/CPLP). In
collaboration with the PALOP legal database (http://
www.legis-palop.org/bd/Home.aspx/Plataforma) and
the work of the Community of Portuguese Language
Countries Open Budget Initiative, the main benefit is
to have a Lusophone branch within the LegisPALOP
database and in the AGORA global knowledge
management platform for parliamentarians (the PALOPTL AGORA Portal available from http://www.agora-parl.
org/palop). The project will contribute to establishing a
multi-country civil society organization (CSO) platform
for PALOP and Timor-Leste, showcasing lessons learned
and progress made by CSOs within the Community of
Portuguese Language Countries Open Budget Initiative.
The initiative’s main partners include PALOP as well
as Timor-Leste. Institutions in Brazil and Portugal, in
particular the Court of Auditors and Parliament, are
technical partners in the delivery of relevant actions.
Financial and technical support comes from the
European Union and UNDP, and the latter is also the
implementing partner and the project’s implementing
entity. The initiative also promotes collaboration and
technical coordination with expert organizations such
as the World Bank, AGORA, the Inter-Parliamentary
Union, the German Agency for International
Cooperation (GIZ), the Conseil régional de formation
des institutions supérieures de contrôle des finances
publiques d’Afrique francophone subsaharienne,
the International Budget Partnership, OISC/CPLP,
the INTOSAI Development Initiative and the African
Organization of English-speaking Supreme Audit
The initiative’s innovation is three-fold:
(a) A shared history of processes, institutional practices,
legal frameworks, cultural ties and fraternity that
unite the African Portuguese-speaking countries
and Timor-Leste;
(b) Engagement with key beneficiary institutions in
the development of the project, which has resulted
in the strong ownership of participating countries;
(c) Establishment of online platforms anchored in other
successful existing global and regional knowledge
management and information-sharing platforms,
such as AGORA, OISC/CPLP and LegisPALOP.
Mr. Ricardo Godinho Gomes, Pro PALOP-TL SAI Manager
and Head of the PMU, UNDP Cabo Verde country office
[email protected]
Mr. Zeferino Teka, Pro PALOP-TL SAI Focal Point, UNDP
Angola country office
[email protected]
Mr. Jose Malam Jassi, Pro PALO-TL Focal Point, UNDP
Guinea-Bissau country office
[email protected]
Ms. Habiba Rodolfo, Pro PALOP-TL SAI Focal Point,
UNDP Mozambique country office
[email protected]
Ms. Milu Aguiar, Pro PALOP-TL SAI Focal Point, UNDP
Sao Tome and Principe country office
[email protected]
Mr. Julio Pinto, Pro PALOP-TL SAI Focal Point, UNDP
Timor-Leste country office
[email protected]
With two years of implementation still ahead, the
project has already directly reached more than
1,300 individuals from the beneficiary institutions,
developing their capacities through peer learning,
expert advice, and access to know-how and cuttingedge information all of which is helping in delivering
relevant outputs and products at the country level.
Project name: Project for Strengthening Technical and Functional Skills of Supreme Audit Institutions, National
Parliaments and Civil Society for the Control of Public Finances
Countries: Angola, Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Timor-Leste
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 16.5 and 16.6
Supported by: European Union
Implementing entity: UNDP
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: February 2014 to December 2017
URL of the practice: http://www.propaloptl-sai.org/index.php/en/
Related resources: Pro PALOP-TL ISC Facebook; Twitter; YouTube.
Knowledge-sharing on Census
The Brazilian initiative helps African countries to bolster their
statistical capacities by training civil servants and sharing
Not all developing countries have the resources and human capital to conduct a
national representative census or high-quality data-gathering on their population.
However, a few Southern countries have successful experiences and are well equipped
to share and assist other countries to tackle challenges in the implementation of
population censuses. In this particular area, knowledge-sharing may lead to a domino
effect where one receiving country can then become a provider country.
Towards a Solution
In 2012, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the Brazilian
Cooperation Agency, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the national
statistical offices of Cabo Verde, Senegal and South Africa came together to establish
reference centres for censuses, using electronic data collection, in the three African
countries. The aim is to share the technical knowledge and experiences of the IBGE
on data-gathering and censuses. In some countries, it also involves sharing technical
devices, such as personal digital-assistant devices (a handheld device that combines
computing, telephone/fax, Internet and networking features), to gather data. This
initiative came about in response to the need of countries for reliable data in order
to undertake policy evaluations, monitor progress, and ensure the transparency and
accountability of national institutions.
