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Round Table at 6th ECM : Role of Mathematics in Emerging

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Round Table at 6th ECM : Role of Mathematics in Emerging
Round Table at 6th ECM : Role of Mathematics in
Emerging Economies
5 July 2012
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Introduction
Emerging markets are nations with social or business activity in the
process of rapid growth and industrialization.
Emerging countries are playing a growing role in the world
economy. It is a role that is expected to be even greater in the
future.
Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian
Federation and South Africa form the group of the worlds
largest emerging economies.
At a time when restoring sustainable growth after the Great
Recession is a key priority, they are playing a very crucial role
in supporting the global economy.
Academically emerging countries have or develop the
capability to sustain a significant number of graduate
programs and to offer some of their citizens in Western
institutions attractive positions to return home.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Coordinators & Panelists
Coordinators
Andreas Griewank (Humboldt University, Berlin)
Tsou Sheung Tsun (University of Oxford)
Panelists
Neela Nataraj (Indian Institute of Technology India)
Enkbhat Rentsen (National University of Mongolia)
Gareth Witten (University of Cape Town)
Jin Yun Yuan (Federal University of Parana)
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Broad Outline
1
Numeracy
2
Tertiary Education
3
Rankings & Accreditation
4
Individual Career of Math Graduates
5
Research Culture
6
Mathematics as Key Technology
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION : INDIA
Lower secondary level (grades nine and 10), enrolment rate is
52%,
free and compulsory education to children of ages 6 to 14
(estimated to be 205 million in number) a fundamental right,
Science and Mathematics compulsory.
Senior secondary level (grades 11 and 12), enrolment rate is
28%.
48 % drop out rate due to socio-economic reasons (especially
states like Bihar, UP etc);
Infra structural issues (drinking water, buildings).
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Girls drop out of school. There is a wide gender disparity in
the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates (age 7 and
above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46 % for women.
The low female literacy rate has had a dramatically negative
impact on family planning and population stabilization efforts
in India.
Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided
with additional teachers, while the capabilities of existing teachers
is being strengthened by extensive training under the Sarva
Shiksha Abhiyan (The Education for All Movement).
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION : MONGOLIA
Every year 30,000 pupils finish their secondary schools in
Mongolia.
60 % of them enroll universities and colleges.
Mongolian national school curriculum (contents) is 1.5 large
than Cambridge International Secondary and Russian
curriculums.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION : MONGOLIA
(Continued..)
61 countries have been selected for comparison of their
curriculums.
Mongolian school average curriculum is 2 times bigger than
international average standard.
Since 2011 several Mongolian schools have been chosen
experimentally for launching Cambridge International
Examination.
Mathematics curriculum constitutes 10-12 % of total
curriculum in state schools while it is 50 % in private
secondary schools. Since 2015, Mongolian national Curriculum
will switch to Cambridge International secondary curriculum.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION : BRAZIL
The status of basic education in mathematics and sciences is,
in general, disastrous.
Mathematical illiteracy is generalized. Qualification of
teachers is very low.
Totally 50 millions students at elementary and secondary
schools. 98% children between 7 and 14 years get into
schools. Only 14.6% of students can get opportunity of study
at college or university. 11% can get university degree
(government), but 8% (private survey) Totally 5.92 millions
students. Among all students, only 15% for Sciences,
Technology, Education and Mathematics.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
NUMERACY-ELEMENTARY EDUCATION :
SOUTH AFRICA
12 % of Grades 6 (10 year olds) pupils scored 50 % or more in
Mathematics.
40 % of High School students were not taking Mathematics
at all.
5 % passed Mathematics in the Matric Exam.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION : SOUTH AFRICA
Pressure from Industry for relevant Mathematics and
Numeracy.
Funding for Pure Mathematics under pressure.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION : BRAZIL
Out of 50 million students, 14.6 % attend University and
Colleges.
2378 University and Colleges where 278 are public, rest are
private.
15 % undergraduate courses are on Engineering and Sciences.
35 % students study administration, law and education.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION : MONGOLIA
In Mongolia there are more than 114 universities and colleges.
7 universities are state and the rest of them is private.
90 % of universities are business and economics colleges.
The main university is National University of Mongolia which
has more than 20,000 students and 1200 teaching staff. The
university is ranked in 2500 among 6000 world universities.
All economics students learn calculus & operations research.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION : Continued
School of mathematics and computer sciences has 200
students and 60 teaching staff.
Curriculum of mathematics has changed much at Economic
Schools since 1990 in order to meet societys demand.
Mongolia has made an economic transition from centralized
and planned economy into market economy.
