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Desempenho anaeróbio e características antropométricas de
81
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício
ISSN 1981-9900 versão eletrônica
P e r i ó d i c o do I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o d e P e sq u i s a e E n si n o e m F i s i o l o gi a do E x e r c í c i o
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ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
OF AMERICAN FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF A BRAZILIAN TEAM
Josielli Comachio1, Gabrieli Comachio2
Patrícia Rietjens3, Margarete Lovato3
José Claudio Perecin4, Otávio Rodrigo Palacio Favaro5
ABSTRACT
RESUMO
This study aimed to: a) analyze anaerobic and
anthropometric indicators in amateur American
football players (AF), and b) to compare the
anaerobic and anthropometric indicators
between the positions of attack and defense.
Forty four (44) amateur players in AF were
evaluated. The players were divided into two
groups: Attack (AG: n=2) and Defense (DG: n
= 23) . Measures of height, weight, body mass
index (BMI) and percent body fat (% BF)
estimated by bioimpedance were performed.
Anaerobic parameters were measured by
RAST test (maximum power: Pmax, average
power: MP; fatigue index: IF), vertical junp and
20-m running. Significant differences were
found between positions for weight, BMI and %
BF It was observed that AG is heavier than DG
(p < 0.05). Absolute differences between the IF
and MP DG and AG groups were found.
Differences in performance of 20m, with
players occupying the Wide Receiver position
being faster compared to other players. We
may conclude that there are differences in
anaerobic and anthropometric parameters
between the positions of the AF players.
O presente estudo teve como objetivos: a)
analisar
indicadores
anaeróbios
e
antropométricos em jogadores amadores de
futebol americano (FA) e, b) comparar os
indicadores anaeróbios e antropométricos
entre as posições de ataque e defesa. Foram
avaliados 44 jogadores amadores de FA. Os
jogadores foram divididos em dois grupos:
Ataque (GA: n= 21) e Defesa (GD: n= 23).
Foram realizadas medidas de estatura, peso,
índice de massa corporal (IMC) e percentual
de gordura (%G) estimada por bioimpedância.
Foram medidos parâmetros anaeróbios pelo
teste de RAST (potência máxima: Pmax;
potência média: PM; índice de fadiga: IF), salto
vertical e corrida de 20m. Foram encontradas
diferenças significativas entre as posições
para peso, IMC e %G. Observou-se que o GA
é mais pesado do que o GD (p<0,05). Foram
encontradas diferenças para PM absoluta e IF
entre os grupos GD e GA. Houve diferença na
desempenho de 20m, sendo os jogadores que
ocupam a posição wide receiver mais rápidos
em relação aos outros jogadores. Conclui-se
que
existe
diferença
em
parâmetros
anaeróbios e antropométricos entre as
posições dos jogadores de FA.
Key
words:
Performance.
Anaerobic
parameter. RAST test. Muscular power.
Speed.
1-University of São Paulo - Post Graduate
Program in Rehabilitation Sciences. São
Paulo, Brazil.
2-Bachelor in Nutrition - University of Cuiabá.
Mato Grosso, Brazil.
3-University of Cuiabá - School of Physical
Therapy. Mato Grosso, Brazil.
4-Academic Director of University of Cuiabá Mato Grosso, Brazil
5-Center for Research in Sports, Health and
Physical Performance - Physics Assessment
Laboratory and Exercise Physiology - Faculty
of Physical Education - University of CuiabáUNIC, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Palavras-chave: Desempenho. Indicadores
Anaeróbios. Teste de RAST. Potência
Muscular. Velocidade.
E-mail:
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício, São Paulo. v.9. n.51. p.81-89. Jan./Fev. 2015. ISSN 1981-9900.
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INTRODUCTION
The American Football (AF) is a very
popular sport in the United States and has
attracted people from over 100 countries
(Holffman, 2008; Vural, Rudarli and Ozkol,
2009). In Brazil, the sport is increasingly
becoming popular and now has more than 10
Professional federations (CBFA, 2014).