The Knowledge-sharing on Census project between the national statistical departments
of Brazil, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal has enabled participating countries to
learn from one another’s local realities and improve national capacity to use data as
a strategic tool to address national priorities and needs. The initiative reinforces the
capacity of (a) participating governments to generate reliable statistics that will inform
their design of public policies; (b) the populations of African countries who rely on
public policies directed to their needs; and (c) the African statistical community, which
will be able to share best practices in planning and management, implementation,
processing, analysis and dissemination of data from censuses.
The initiative includes technical exchanges between Brazilian government officials
and statistical experts of participating countries, workshops for capacity development
and, in some cases, loans of personal digital-assistant devices. The knowledgesharing has led to the increased institutional capacity of statistical institutes of the
participating countries through the training of civil servants and statisticians and the
sharing of technology. The initiative has helped countries to address data gaps and has
contributed to improved equipping of countries to use proper technologies to collect
data and utilize the data as a tool to address individual needs at the local level.
The cooperation among national statistical authorities
has enabled countries to share knowledge and
concrete approaches to common challenges in
designing and analysing data for development. The
ongoing effort gives countries the tools that they
need to conduct a census and become South-South
providers for neighbouring countries. They do so by
building on knowledge transfer with the IBGE, which
enhances national capacity, facilitates decision-making
and addresses people’s needs at the local level. In
addition, strengthening countries’ ability to collect data
has proven to be critical with respect to the Sustainable
Development Goals and national development overall.
The project can be replicated in countries facing
similar situations, provided that the governments of
each country demonstrate an interest in learning from
challenges and solutions in implementing the census
using new technologies and techniques. Statistics
South Africa, the National Agency of Statistics and
Demography of Senegal and the National Institute of
Statistics of Cabo Verde host the reference centres that
will assist other African countries in the use of personal
digital-assistant devices for data collection.
The initiative aims to reach as great a number of
interested countries as possible. It is expected to
benefit 17 out of the 58 African countries that will hold
their population and housing censuses between 2015
and 2024. The project partners include the Brazilian
Cooperation Agency, the IBGE, Cabo Verde, Côte
d’Ivoire, Senegal and the UNFPA country offices in the
three African countries.
Mr. Jaime Nadal Roig, Representative of UNFPA, Brazil
[email protected]
Project name: Knowledge-sharing on Census
Countries: Brazil, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, South Africa
Sustainable Development Goal target: 17.8
Supported by: Brazil, UNFPA
Implementing entity: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2012-2017
Related resources: Press release of the agreement between Senegal and Brazil; UNFPA Brazil.
Regional Public Goods Initiative
Supporting innovative South-South cooperation in Latin America
and the Caribbean
The social and economic well-being of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean,
as in many regions, depends heavily on regional cooperation and the protection and
sharing of regional public goods. These can range from economic development projects
in transport, energy, telecommunications, trade facilitation and competitiveness to social
development projects in health, disaster risk management, environment, housing, and
food and nutrition. By tackling these common challenges together, the countries can
improve the quality of life of the region’s populations. 1
Towards a Solution
In 2004, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) created the Regional Public Goods
Initiative to respond to this need. The Initiative aims to finance projects that have the
potential to generate significant shared benefits and positive spillover effects through
the production of regional public goods, defined by the Initiative “as goods, services
or resources that are produced and consumed collectively by the public sector and, if
appropriate, the private, non-profit sector in a minimum of three borrowing member
countries of the IDB”. Such a regional approach will be a key contribution to achieve
several SDGs, such as climate change, since shared seas such as the Caribbean, river
basins such as La Plata or shared forests such as the Amazon are regional public goods
that need to be managed and protected by neighbouring countries.
The Initiative is based on the premise that Latin American and Caribbean countries share
development challenges and opportunities that they can address more effectively and
efficiently through regional collective action and cooperation, producing benefits that
they cannot achieve individually or only at a higher cost. The Initiative does not finance
projects exclusively for the unilateral transfer of capacity, experience and knowledge from
one country to another country or group of countries and is therefore a prime example
of a Southern-grown horizontal cooperation model.
The methodological approach seeks to ensure: (a) the competitive allocation of funds;
(b) a demand-driven focus; (c) the aims of South-South cooperation, especially horizontal
innovation, knowledge transfer and institution-building in the region; (d) a focus on
operational value chains that generate regional solutions that are mainstreamed into
national reforms or investments; (e) use of the Initiative as a laboratory of ideas for
regional collective action; (f ) collective action whereby partner countries and institutions
together decide their goals and how to achieve them, with equal access to the products
generated collectively; and (g) strategic allocation of resources and thematic focus.
