O papel das Reservas Extrativistas e de Desenvolvimento
The role of the Extractive and Sustainable Development Reserves in the reduction of deforestation and forest conservation in the Amazon Ane Alencar Spatial Distribution of RESEXs and RDSs •89 reserves •70 RESEXs e 19 RDSs •~ 24 millions of hectares •Represent 19% of the area covered by reserves in the Brazilian Amazônia • Hold 8% of the regional forests. Evolution of RESEX and RDS 13.637.932 ha 11.017.837 ha RESEXs e RDSs (Extractive Reserves and Sustainable Development Reserves) Have an important role in avoiding emissions from deforestation They have a historical contribution acting as deforestation barriers For their important contribution on the conservation of forest stocks, they should be compensated and could be receive the benefits from the REDD mechanism The conservation of such stocks is totally dependent on the social and economic sustainability of these reserves and their population REDD can represent an opportunity to support the promotion of an forest based economy more adapted to the Amazon, consequently, helping to improve quality of life to forest peoples. Role of RESEX and RDS on the reduction emissions from deforestation • The efective contribution to the forest peoples to CO2 emissions reduction is: – The protection of forest carbon stocks – The contribution they have to the reducing deforestation in the agriculture frontier Data needed to support the discussion of a REDD project • Calculation of the carbon stocks – Deforestation – Resulting biomass stocks – Biomass and carbon density • Calculation of the actual and future pressure • Indication of the areas under higher risk of deforestation • Calculation of the potential emissions related to the risks RESEXs, RDSs and deforestation •RESEXs and RDSs together had only 1.8% of their forests lost by deforestation •From their 23,100,369 ha of original forest covering these reserves only 416,023 ha were deforested. Individually: RESEXs lost 2,8% of the total forest area (12.422.970 ha), RDSs lost 0,6% of forest to deforestation (10,677,399 ha). Main reasons behind this difference: (1) Geographic location in relation to the proximity of agricultural frontiers and land use consolidated frontiers, (2) Distance and quality of infrastructure and access to the market and population centers (3) Age of these reserves. Recent deforestation dynamic Percentage of the forest lost The lack of investment by the government in promoting sustainable production practices has given incentives to the stabelishment of non forest land uses such as cattle ranching Biomass and Carbon Stocks •~ 6 billions of tones of aerial biomass •Representing a stock of ~ 3 billions of tones of Carbon •Representing 6% of the total Amazon carbon stocks (47 PgC), and the same stocks of entire Brazilian states such as AC, RR e AP •The carbon density on these reserves varied from 97 a 112 tones of C/ha RDS Total Stock (ton C) 1,473millions RESEX Carbon density (ton C/ha) 112 Total Stock (ton C) 1,500 millions TOTAL Carbon Density (ton C/ha) 97 Total Stock (ton C) 2,973 millions Carbon Density (ton C/ha) 100 Carbon stocks by RESEX and RDS 3 billions of tons C Source: Alencar et al. 2009 (Adapted from Saatchi et al. 2007) Vulnerability to future deforestation Scenarios of future deforestation • If the business as usual scenario became true, 38% of the forest area in these reserves will be deforested by 2050. • Comparing these two types of reserves, the RESEXs will continue to be the most vulnerable type of reserve losing 50% of their forests (6.164.412 ha), while for the RDS this proportion would be (2.500.099 ha). • This reduction of the forest cover would represent 21 times the actual deforestation inside these reserves. Potential emissions of CO2 Potential emissions 2050: 3,4 billions of ton CO2 Avoided emissions 2050: (Diference between GOV and BAU) 2,7 billions of ton CO2 RESEXs = 2 Pg CO2 RDSs = 0,7 Pg CO2 The role of REDD in the future of RESEX and RDS 1. Increase value of products and forest economies 2. Support infrastructure to market integration and structure of low carbon productive chains 3. Support infrastructure and human resources to resource management 4. Build internal capacity to co-management and social organization Conclusions •The conservation of carbon stocks depends on the social and economic sustainability of the forest based economies and their population. •Government investments to promote a strong and long lasting forest based economy, based on forest products represent an important step to implement such reserves •It is fundamental to any discussion related to benefits and compensation of REDD to recognize the role that traditional people living in these reserves have to forest conservation Conclusions •Thus REDD projects can help to provide means to improve the quality of life and maintenance of land tenure security of these populations. Such benefits can be promoted by direct payments, subsidies to sustainable forest production as well as the provision of basic rights to these peoples. Main points about REDD and forest peoples •Resources from REDD can be done through direct payments for environmental services •However, direct payments alone will not provide the establishment and consolidation of a sustainable forest based economy •Because of that, besides payment for environmental services, REDD projects have to contemplate investments for economic alternatives. •It is fundamental that REDD projects that benefit the extractivists won’t be fragmented, so the proposal can be consistent and strong, benefiting not only the ones living in reserves under higher deforestation pressure, but also the ones living in remote reserves with low pressure. Thanks Ane Alencar [email protected] WWW.CLIMAEFLORESTA.ORG.BR Support: Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos –SAE Fundação Packard Acknowledgements: Mary Allegretti Vivian Zeideman Leonardo Pacheco Source: Alencar, A. and P. Moutinho. 2009. Aspectos Ambientais das Reservas Extrativistas e de Desenvolvimento Sustentável na Amazônia. Nota Técnica, Centro de Gestão e Estudos Estratégicos – CGEE. Brasilia.