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lgreene
Effect of SciELO Open Access on Brazilian
Scientific Journals
Lewis Joel Greene
Editor, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Professor Titular, Depto. Biologia Celular, Molecular e
Bioagentes Patogênicos Fac. Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP
[email protected]
Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Brazilian scientific journals.
Lost Science in the Third World.
Scielo Open Access
Effect of Scielo-JCR data
CAPES Portal
2
Brazilian Scientific Journals
www.scielo.br
www.scielo.org
• ~1300 journals titles – traditional academic, institutional and
professional in all areas.
• ~400 journals – functional but heterogeneous in quality and
punctuality.
• CNPq, an agency for supporting research, spends USD$ 7,000/year
on 150 journals ≈1 million US$
• Most copies are free to society members, libraries, and are used for
exchange.
• Very few paid subscriptions.
• Very few papers read.
3
Scientific American, August 1995, p 76-83
• Emphasis on being excluded from ISI (JCR)
indexing and citation system.
• Few journals of developing countries are read in
or outside their country.
• Diagnosis was correct.
• Remedy was not.
4
Being indexed is not sufficient.
5
Journal Reality: Visibility + Availability
Visibility
References in Journals
Abstract services
Indexing services
Current contents
PubMed, WOS (ISI)
Traditional
availability
Open access
availability
The paper in hand
Reprint requests
Libraries (institutional subscriptions)
www.scielo.br
www.scielo.org
www.doaj.org
CAPES Portal for Brazilian
academics - www.capes.gov.br
6
Reality of Journals Published in Developed
Countries
• In the First World visibility and availability are
linked by effective libraries supported by
government grants for “overhead” to universities
to pay for institutional subscriptions to journal.
• This situation does not exist in developing
countries.
• Now Brazil has Scielo Open Access.
7
Scientific Electronic Library On Line = SciELO
SciELO-Brazil is Open Access Since 1997
www.scielo.br
www.scielo.org
•
•
•
•
•
Digital, on-line
176 journals in April 2007
Peer-reviewed
No cost to reader or journal
Initiative of BIREME (WHO, OPAS) and FAPESP (State
of São Paulo Research Agency) for the development of
software and for maintaining the Server.
• Brazilian agencies (Bireme, FAPESP, CAPES, and CNPq)
pay the bill, so far.
8
SciELO International
www.scielo.org
• Software is made available to other countries who
use peer-review and the same entry criteria as Brazil.
• Argentina(24), Chile(63), Columbia(22), Cuba(20),
Spain(31), Venezuela(28), are already in the system.
• In development: Costa Rica(9), Mexico(15),
Peru(21), Portugal(13) and Uruguay(6) and West
Indian(1).
• Total with Brazil – 364 journals (April 2007).
9
BRAZILIAN JOURNAL
OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
10
BRAZILIAN JOURNAL
OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
11
SciELO Open Access Publishing
www.scielo.br
The problem: how do you inform the world
scientific community that SciELO exists?
How to reach it? What areas are covered?
What languages are used?
Run ads in Nature and Science? The New
York Times? Google?
12
Being covered by SciELO is not
sufficient!
13
Direct Links Amplify the Penetration of SciELO
www.scielo.br, www.scielo.org
Links from PubMed (1999), the WOS (2000),
DOAJ (2003), Google (2004), CrossRef
(2004) connect directly to the title page of the
paper in SciELO.
These links permit the 35 Brazilian journals
indexed by PubMed and WOS to become
easily accessible to all international scientists.
14
How do You Measure the Effect of SciELO
Open Access on Brazilian Scientific Journals?
www.scielo.br.
15
Total Number of Articles Downloaded from
www.scielo.br (Includes Robots)
Year
Developed
countries
Developing
countries
Unidentified
2002
27,853
1%
1,488,399
4%
203,391
1%
2003
167,638
5%
3,846,977
9%
939,020
4%
2004
1,021,904
32%
12,204,178 29%
9,237,110
35%
2005
1,958,149
62%
24,405,696 58%
15,706,242
60%
What happened between 2003 and 2004?