Selection criteria for projects include alignment with the IADB goals, objectives and
priorities (reduce inequality, increase productivity, deepen economic integration), with
cross-cutting issues such as gender, equality and diversity, environmental sustainability
and enhancement of the rule of law considered a plus.
To date, the Regional Public Goods Initiative has
financed more than 130 projects in Latin America
and the Caribbean for more than $100 million.
Several projects have had an outstanding impact in
different areas:
• Leveraging and linking software (regulatory
frameworks) and hardware (investments in
infrastructure) interventions in integration through the
Mesoamerican Observatory for Freight and Logistics
that informs the design of public policies to improve
the efficiency of cross-border transportation systems
that has led to $650 million in IADB investment loans;
• Responding to demand in integration beyond the
free movement of goods, services and capital by
establishing a regional engineering accreditation
system for the Greater Caribbean, generating a single
marketplace and economies of scale;
• Addressing asymmetries and promoting cohesion
through South-South cooperation through the
creation of a single social security database in the
Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), which
allows migrant workers to accumulate pension
benefits across countries and enjoy the benefits in
their country of retirement;
• Promoting the accumulation of knowledge and
innovation through cooperation to design solutions
for the management of high-cost medications to
improve efficiency and generate savings among
public health agencies;
• Generating regional strategies for joint action in
global forums by establishing the Financial Stability
and Development Group among the central banks of
Brazil, Colombia, Peru, the Plurinational State of Bolivia
and Uruguay; and
• Achieving efficiency and quality of public services
through the creation of a regional protocol
for the procurement and quality control of 37
pharmaceuticals in Central America that is also saving
millions of dollars each year for public hospitals.
Countries work together to conceive innovative regional
development solutions suited to their development
contexts and, in the process, partner with institutions
and organizations from inside and outside the region,
including donors, to inform and enrich the process of
regional decision-making.
The Initiative builds sustainability into its model, with
countries generating development solutions through
collective action, forging regional partnerships, and
building local capacities for long-term sustainability
through national development reforms and investments.
Financed regional public goods projects have spillover
effects in scale and scope as they allow countries to join
during execution and adapt development solutions to
different contexts. The model can be replicated in other
regions and applied across regions (e.g., trans-Pacific
public goods) or at the global level.
The Regional Public Goods Initiative partners include:
(a) the public and private non-profit sectors of Latin
American and Caribbean countries; (b) international
or hemispheric organizations, foundations and
cooperation agencies outside Latin America and the
Caribbean that may serve as strategic partners, advisers
and/or co-financers; and (c) IADB, which acts as financier,
broker and technical adviser.
Mr. Joaquim Tres, Regional Public Goods Initiative
Coordinator, IADB
[email protected]
General information:
[email protected]
Project name: Regional Public Goods Initiative
Countries: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama,
Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of )
Sustainable Development Goal targets: 17.9, 17.16, 17.17
Supported by: All 48 Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) member countries
Implementing entity: IADB
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2004 to present
URL of the practice: http://www.iadb.org/en/topics/regional-integration/what-is-the-regional-public-goods program,
Related resources: Regional Public Goods: An Innovative Approach to South-South Cooperation; Twitter 1; Twitter 2
South-South Cooperation Multilateral
Platform on the International Conference
on Population and Development
for Latin America and the Caribbean
A regional tool that facilitates knowledge exchange on sexual
and reproductive health and reproductive rights issues
South-South cooperation has grown exponentially in Latin America and the Caribbean
(LAC) in the past decade. Many of the region’s middle-income countries have become
active proponents of South-South partnerships and have strengthened their capacities
in different areas of the International Conference on Population and Development
(ICPD) mandate. As a result, the needs and demands for ICPD knowledge transfer
have not only intensified but also become specialized. As the countries in the region
tend to strengthen their macroeconomic frameworks, they also express more specific
demands for efficient and effective knowledge in different areas of the ICPD mandate.1
Towards a Solution
In 2012, the UNFPA Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office launched the
Regional South-South Cooperation Multilateral Platform on ICPD, an online tool that
gives users direct access to the region’s experiences. The objective of the Platform is to
encourage and promote South-South cooperation on issues relating to the mandate of
ICPD and UNFPA. It does so by facilitating countries’ access to concrete, results-oriented
knowledge that can be quickly adapted and tailored to country-specific needs and
priorities. Beyond enhancing traditional offer-demand knowledge-sharing between
countries, the Platform broadens dialogue for collaborative knowledge-building and
joint efforts in order to address ICPD-related challenges and priorities.