New subjects such as Mathematical Economics, Game theory,
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics have been added to the
university curriculum in order to understand market
phenomenon.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
TERTIARY EDUCATION : INDIA
Technical education has grown rapidly in recent years.
nation graduates over 500,000 engineers (with 4-yr
undergraduate degrees) annually,
In addition, the nation graduates over 1.2 million scientists.
India’s annual enrollment of scientists, engineers and
technicians now exceeds 2 million.
There are more than 690,000 students of science and maths
graduating every year - much higher than China, Japan, the
US and Europe.
As of 2011, India has
about 500 universities, 5 institutions established and
functioning under the State Act, 16000 colleges as
Government Degree Colleges and Private Degree Colleges,
and 33 Institutes of National Importance.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RANKINGS & ACCREDITATION
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RANKINGS & ACCREDITATION : BRAZIL
University of São Paulo (USP) is the best university in Brazil,
ranking well (200).
State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) also is very good
university.
In Mathematics, IMPA is the best institute (better than
USP), USP is the best university in Pure Mathematics, and
UNICAMP is the best one in Applied Mathematics in Brazil.
The CAPES evaluate all undergraduate years and approve new
programs and finance.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RANKINGS & ACCREDITATION: INDIA
The Indian Institutes of Technology (now 15 in number) were
placed 50th in the world and 2nd in the field of Engineering (next
only to MIT) by Times Higher World University Rankings.
Indian Institute of Science is the premier research institute in the
field of science and engineering.
the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of
Management (IIMs), Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), National
Institute of Technology (NITs) and Jawaharlal Nehru University
have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education.
However, India is well behind world class universities like Harvard or
Oxford.
There is a network of research institutions that provide opportunities for
advanced learning and research leading up to a Ph.D in branches of
science, technology and agriculture.
Accreditation for universities in India is mandatory by law unless was
created through an act of Parliament.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RANKINGS & ACCREDITATION : SOUTH AFRICA
South African universities are ranked highest in Africa and top
100 in the world (FT, The Economist etc).
Universities use the ranking agencies to allocation of resources
in order to improve rankings, attract students and faculty and
compete with other universities.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER : MONGOLIA
Mining companies, banking, IT companies and Economic
research centers, also some industries offer jobs for
mathematicians.
Young scientists have high priority to get jobs in Mongolia.
The government invites them to return to the country and
promises high salary.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER : BRAZIL
Offer scholarship for students who study in Brazil or aborad
without TA and RA work (R$1400 for master program,
R$2000 for Ph.D. program tax free).
The initial salary is R$6500 per month after tax, and 13
month salaries per year for fresh professor with Ph. D. degree.
There are Research programs for fresh Ph.D. such as young
researcher program etc.
Every year, researchers can get one chance to participate
international congress abroad.
Every two years, the salary will be promoted one level up.
Young researchers can apply for research fellowship 3 years
after getting Ph.D. degree., Also can apply for Post-doc
fellowship to do Post-doc in other country.
Many open positons for faculty positions in Mathematics.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER : SOUTH AFRICA
Few graduates stay on to follow a career as a mathematician
as they compete for positions with global scholars who the
universities attract for rating positions.
Most mathematics graduates go into industry sectors, mostly
finance.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER : INDIA
The good students prefer to go abroad for post doctoral fellow
positions.
Reasons:
i) high salary (in comparison to Indian salary),
ii) exposure (better opportunity to work with reputed scientists),
iii) good publications.
iv) better job prospects in India - Education sector is having a boom
period with 15 IIT’s, 5 IISER’s, NIT’s, IIST etc.
Take up academic positions in India (private Science and
Engineering Colleges)- Salaries have improved since last 6 years and
retirement age is 65.
Joining private companies or government jobs (arrests their further
development in research).
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
INDIVIDUAL CAREER : continued...
Pursue a post doc in India - (last option)
quality of research in most of the universities in India is not up
to the right standards;
priority to settle down in life with a permanent teaching
position which is easier with the boom in the education sector,
in universitites/insitutes priority for teaching takes over
research.
Majority of girl students don’t really venture into going for a
doctoral /post-doctoral position due to social & cultural reasons.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE : INDIA
Research grants available for Mathematicians.
Not enough motivation for academicians to pursue research.
Permanent job positions do not demand any requirement to
continue research.
Can the country offer attractive positions for a young
mathematician/scientist doing well in the West? NO
The average salary for a starting position (Assistant Professor
position after 3 years of postdoc) is about 1200 dollars per
month along with some basic medical/ housing facilities.
Most of the institutes are not located in metropolitan cities.
Metropolitan cities are expensive and a young mathematician
from a Western country may not find it affordable.
Quality of research is another important factor.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE : BRAZIL
There is not really emphasis on applied mathematics. People just
use applied mathematics to justify the necessity of research funds
from the government. Discrimination on applied mathematics is still
serious problem.