The CBFA (2014) explains that the
game consists of a series of short-term events,
involving strategic and tactical actions. With 22
players on the field at the same time (11 per
team), each with an assigned task to move.
The objective of the game is to score the most
points. The main strategy is to enter the area
to the bottom opponent's field with possession
of the ball (touchdown). According to Holffman
(2008) AF primarily consists in repeated
actions for maximum intensities, consisting of
four quarters lasting 15 minutes, separated by
intervals of 20 minutes.
In AF, players have very specialized
roles and there is evidence of differences in
the
physiological
and
anthropometric
characteristics of players according to their
occupied positions in the field (Secora and
colleagues, 2004; Kraemer and colleagues,
2005; Lockie and colleagues, 2012), so the
teams are divided into three separate units:
offense, defense, and special players (Vural,
Rudarli and Ozkol, 2009).
Characterized as a team sport, the AF
demands a high level of strength, power,
speed and agility, performance that is typically
characterized by a sequence of actions of high
intensity, short duration, separated by
moments of low intensity (Holffman, 2008;
Condello, Schultz and Tessitore, 2013).
In team sports, such as the AF, the
activities
are
composed
of
explosive
movements with frequent changes of direction;
runs into different intensities and application
situations of force against defensive actions
(Kin-Isler and colleagues, 2008), thus
characterizing the anaerobic performance as a
fundamental aspect of these events.
Considering that the identification of
physical qualities that discriminate players of
different skill levels can provide information
about the factors that are important for
reproducing selection to high performance
level (Rossignol and colleagues, 2014) and
also important criteria selection for sports such
as AF include the combination of specific
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anthropometric
and
physiological
characteristics (Veale and colleagues, 2008.),
this study aimed to: a) analyze anaerobic and
anthropometric indicators in amateur football
players, and b) to compare the anaerobic and
anthropometric
indicators
between
the
positions of attack and defense.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A transversal study was conducted
with an intentional sampling of amateur football
players (n=44) twice champion Brazilian team
(2010/2012). The players were divided into two
groups: Attack (AG: n = 21), mean age 22.3 ±
4.96 years and Defense (DG: n = 23), mean
age 20.7 ± 6.3 years and for most specificity
groups were subdivided by their positions on
the field, merely considering the positions
wherein the largest number of volunteers
players were presented. The AG (n = 21)
composed of positions: quarterback - QB (n =
4), offensive lineman - OL (n = 5) and wide
receiver - WR (n = 12). The DG (n = 23)
comprising: cornerback - CB (n = 6),
linebacker - LB (n = 9), defensive end - DE,
defensive back - DB and defensive line - DL (n
= 8).
The individuals were informed about
the purpose of the study and signed an
Informed Consent Form, approved by
Committee for Ethics in Research of University
of Cuiaba (CEP / UNIC 2011-220) in
accordance with the provisions of Resolution
CNS 196 / 96.
Anthropometric variables
Anthropometric data were measured
by a bioimpedance (WISO®: W835), according
to manufacturer's guidelines, allowing to
estimate values of body fat percentage (%BF).
The body mass index (BMI) was obtained from
the athlete's weight and divided by his height
squared.
Anaerobic performance
To the estimation of the anaerobic
capacity the run anaerobic speed test (RAST)
and 20-m dash test were performed on
different days, with at least 24 hours between
each test. Before starting both tests, a specific
warm-up, involving stretching exercises for
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício, São Paulo. v.9. n.51. p.81-89. Jan./Fev. 2015. ISSN 1981-9900.
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lower limbs and low intensity running was
performed.
achieved height, being considered the best
result of the three attempts.
Running Anaerobic Sprint Test - RAST
Statistical Analysis
To estimate the anaerobic parameters,
the RAST (Running Anaerobic Sprint Test) test
was applied, according to (Roseguini, Silva
and Gobatto, 2008; Adamczyk, 2011).