The Platform is one component of the UNFPA South-South cooperation regional
strategy. The online tool facilitates real-time dialogue, negotiation and exchange
of knowledge acquired through actual experiences at the national and local levels.
Dialogue and exchange take place among peers of national institutions in countries
demanding or offering to share their knowledge in addressing ICPD goals in a
horizontal manner. UNFPA local and regional offices facilitate the exchange and are
in charge of quality assurance, follow-up, accountability and impact reporting. This
online tool consolidates information on the monitoring, transfer and documentation
of government investments and efforts to address ICPD gaps and to enhance alliances
by building on one another’s knowledge and capacities.
The Platform constitutes an umbrella mechanism that addresses the technical needs
of countries through a network of associated governments. All countries can use
the Platform, but some may assume the role of providers and others of recipients
depending on their technical needs. Interested countries can access the platform and,
if they find an area of interest, UNFPA will facilitate the exchange. Through the Platform,
countries can communicate via teleconference and online forums, create and follow up
1 125
on initial exploratory cooperation missions, define the
budget, activities and outcomes of the cooperation,
and monitor and evaluate initiatives.
The Platform has successfully facilitated SouthSouth cooperation initiatives in the region with the
involvement of national institutions in Guatemala and
Colombia and a couple in Africa. The countries that
have already signed memorandums of understanding
for South-South cooperation include Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala and Uruguay (via
multilateral agreements with UNFPA). Colombia
had two initiatives under the Platform: sharing its
experiences in working with local governments,
linking population variables to plan for prioritizing
regional development and sexual and reproductive
health services for young people, and organizing peer
support groups, which began in a pilot municipality
before spreading to all of the country’s health centres.
The Platform facilitates the matching of supply and
demand, identifying country’s strengths and areas in
need of collaboration and facilitating peer-to-peer
exchanges, thereby helping countries in their local and
national development efforts. It increases countries’
ability to access technical and scientific information
and innovative solutions that will enable them to
tackle their sustainable development goals. UNFPA
has contributed with seed funding while governments
provided both financial and in-kind resources.
Institutional costs relate mostly to hosting the Platform,
including the staff who manage, monitor and verify
requests. Countries can also sponsor the initiative
either through financial or in-kind resources, such as
Colombia did by providing $300,000 to increase SouthSouth cooperation initiatives within and beyond the
region. The Platform is easily accessible and can easily
be expanded to other regions. Also, it is available in
English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. The sole
condition for its replication is that countries continue
to use it and designate an institutional focal point.
Partners include the UNFPA Latin America and the
Caribbean Regional Office and countries in the region
(Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Uruguay) that have signed a South-South cooperation
memorandum of understanding expressing their
willingness and commitment to contribute to regional
and extraregional multilateral cooperation horizontally,
following the offer-and-demand principle.
