Slide 1 - English 4 All
Gerunds and Infinitives Gerunds 1. Como sujeito da oração: Running is a great sport. 2. Após certos verbos: She enjoys meeting people. She misses going to parties. Would you mind carrying my bags? 3. Após preposições: They’re interested in dancing. Why do you insist on telling the same old story? He left the room without saying a word. They are good at fighting. 4. Após o verbo go – com atividades recreativas: Does he always go surfing in the summer? They go fishing on Sundays. 5. Após certas expressões idiomáticas: The test has started. It’s no use asking your doubts now. There was no point in waiting, so we left. Do you think it’s worth taking a taxi? 6. Em proibições curtas: Don’t smoke here. = No smoking here. Don’t drink and drive. = No drinking and driving. 7. Usamos o gerund após o ‘S e adjetivo possessivo (formal), pronome oblíquo (informal) Kátia insisted on Marcelo’s playing with us. Kátia insisted on his playing with us. Kátia insisted on him playing with us. Infinitives 8. Após números ordinais & para indicar finalidade: He was the first runner to arrive. I came to school to learn. She works in order to be able to travel a lot. 9. Usamos o simple infinitive / bare infinitive (infinitivo sem o TO) após os verbos let, make e have. She is making him retype the report. The teacher let me leave earlier. My mother had me do the dishes. Obs.: O verbo HELP pode ser seguido de infinitivo com ou sem o TO. Gerund & Infinitives 10. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de gerund ou infinitive, sem alteração de sentido. Mother Teresa started to live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948. Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continued to work/working for the poor. 11. Alguns verbos podem ser seguidos de gerund ou infinitive, PORÉM, com diferença de sentido. She stopped smoking. = (Ela não fuma mais.) She stopped to smoke. = (Ela parou de fazer algo para fumar.) He remembered to turn off the TV. = (Ele se lembrou de desligar a TV.) He remembered turning off the TV. = (Ele se lembrou de ter desligado a TV.) Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive 1. Use as subject Gerund (-ing forms) 1. Use as subject (more common) Eg: To smoke is bad for you Eg: Smoking is bad for you. 2. To say why we do things 2. After prepositions Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train. Eg: You can’t live without eating Eg: Thank you for listening. 3. After some verbs 3. After some verbs (purpose) (eg: expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) Eg: I expect to pass the exams. (on, in, before, for, without, after…etc.) (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can’t help…etc) Eg: I’ll finish studying in June. 4. After some adjectives and nouns.(adj=easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; noun = work, money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her.…etc) Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj) Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj) Eg: I’ve got work to do. (n) 5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or to-infinitive Eg: I love going to school/ I love to go to school 4. After phrasal verbs Eg: I am not good at dancing. Eg: I am not interested in singing. Eg: John will give up smoking. 5. eg: begin, continue, hate, love, start…etc. 6. Used in general sense (eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc) Eg: I like to swim. 6. Used in particular situations Eg: I don’t like swimming on cold days. * Some words can use 7. No + gerund both to-infinitive and Eg: No money, no talking. gerund with the same meaning. (eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc) * Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc) 8. Stop + gerund. Eg: Stop talking, stop writing, stop walking…etc. Exercises http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.infing.i.htm 1. There's absolutely no point in ________ it now. It's far too late. (to do) DOING 2. Betty refused ________ something more formal. (to wear) TO WEAR 3. Did you remember ___________ all the lights? (to turn off) TO TURN OFF 4. Do you mind __________ the cat while we're away? (to look after) LOOKING AFTER 5. She's not used to __________ on Saturdays. (to work) WORKING 6. Blast! I forgot _________ the milk. (to buy) TO BUY 7. They offered ___________ me to the airport.(to take) TO TAKE 8. Old cars cost a bomb to maintain. It's worth __________ a new one.(to buy) BUYING 9. We prefer ___________ on Friday nights.(to stay in) TO STAY / STAYING IN 10. We used to ________ football every Friday after school.(to play) PLAY 11. I must avoid ________ there for a while. (to go) GOING 12. She likes _________ to the theatre. (to go) GOING/TO GO 13. Before ________ the house, I always double check everything. (to leave) LEAVING 14. After ________ an exam, I normally go a bit crazy.(to take) TAKING 15. I can't stand ________ all week-end. (to stay in) STAYING IN 16. Look! I'm pretending ________ a dog. Woof! (to be) TO BE 17. Would you like ___________ tonight? (to go out) TO GO OUT 18. Nobody wanted me __________ the guitar. (to play) TO PLAY 19. It started __________ .(to snow) TO SNOW/ SNOWING 20. What time have we arranged _________ ? (to meet) TO MEET CONGRATULATIONS!!!