Industry does not trust neither believe that mathematics can help
them. They do not want to put money on mathematics research.
Personal influence is main factor to get research funds from industry.
At energy area, the government has law to force them to invest 1%
of their gross income to research, development and innovation. But
the money in Mathematics research and applications is still very
little. Mathematicians must have capacity of negotiation and
patience with engineers and companies.
Recently industrial mathematics becomes fashion in Brazil.
Industries are interested mathematicians to help them to do
innovation. The government also supports all innovation projects.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
BRAZIL
The federal government and state government invest 1.4% of
their GDP in Sciences and Technology research.
In this sense, FAPESP has much more money than other
states. In Brazil, the progresses in Sciences and Technology
are concentrated on the states São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
In whole country, most research funds are distributed in this
region.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Special Grants in Brazil
There are good grants from the governments, especially in São
Paulo. In general, Industry does not provide any grant.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Special Grants in Brazil
There are good grants from the governments, especially in São
Paulo. In general, Industry does not provide any grant.
INCT-MAT: The government launched INCT - National Institute
of Sciences and Technology Program. INCT-MAT is leaded by
Professor Jacob Palis Jr. The objective of the program is to make
advance for Brazilian mathematics community. It involves almost
all federal universities.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Special Grants in Brazil
There are good grants from the governments, especially in São
Paulo. In general, Industry does not provide any grant.
INCT-MAT: The government launched INCT - National Institute
of Sciences and Technology Program. INCT-MAT is leaded by
Professor Jacob Palis Jr. The objective of the program is to make
advance for Brazilian mathematics community. It involves almost
all federal universities.
OBMEP: Mathematics Olympia for Public Schools (OBMEP) is
organized by IMPA with 19 millions participants each year to find
talents on Math and to improve mathematics ability of students in
public elementary and secondary schools. The program offers
scholarship for 3500 selected students for whole year with extra
directed math study, also for some undergraduate students and
graduate students. We like to prepare good students for Sciences
and Technology.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE : SOUTH AFRICA
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE : MONGOLIA
Mongolia is rich in resources. Economic growth for the first
half of 2012 is 17.2%.
But only 0.2% of GDP is devoted to Science and Technology
which is 5 times less than Russia and 7 times less than China.
Institute of Mathematics was established in 1973 as a part of
Academy of Sciences of Mongolia. Mathematical research in
Mongolia is concentrated in the Institute of Mathematics(IM).
In 1997, during transition period, IM was transferred to
National University of Mongolia.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
RESEARCH CULTURE : Continued
IM has pure and applied mathematics divisions and about 40
academic staff. Most of researchers of IM teach at the School
of Mathematics and Computer Sciences of the University as
part time employees.
Total Ph.D holders of IM and School of Mathematics are 50.
IM is financially supported by Mongolian Science and
Technology Foundation for their approved projects.
IM regularly organizes international seminars, workshops and
conferences and publishes its Mongolian Mathematical
Journal. IM every year publishes 4-5 papers in SCI and SCIE
journals.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
MATHEMATICS AS KEY TECHNOLOGY
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
The industries where Mathematics plays a role/ has a potential to
play a role
Service industries - Marketing, Role of Operations research.
Information Technology industry - Combinatorics, Optimization
techniques are applied
Financial Mathematics - Role of Probability/ Statistics is
well-recogonized , need to do a good Mathematical modelling and
satisfy the demands of accuracy in the real time calculations.
Manufacturing industries - Potential has not been fully utilized
unless in Western countries eg : Volkswagen - auto industry ,
Aerospace industry.
The role of Mathematics in the biological & environmental sciences
provides many opportunities and its full potential needs to be
realised.
Thus emerging economies present a very interesting scenario to
mathematicians in terms of their capacity to meet challenges in different
sectors to achieve the desired objective of employing the mathematical
theory and techniques to solve the problems of national importance.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
CHALLENGES
Do we understand the role of mathematics in an emerging
economies?
Applied Mathematicians/ Practitioners are less in number.
Mathematicians are unaware of the cutting edge problems in
industry.
Lack of experts in Mathematical Modelling.
Lack of experts in Mathematical Sciences to address the
different real economic and geographical challenges.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
How to overcome the challenges?
Interdisciplinary research among the scientists
School level - Application oriented Mathematics
Under - Graduate level Research suggests that engineering
education would be enhanced by the addition of courses in
accounting,
finance,
marketing,
organizational behavior,
commercialization of technology
and strategy.
Promote interdisciplinary degrees in engineering.
Graduate level- Train more mathematicians in applied and
interdisciplinary Mathematics.
Round Table at 6ECM, Krakow 2012
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