Ms. Selina Banos
[email protected]
Project name: South-South Cooperation Multilateral Platform
Countries: Countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region
Sustainable Development Goal target: 17.6
Supported by: UNFPA
Implementing entities: National Institutions designated by ministers of foreign affairs
Project status: Ongoing
Project period: 2012 to present
URL of the practice: http://lac.unfpa.org/en/node/563 (spanish only)
1 127
End poverty in all its forms
End hunger, achieve food
security and improved
nutrition and promote
sustainable agriculture
1.1 B
y 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere,
currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
1.2 B
y 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men,
women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its
dimensions according to national definitions
1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems
and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve
substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
1.4 B
y 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the
poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic
resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and
control over land and other forms of property, inheritance,
natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial
services, including microfinance
1.5 B
y 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in
vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and
vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other
economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
1.a E nsure significant mobilization of resources from a variety
of sources, including through enhanced development
cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable
means for developing countries, in particular least developed
countries, to implement programmes and policies to end
poverty in all its dimensions
1.b C
reate sound policy frameworks at the national, regional
and international levels, based on pro-poor and gendersensitive development strategies, to support accelerated
investment in poverty eradication actions
2.1 B
y 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in
particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations,
including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all
year round
2.2 B
y 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving,
by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and
wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the
nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating
women and older persons
2.3 B
y 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes
of small-scale food producers, in particular women,
indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers,
including through secure and equal access to land, other
productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial
services, markets and opportunities for value addition and
non-farm employment
2.4 B
y 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and
implement resilient agricultural practices that increase
productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems,
that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change,
extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and
that progressively improve land and soil quality
2.5 B
y 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated
plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their
related wild species, including through soundly managed
and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional
and international levels, and promote access to and fair and
equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of
genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as
internationally agreed
2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced
international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural
research and extension services, technology development
and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance
agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in
particular least developed countries
2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in
world agricultural markets, including through the parallel
elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and
all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance
with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food
commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate
timely access to market information, including on food
reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility
Ensure healthy lives and
promote well-being for
all at all ages
Ensure inclusive and
equitable quality
education and promote
lifelong learning
opportunities for all
3.1 B
y 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less
than 70 per 100,000 live births
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children
under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce
neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live
births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per
1,000 live births
3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria
and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis,
water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment
and promote mental health and well-being
3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance
abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of
3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries
from road traffic accidents
3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and
reproductive health-care services, including for family
planning, information and education, and the integration
of reproductive health into national strategies and
3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk
protection, access to quality essential health-care services
and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential
medicines and vaccines for all
3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and
illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil
pollution and contamination
3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health
Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in
all countries, as appropriate
3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and
medicines for the communicable and non-communicable
diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide
access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines,
in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS
Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of
developing countries to use to the full the provisions in
the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual
Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public
health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
3.c S ubstantially increase health financing and the recruitment,
development, training and retention of the health workforce
in developing countries, especially in least developed
countries and small island developing States
3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular
developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and
management of national and global health risks
4.1 B
y 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free,
equitable and quality primary and secondary education
leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to
quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary
education so that they are ready for primary education
4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to
affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary
education, including university
4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth
and adults who have relevant skills, including technical
and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and
4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and
ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational
training for the vulnerable, including persons with
disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion
of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and
4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge
and skills needed to promote sustainable development,
including, among others, through education for sustainable
development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights,
gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and nonviolence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural
diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable
4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability
and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive
and effective learning environments for all
4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of
scholarships available to developing countries, in particular
least developed countries, small island developing States
and African countries, for enrolment in higher education,
including vocational training and information and
communications technology, technical, engineering and
scientific programmes, in developed countries and other
developing countries
4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified
teachers, including through international cooperation for
teacher training in developing countries, especially least
developed countries and small island developing States
Achieve gender equality
and empower all women
and girls
Ensure availability and
sustainable management
of water and sanitation
for all
5.1 E nd all forms of discrimination against all women and girls
5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls
in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and
sexual and other types of exploitation
5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced
marriage and female genital mutilation
5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work
through the provision of public services, infrastructure and
social protection policies and the promotion of shared
responsibility within the household and the family as
nationally appropriate
5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal
opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making
in political, economic and public life
5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health
and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on
Population and Development and the Beijing Platform
for Action and the outcome documents of their review
5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic
resources, as well as access to ownership and control
over land and other forms of property, financial services,
inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with
national laws
5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular
information and communications technology, to promote
the empowerment of women
5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable
legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the
empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
6.1 B
y 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and
affordable drinking water for all
6.2 B
y 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation
and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special
attention to the needs of women and girls and those in
vulnerable situations
6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous
chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated
wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe
reuse globally
6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across
all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply
of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially
reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management
at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation
as appropriate
6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems,
including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and
6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacitybuilding support to developing countries in water- and
sanitation-related activities and programmes, including
water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater
treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local
communities in improving water and sanitation
Ensure access to
affordable, reliable,
sustainable and modern
energy for all
Promote sustained,
inclusive and sustainable
economic growth, full and
productive employment
and decent work for all
7.1 B
y 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and
modern energy services
7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable
energy in the global energy mix
7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy
7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate
access to clean energy research and technology, including
renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and
cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in
energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology
for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for
all in developing countries, in particular least developed
countries, small island developing States, and land-locked
developing countries, in accordance with their respective
programmes of support
8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with
national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent
gross domestic product growth per annum in the least
developed countries
8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through
diversification, technological upgrading and innovation,