16
Total Number of Citations
Total no. of
Rank

citations
Title
%
Increase
1998
2004
1008
2043
1035
103
1
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
2
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
937
1928
991
106
3
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
187
790
603
322
4
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
367
704
337
92
5
REV SAUDE PUBL
169
474
305
180
6
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
1
87
86
-
7
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
36
44
8
22
Data from ISI Thomson
Total Number of Citations
Linear Regression
Rank
title
total cites
(2004)
slope (b)
R²
N
(years)
1
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
2043
167,74
0,99
8
2
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
1928
163,10
0,98
8
3
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
790
89,16
0,91
8
4
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
704
48,70
0,63
8
5
REV SAUDE PUBL
474
42,82
0,87
7
6
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
87
13,36
0,89
6
7
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
44
1,86
0,27
7
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
2500
2500
2000
2000
Total cites
Total cites
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
1500
1000
1000
500
500
0
1997
1500
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Year
Year
18
Data from ISI Thomson
2005
Impact Factor
Impact factor
Rank
Title
1998
2004

%
Increase
1
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
0.472
1.161
0.689
146
2
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
0.439
0.824
0.385
88
3
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
0.474
0.740
0.266
56
4
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
0.167
0.370
0.203
122
5
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
0.000
0.143
0.143
-
6
REV SAUDE PUBL
0.134
0.235
0.101
75
7
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
0.051
0.167
0.116
227
Data from ISI Thomson
Impact Factor
Linear Regression
Rank
title
imp. Factor
(2004)
slope (b)
R²
N
(years)
1
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
1,161
0,12
0,84
8
2
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
0,824
0,06
0,86
8
3
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
0,740
0,04
0,83
8
4
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
0,370
0,03
0,43
7
5
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
0,143
0,02
0,58
6
6
REV SAUDE PUBL
0,235
0,02
0,45
7
7
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
0,167
0,01
0,68
8
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
1,000
Impact factor
Impact factor
1,000
0,800
0,600
0,400
0,200
0,000
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
0,800
0,600
0,400
0,200
0,000
1997
1998
Year
1999
2000
2001
Year
Data from ISI Thomson
2002
2003
2004
2005
Immediacy Index
Citations in the same year as publication
Index
Rank
Title
1998
2004

%
Increase
1
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
0.042
0.067
0.025
+60
2
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
0.027
0.057
0.030
+111
3
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
0.090
0.103
0.013
+14
4
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
0.000
0.025
0.025
-
5
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
0.046
0.012
-0.034
-73
6
REV SAUDE PUBL
0.000
0.007
0.007
-
7
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
0.000
0.000
0.000
-
Data from ISI Thomson
Cited Half-Life
Cited half-life
Rank
Title
1998
2004

%
Increase
1
BRAZ J MED BIOL RES
4.9
6.1
1.2
+24
2
J BRAZIL CHEM SOC
3.2
3.8
0.6
+19
3
MEM I OSWALDO CRUZ
6.9
6.4
-0.5
-7
4
PESQUI AGROPECU BRAS
8.2
8.0
-0.2
-2
5
REV SAUDE PUBL
7.5
6.6
-0.9
-12
6
BRAZ ARCH BIOL TECHN
-
-
-
-
7
DADOS-REV CIENC SOC
-
-
-
-
Data from ISI Thomson
Limitations of Present Data
• These data are not completely satisfactory because
ISI data are available for only 22 of 176 SciELO
journals and only 10 are complete.
• Self-comparisons such as total citations for 2004
versus 1998 for the same journal are weak.
23
• The ranking of a journal in comparison with
~4500 journals covered by JCR, in terms of a
specific characteristic, can provide useful
information about the effect of SciELO on these
journals.
• A low percentage in this context indicates a
high position in the rank order and is good.
24
Effect of SciELO on the Ranking of the Braz. J. Med.
Biol. Res. in relation to all other journals covered by JCR.