The test consisted of six runs with
maximum speed on the distance of 35 meters,
with a minimum 10-second pause among them
(just for turning back). The power in each sprint
was then calculated by the formula: Power =
(Body Mass x Distance2)/Time3. Were
recorded as the RAST anaerobic parameters:
maximum power (Pmax: high power among six
sprints), mean power (MP: average among the
powers of the six sprints), minimum power
(Pmin: low power among 6 efforts), maximum
power per weight (Pmax=W/kg), Total time
(TT: The summation of time of 6 efforts), and
indicator of power decrease (fatigue index: FI):
FI (W.s-1) = (maximum power – minimum
power/TT). The results of MP, Pmin and FI
relative to total body mass of each athlete were
also used as anaerobic parameters for the
RAST (Roseguini; Silva; Gobatto, 2008).
Initially, descriptive statistics (mean ±
SD) was applied to each variable. To verify
data normality the Shapiro-Wilk test was
applied. After verifying normality, Student's t
test was applied to compare the values of
anthropometric indicators, maximum, average
and minimum power, FI absolute and relative
between AG and DG. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA - one way, post hoc Tukey) was
applied to compare values between the
subgroups. It was considered p <0.05 to
identify statistical significance. The data were
analyzed by Bioestat ® 5 software.
20-m dash test
To verify the displacement speed over
20 meters, the 20-m test was applied. For this
test two attempts were made at maximal sprint
over 20 meters with 5-minutes interval
between each sprint, and recorded the best
time (s) to the nearest two decimal places.
Muscular power of the lower limbs
To assess muscular power of the lower
limbs, the Vertical jump test (Matsushigue,
Franchini and Kiss 2003) was used. For the
measurement a five meters measuring tape
positioned on the wall was used. The athlete
was placed next to the wall, feet hip-width
apart and fingers painted with ink. Before
starting the test was verified the total height
with the arms elevated along a 5 meters
measuring tape. Next was begun the test,
instructing the athlete to jump as high as
possible. The jumping was performed three
times, with one minute interval between each
jump. The vertical displacement was identified
by the difference between the total height and
RESULTS
The sample was composed by 44 male
amateur players with average practice time
sport 31.4 ± 27.9 months. Table 1 presents the
mean values (± SD) of anthropometric
indicators from attack and defense groups the
results of comparisons of anthropometric
indicators between positions and between AG
and DG groups. Significant differences were
found between positions for weight, BMI and %
BF.
It was observed that AG is heavier
than DG group (p <0.05). When comparisons
were made between the positions the OL
position players were heavier in relation to
other players, also repeated for BMI and % BF.
Table 2 shows absolute and relative
values from indicators produced by the
anaerobic RAST test values.
Differences between absolute MP from
DG and AG were found, considered the
greatest MP for DG. Differences between
Pmax, Pmin were found in the relative
parameters, when related from the DG to AG,
and significant differences when compared
with the FI shown in the two groups.
Table 3 describes the average results
(± SD) of the motor variables of the players
separate into subgroups related to different
positions.
The parameters of the Vertical Leap
presented no differences when comparing the
positions of the players. Differences in the 20m performance between the positions CB and
DE/DL/DB and OL were identified. Also
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício, São Paulo. v.9. n.51. p.81-89. Jan./Fev. 2015. ISSN 1981-9900.
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regarding performance of 20-m, the players
occupying positions DE/DL/DB are slower than
the players occupying the WR position and
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these are faster than the players of the OL
position.
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DISCUSSION
American Football is a popularized and
large audience sport for the North American
population. In Brazil, it is still a sport that has
been increasing, gaining more followers every
year and has more than ten federations in the
country (CBFA, 2014), thereby have attracted
interest by our group to research on some
variables related to AF (Comachio and
colleagues, 2012; Rietjens and colleagues,
2012.). With the growth of the practice and
popularity of the sport in Brazil, is relevant the
knowledge of aspects of the physical and
functional characteristics of these players.
Studies demonstrate that the best
teams and players are those with high levels of
muscle strength, power, speed and body size
(Burke; Read; Gollan, 1985; Kraemer and
colleagues, 2005) and that the physiologic
requirements are very specific (Lockie and
colleagues, 2012). Hoffman (2008) stated that
the ATP-PC energetic system supplies 90% of
the energy required during sprint actions, with
the glycolytic system contributing 10%. The
contribution of the glycolytic pathway while
performing repeated sprints was observed in
the study by Dal Pupo and colleagues (2010)
finding values of lactate concentration of 10.12
± 1.48 mmol/L.