including through a focus on high-value added and labourintensive sectors
8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support
productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship,
creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization
and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises,
including through access to financial services
8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource
efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour
to decouple economic growth from environmental
degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of
programmes on sustainable consumption and production,
with developed countries taking the lead
8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and
decent work for all women and men, including for young
people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work
of equal value
8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in
employment, education or training
8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced
labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and
secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of
child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers,
and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working
environments for all workers, including migrant workers,
in particular women migrants, and those in precarious
8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote
sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local
culture and products
8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions
to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and
financial services for all
8.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries,
in particular least developed countries, including through
the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related
Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for
youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of
the International Labour Organization
Build resilient
infrastructure, promote
inclusive and sustainable
industrialization and foster
Reduce inequality within
and among countries
9.1 D
evelop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient
infrastructure, including regional and transborder
infrastructure, to support economic development and
human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable
access for all
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by
2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and
gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances,
and double its share in least developed countries
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other
enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial
services, including affordable credit, and their integration
into value chains and markets
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make
them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency
and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound
technologies and industrial processes, with all countries
taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological
capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular
developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging
innovation and substantially increasing the number of
research and development workers per 1 million people
and public and private research and development spending
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development
in developing countries through enhanced financial,
technological and technical support to African countries,
least developed countries, landlocked developing countries
and small island developing States
9.b Support domestic technology development, research and
innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring
a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial
diversification and value addition to commodities
9.c S ignificantly increase access to information and
communications technology and strive to provide universal
and affordable access to the Internet in least developed
countries by 2020
10.1 B
y 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth
of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate
higher than the national average
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and
political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability,
race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of
outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws,
policies and practices and promoting appropriate
legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection
policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global
financial markets and institutions and strengthen the
implementation of such regulations
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing
countries in decision-making in global international
economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more
effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and
mobility of people, including through the implementation
of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.a Implement the principle of special and differential
treatment for developing countries, in particular least
developed countries, in accordance with World Trade
Organization agreements
10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial
flows, including foreign direct investment, to States
where the need is greatest, in particular least developed
countries, African countries, small island developing States
and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with
their national plans and programmes
10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs
of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors
with costs higher than 5 per cent
Make cities and human
settlements inclusive,
safe, resilient and
Ensure sustainable
consumption and
production patterns
11.1 B
y 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and
affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible
and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road
safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special
attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations,
women, children, persons with disabilities and older
11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization
and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable
human settlement planning and management in all
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s
cultural and natural heritage
11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the
number of people affected and substantially decrease the
direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic
product caused by disasters, including water-related
disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people
in vulnerable situations
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental
impact of cities, including by paying special attention to
air quality and municipal and other waste management
11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and
accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for
women and children, older persons and persons with
11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental
links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by
strengthening national and regional development
11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities
and human settlements adopting and implementing
integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource
efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change,
resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line
with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
11.c Support least developed countries, including through
financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable
and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on
sustainable consumption and production, all countries
taking action, with developed countries taking the lead,
taking into account the development and capabilities of
developing countries
12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient
use of natural resources
12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and
consumer levels and reduce food losses along production
and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management
of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in
accordance with agreed international frameworks, and
significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in
order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health
and the environment
12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through
prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational
companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate
sustainability information into their reporting cycle
12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable,
in accordance with national policies and priorities
12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant
information and awareness for sustainable development
and lifestyles in harmony with nature
12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific
and technological capacity to move towards more
sustainable patterns of consumption and production
12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable
development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates
jobs and promotes local culture and products
12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage
wasteful consumption by removing market distortions,
in accordance with national circumstances, including
by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful
subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental
impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and
conditions of developing countries and minimizing the
possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner
that protects the poor and the affected communities
Take urgent action to combat
climate change and its
13.1 S trengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climaterelated hazards and natural disasters in all countries
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies,
strategies and planning
13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and
institutional capacity on climate change mitigation,
adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developedcountry parties to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing
jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to
address the needs of developing countries in the context
of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on
implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate
Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective
climate change-related planning and management in
least developed countries and small island developing
States, including focusing on women, youth and local and
marginalized communities
14.1 B
y 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution
of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities,
including marine debris and nutrient pollution
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and
coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts,
including by strengthening their resilience, and take
action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and
productive oceans
14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification,
including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all
14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end
overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing
and destructive fishing practices and implement sciencebased management plans, in order to restore fish stocks
in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can
produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by
their biological characteristics
14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine
areas, consistent with national and international law and
based on the best available scientific information
14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which
contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate
subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and
unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new
such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective
special and differential treatment for developing and least
developed countries should be an integral part of the
World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island
developing States and least developed countries from the
sustainable use of marine resources, including through
sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and
14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity
and transfer marine technology, taking into account the
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria
and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology,
in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the
contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of
developing countries, in particular small island developing
States and least developed countries
14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine
resources and markets
14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans
and their resources by implementing international law as
reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework
for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and
their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future
We Want
Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change is the primary international,
intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response
to climate change.