Data from: ISI-Thomson
Total Citation
28%
N = 4000 ~ 4500
Passed 1275 journals
58%
(30×42.5 )
25
1993
2004
Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. - Total Citations Rank in JCR
Before and After SciELO
58%
Scielo
PubMed
WEB
DOAJ
28%
N = 4000-4500
Year
Data from ISI Thomson
26
Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. - Impact Factor Rank in JCR
Before and After SciELO.
WEB
76%
56%
Scielo
PubMe
d
DOAJ
850 journals
N = 4000-4500
Year
Data from ISI Thomson
27
Rank in JCR Before and After SciELO.
Impact factor
Total cites
40
40
35
35
30
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Journals
28
10
www.scielo.org
www.scielo.br
1.
2.
3.
4.
SciELO OPEN ACCESS increased the readership and
citations of some scientific journals published in Brazil,
but not to the same extent for all.
Until now visits to and downloads from SciELO are to
a large extent Brazilian and show a high prevalence of
users who speak Latin languages.
SciELO must increase its penetration of the
international community (www.scielo.org) and inform
the rest of world that ~50% of the texts are in English.
www.scielo.org is an international consortium of
countries who speak Latin languages and we would
expect them to have the same experience as Brazil. 29
CAPES Portal
• Open Access for Brazilian university professors, postgraduate students and undergraduate students.
• 10,377 international journals and links to SciELO.
• 151 databases.
• 181 institutions with courses in post-graduation.
• ≈ 1.3 million academics have access to this restricted
30
form of open access.
CAPES Portal
• 34 million dollars – paid by CAPES (Agency
responsible for Post-Graduation, Ministry of Education)
in 2005.
• 27 million accesses to complete texts in 2005.
• USD$ 1.26 per access to complete text rather than
US$ 25-US$ 60.
• USD$ 0.35 per access to data banks.
31
CAPES Portal
• CAPES PORTAL and SciELO complement each other by
providing Open Access to the international and national
literature, respectively.
• Before the CAPES Portal (1995) Brazilian scientists were always
1-2 years behind in the international literature.
• Now we and our students can read a paper the day it goes on-line
at the same time as other scientists through out the world.
• A form of “open access” limited to 1,000,000 Brazilian
academics.
32
Many thanks to Abel Packer, Adalberto
Tardelli, Regina C.F. Castro and Rogério
Meneghini (BIREME), James Testa (ISIThomson) for making data available to me
and Clarice Izumi and André R. Abrahão
(Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto,
University of São Paulo) for assistance in
the preparation of this presentation.
33
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological
Research
34
Campus of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo
35
If you haven’t heard,
Brazil will be hexa
champion in 2010.
36
THANK YOU!
37
Total Number of Articles Downloaded by
Country in 2005 (www.scielo.br)
Rank Country
01
Brazil
02
Articles
downloaded
Rank Country
Articles
downloaded
23045449
11
Venezuela
63172
Portugal
877094
12
Turkey
46121
03
Great Britain
182686
13
Philippines
31026
04
Spain
159514
14
South Korea
23551
05
Canada
124939
15
South Africa
20975
06
France
98054
16
Sweden
16816
07
Colombia
95032
17
Vietnam
12084
08
Argentina
83244
18
Denmark
9103
09
Chile
78984
19
Russia
8925
10
Germany
68659
20
Finland
1021
38
National versus International Scientific Journals
The best Brazilian science is
published in high impact
international journals.
39
Research Articles (x10-3)
Number of Research Articles Indexed by ISI
30
South Korea
25
20
Brazil
15
10
Argentina
5
0
1994
Chile
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
Year
40
Why Publish National Scientific Journals
1. Memory of national scientific production.
2. To inform scientists and society of progress
in science.
3. To define and implement criteria of quality
for doing science and publishing science.
41
Why Publish National Scientific Journals
4. To communicate the results of research of
national or regional interest.
5. To communicate the results of Brazilian
research to the rest of the world.
6. To stimulate the development and
consolidation of research areas in Brazil.
42
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