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Lockie and colleagues (2012) reported
that, as the actions in the AF games are
performed in approximately 5 seconds, with
intervals between the moves of at least 30s,
the tests focus on line speed runs, vertical leap
(which serves as an indirect measure of the
vertical power) and agility trials.
It has therefore been observed in this
study, through the RAST test, that players
operating in DG positions are more tolerant to
fatigue, thus presenting a greater ability to
perform repeated sprints. Rossignol and
colleagues (2014) investigated the relation
between the ability to perform repeated sprints
in two groups of soccer players (Team A selected to play the season and B - not
selected) and found that the ability to perform
repeated sprints in players the team was far
superior team B, suggesting that the
development of physical quality should be
prioritized in the preseason training sessions.
According
to
the
classification
established by Bangsbo (1994), which have
characterized the results of the RAST test, the
relative values of Pmax and MP in the present
study still need to be improved to reach higher
levels of performance, while the absolute FI
presented acceptable. It is known that the
smaller the index value of fatigue is higher the
tolerance of the athlete to the intense effort
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and consequently to fatigue (Bangsbo, 1994;
Krusptrup and Bangsbo, 2001).
In the present study there was no
difference in performance at the vertical leap
test between the positions of the players.
Vural, Rudarli and Ozkol (2009) also found
similar results between the evaluated positions
in Vertical Leap tests on FA players. In this
context, it is suggested that lower limb muscle
power along with the ability to generate muscle
force is an equally important characteristic for
all positions of the game and an essential
attribute for players of AF (Secora and
colleagues, 2004; Vural, Rudarli and Ozkol,
2009). The players need great muscular
strength to confront, lifting, pushing, and other
tasks that occur during matches.
The time that athletes take to move
can determine a successful outcome in a
strategic move, indicating better physical
condition to meet the demands the sport
requires.
In the present study, we found that
players who occupy the CB position are faster
than the players of the positions DE/DL/DB
and OL. Our results were similar to results
found by Iguchi and colleagues (2011), which
investigated the performance characteristics of
Japanese players. Players who occupy the
position named CB, are responsible for
preventing passes on race situations,
intercepting the ball during a pass to give their
team the opportunity to attack, positioned
immediately ahead of the WR, which may
explain their higher speed displacement of that
group, providing a significant advantage for
these athletes.
Another relevant finding is that the
players who occupy the WR position are faster
than those who occupy positions DE/DL/DB
and OL, which once again corresponded to the
results found by Iguchi and colleagues (2011).
Such result can be explained by the function of
WR players, who are fast players moving into
long and short directions, infiltrating the
defense to receive passes and gain yards for
their team, through strategic and offensive
routes. So as already expected the
performance on the speedometer for players of
WR and CB positions were similar, suggesting
that this ability should be much trained and
observed by the coaches.
In this study the average height of the
players (178 ± 0.07) presented similar to the
height of the Japanese players from Iguchi and
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colleagues (2011) that analyzed the second
team bonded to the first ranking of the
university division. However no longer
occurring with fat percentage and in the current
study the percentage of fat was higher than the
Japanese team. On the other hand, the weight
(kg) of Japanese players is relatively greater,
thus suggesting greater muscle mass to
Japanese players.
According to Kraemer and colleagues
(2005) and Iguchi and colleagues (2011)
studies have given attention to compare body
composition and physical performance intra
and inter divisions, demonstrating that body
composition and muscle performance are
essential components to the best teams and
players (Iguchi and colleagues, 2011).