Conserve and sustainably use
the oceans, seas and marine
resources for sustainable
Protect, restore and promote
sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, sustainably
manage forests, combat
desertification, and halt and
reverse land degradation and
halt biodiversity loss
Promote peaceful and inclusive
societies for sustainable
development, provide access
to justice for all and build
effective, accountable and
inclusive institutions at all
15.1 B
y 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and
sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater
ecosystems and their services, in particular forests,
wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations
under international agreements
15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable
management of all types of forests, halt deforestation,
restore degraded forests and substantially increase
afforestation and reforestation globally
15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and
soil, including land affected by desertification, drought
and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradationneutral world
15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems,
including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their
capacity to provide benefits that are essential for
sustainable development
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation
of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020,
protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising
from the utilization of genetic resources and promote
appropriate access to such resources, as internationally
15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of
protected species of flora and fauna and address both
demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction
and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien
species on land and water ecosystems and control or
eradicate the priority species
15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into
national and local planning, development processes,
poverty reduction strategies and accounts
15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from
all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity
and ecosystems
15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all
levels to finance sustainable forest management and
provide adequate incentives to developing countries to
advance such management, including for conservation
and reforestation
15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and
trafficking of protected species, including by increasing
the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable
livelihood opportunities
16.1 S ignificantly reduce all forms of violence and related death
rates everywhere
16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence
against and torture of children
16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international
levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows,
strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and
combat all forms of organized crime
16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their
16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions
at all levels
16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and
representative decision-making at all levels
16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing
countries in the institutions of global governance
16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth
16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect
fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national
legislation and international agreements
16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including
through international cooperation, for building capacity at
all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent
violence and combat terrorism and crime
16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies
for sustainable development
Strengthen the means
of implementation
and revitalize the
global partnership for
sustainable development
17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including
through international support to developing countries,
to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue
17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official
development assistance commitments, including the
commitment by many developed countries to achieve the
target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries
and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed
countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider
setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/
GNI to least developed countries
17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing
countries from multiple sources
17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt
sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at
fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring,
as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly
indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for
least developed countries
17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional
and international cooperation on and access to science,
technology and innovation and enhance knowledge
sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through
improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in
particular at the United Nations level, and through a global
technology facilitation mechanism
17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and
diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to
developing countries on favourable terms, including on
concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science,
technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism
for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the
use of enabling technology, in particular information and
communications technology
17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective
and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to
support national plans to implement all the sustainable
development goals, including through North-South,
South-South and triangular cooperation
17.10 P
romote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory
and equitable multilateral trading system under the World
Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of
negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries,
in particular with a view to doubling the least developed
countries’ share of global exports by 2020
17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quotafree market access on a lasting basis for all least developed
countries, consistent with World Trade Organization
decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules
of origin applicable to imports from least developed
countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to
facilitating market access
Systemic issues
Policy and Institutional coherence
17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including
through policy coordination and policy coherence
17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to
establish and implement policies for poverty eradication
and sustainable development
Multi-stakeholder partnerships
17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable
development, complemented by multi-stakeholder
partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge,
expertise, technology and financial resources, to support
the achievement of the sustainable development goals in
all countries, in particular developing countries
17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private
and civil society partnerships, building on the experience
and resourcing strategies of partnerships
Data, monitoring and accountability
17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing
countries, including for least developed countries and
small island developing States, to increase significantly
the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data
disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity,
migratory status, disability, geographic location and other
characteristics relevant in national contexts
17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop
measurements of progress on sustainable development
that complement gross domestic product, and support
statistical capacity-building in developing countries
United Nations
Office for South-South Cooperation
Fly UP