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Slide 1 - English 4 All
Gerunds
and
Infinitives
Gerunds
1. Como sujeito da oração:
Running is a great sport.
2. Após certos verbos:
She enjoys meeting people.
She misses going to parties.
Would you mind carrying my bags?
3. Após preposições:
They’re interested in
dancing.
Why do you insist on telling the same old
story?
He left the room without saying a word.
They are good at
fighting.
4. Após o verbo go – com atividades
recreativas:
Does he always go
surfing in the summer?
They go
fishing on Sundays.
5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas:
The test has started. It’s no use
asking your doubts now.
There was no point in waiting, so we left.
Do you think it’s worth
taking a taxi?
6. Em proibições curtas:
Don’t smoke here. =
No smoking here.
Don’t drink and drive. =
No drinking and driving.
7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo
possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo
(informal)
Kátia insisted on Marcelo’s playing with us.
Kátia insisted on his playing with us.
Kátia insisted on him playing with us.
Infinitives
8. Após números ordinais & para indicar
finalidade:
He was the first runner
to arrive.
I came to school to learn.
She works in order to be able to travel a lot.
9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive
(infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let,
make e have.
She is making him
retype the report.
The teacher let me leave earlier.
My mother had me do the dishes.
Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo
com ou sem o TO.
Gerund & Infinitives
10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos
de gerund ou infinitive, sem
alteração de sentido.
Mother Teresa started to live/living in the
slums of Calcutta from 1948.
Though she faced many problems, Mother
Teresa continued to work/working for
the poor.
11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de
gerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença
de sentido.
She stopped smoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.)
She stopped to smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer
algo para fumar.)
He remembered to turn off the TV. = (Ele se
lembrou de desligar a TV.)
He remembered turning off the TV. =
(Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.)
Summary table for
to-infinitive and gerund
To infinitive
1. Use as subject
Gerund (-ing forms)
1. Use as subject (more common)
Eg: To smoke is bad for you
Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
2. To say why we do things
2. After prepositions
Eg: I got up early to catch the
7am train.
Eg: You can’t live without eating
Eg: Thank you for listening.
3. After some verbs
3. After some verbs
(purpose)
(eg: expect,
afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose,
fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc)
Eg: I expect to pass the exams.
(on, in,
before, for, without, after…etc.)
(eg: dislike,
enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider,
discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep,
can’t help…etc)
Eg: I’ll finish studying in June.
4. After some adjectives
and nouns.(adj=easy, happy,
glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult,
dangerous ...etc; noun = work, money to
spend, something to drink, different ways
to protect her.…etc)
Eg: She is ready to leave.
(adj)
Eg: I am glad to see you.
(adj)
Eg: I’ve got work to do.
(n)
5. Some verbs can be
followed by either
gerund or to-infinitive
Eg: I love going to school/
I love to go to school
4. After phrasal verbs
Eg: I am not good at
dancing.
Eg: I am not interested in
singing.
Eg: John will give up
smoking.
5. eg: begin, continue,
hate, love, start…etc.
6. Used in general sense
(eg: love, like, hate,
prefer..etc)
Eg: I like to swim.
6. Used in particular situations
Eg: I don’t like swimming on
cold days.
* Some words can use
7. No + gerund
both to-infinitive and
Eg: No money, no talking.
gerund with the same
meaning. (eg: love, like, begin,
start, intend, continue..etc)
* Some words can use both
to-infinitive and gerund
with different meaning.
(Eg: remember, try..etc)
8. Stop + gerund.
Eg: Stop talking, stop
writing, stop
walking…etc.
Exercises
http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.infing.i.htm
1. There's absolutely no point in ________ it now. It's far
too late. (to do)
DOING
2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to
wear)
TO WEAR
3. Did you remember ___________ all the lights? (to turn
off)
TO TURN OFF
4. Do you mind __________ the cat while we're away? (to
look after)
LOOKING AFTER
5. She's not used to __________ on Saturdays. (to work)
WORKING
6. Blast! I forgot _________ the milk. (to buy)
TO BUY
7. They offered ___________ me to the airport.(to take)
TO TAKE
8. Old cars cost a bomb to maintain. It's worth __________
a new one.(to buy)
BUYING
9. We prefer ___________ on Friday nights.(to stay in)
TO STAY / STAYING IN
10. We used to ________ football every Friday after
school.(to play)
PLAY
11. I must avoid ________ there for a while. (to go)
GOING
12. She likes _________ to the theatre. (to go)
GOING/TO GO
13. Before ________ the house, I always double check
everything. (to leave)
LEAVING
14. After ________ an exam, I normally go a bit crazy.(to
take)
TAKING
15. I can't stand ________ all week-end. (to stay in)
STAYING IN
16. Look! I'm pretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be)
TO BE
17. Would you like ___________ tonight? (to go out)
TO GO OUT
18. Nobody wanted me __________ the guitar. (to play)
TO PLAY
19. It started __________ .(to snow)
TO SNOW/ SNOWING
20. What time have we arranged _________ ? (to meet)
TO MEET
CONGRATULATIONS!!!
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