Body composition and anthropometry
of athletes has been studied by many research
(Burke, Read and Gollan, 1985; Kraemer and
colleagues, 2005). In the present study, it was
observed that anthropometric characteristics
such as height, weight and BMI are lower than
the characteristics of players from AF
amateurs and professionals, but similar to
soccer players in studies presented by Burke,
Read and Gollan (1985). The same authors
evaluated the anthropometric characteristics of
players of Australian amateur soccer level and
found values of height (178 ± 6 BM), weight
(77.1 ± 6.8 kg) and fat percentage (15.4 ± 3.6
%). Regarding the percentage of fat, the
values of the present study were higher than
the findings of Burke, Read and Gollan (1985)
and Kraemer and colleagues (2005). The
highest values of percentage of fat may be
explained by the amateur category of the
players and the training period in this sport,
which is still an amateur in Brazil. The sweat
rate should be considered in these players and
so can increase body weight in evaluations.
By analyzing the study of Kraemer and
colleagues (2005) and comparing that with this
study, in general terms our players are taller,
lighter, with lower BMI than professional
players, on the other hand our players have a
higher percentage of fat in detriment to muscle
mass. However, when compared to players
from junior category of the study Lockie and
colleagues (2012), these are higher, with
similar weights and lower BMI.
Regarding
anthropometric
comparisons between the positions of the
players from the present study, we observed
that players who occupy the OL position are
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício, São Paulo. v.9. n.51. p.81-89. Jan./Fev. 2015. ISSN 1981-9900.
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heavier, with higher BMI and% BF than the
other players. The players from OL position
represent the players who occupy the offensive
line, and usually are bigger, heavier and
stronger players. These players are important
as they protect the QB and open spaces for
the runners.
In athletes, it is expected that the
functional and structural characteristics are
favorable to the practiced sport, thus
separating them from the general population.
Such differences may reflect genetic
characteristics and changes caused by the
effect of high level conditioning (Burke, Read
and Gollan, 1985) training. Previous studies on
athletes have shown that motor and energy
skills can be effective predictors for the
success of many sports (Berg, Latin and
Baechle, 1990, Black, 1994; Fry and Kraemer,
1991; Garstecki, Latin and Cuppet, 2004).
Although strength, power, speed and
anthropometric characteristics are desirable
factors for sporting success in sport such as
AF, Hoffman and colleagues (1996) presented
that the perception of the coach to the specific
ability of each athlete is an important
component, especially when the group of
players is homogenous.
However, success in the AF requires a
complex
interaction
between
physical
performance as agility, speed, strength, power
and endurance, as well as abilities and
knowledge about the sport.
CONCLUSION
It may be concluded that AG players
are heavier than the players of the DG. It was
observed that the anthropometric values of the
investigated group AF differ from American,
Japanese and Australian teams studied in the
literature. Players who occupy positions of WR
and CB are the fastest players on the team in
relation to different positions. Moreover, the
vertical leap performance between the
positions of attack and defense are similar.
The players who play in the defensive
positions are more tolerant to fatigue, therefore
showing greater ability to perform repeated
sprints.
It is imperative for coaches to know
and understand the physical and energetic
demands during dynamic matches for training
to be optimized effectively. According to the
literature, AF coaches should emphasize the
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w w w . r b p f e x . c o m . b r
increased gain of muscle mass, speed, agility
and power.
As in Brazil, the AF is developing and
increasing, so it is relevant that other studies
investigate more about physiological and
biomechanical
aspects,
improving
methodologies for the training and preventive
methods, to outline specific training program
and thus improving the final performance.
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Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício
ISSN 1981-9900 versão eletrônica
P e r i ó d i c o do I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o d e P e sq u i s a e E n si n o e m F i s i o l o gi a do E x e r c í c i o
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Address correspondence to:
Otávio Rodrigo Palacio Favaro
Physics Assessment Laboratory and Exercise
Physiology
Faculty of Physical Education, University of
Cuiabá
3100, Beira Rio. Jardim Europa. Cuiabá - Mato
Grosso, Brazil.
Zip code: 78065-900.
Received for publication 05/13/2014
Accepted 09/03/2014
Revista Brasileira de Prescrição e Fisiologia do Exercício, São Paulo. v.9. n.51. p.81-89. Jan./Fev. 2015. ISSN 1981-9900.
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