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Práticas de Educação Especial à Luz do Modelo Biopsicossocial:

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Práticas de Educação Especial à Luz do Modelo Biopsicossocial:
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION POLICIES AND
PRACTICES IN PORTUGAL:
The implementation of Decree-Law No 3/ 2008
Mónica Silveira-Maia & Manuela Sanches-Ferreira
Special Education Department
School of Education, Porto Polytechnic Institute
SENnet Meeting
March, 2014
Overview

Inclusive education policies – strengthening the connection
between practices and the state of the art

Portuguese legislation: the Decree-Law No. 3/ 2008

Lessons Learnt from Decree-law No.3/ 2008
implementation
Development and
implementation of inclusive
education policies
Philosophy/The
ories
Legislation
Practices/
Implementation
Adapted from Steer (2009)
Philosophy and Theory
HUMAN RIGHTS
AND VALUES
KNOWLEDGE
3rd generation of
disability understanding
Promoting the right and
a culture of diversity
Respecting the
diversity of needs
Needs – gap between
students’ capacities
and contextual
demands
The right to
participate –
accessing supports
Support – resources
or strategies that
promote personenvironment fitness
INCLUSION
A gestalt between
rights, values and
knowledge
International trends Practices - Implementation
Finding better ways of responding to diversity
PHILOSOPHY AND THEORY
PRACTICESIMPLEMENTATION
HUMAN
RIGHTS AND
VALUES
A culture of
diversity
KNOWLEDGE
Focus on personenvironment
interaction
A process of
environmental
habilitation
Respecting the
diversity of needs
Needs – gap between
students’ capacities
and contextual
demands
Person-centred planning;
participation-oriented
goals
The right to
participate –
accessing supports
Support – resources
or strategies that
promote personenvironment fitness
Participation as a result
from personenvironmental interaction
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
(ICF-CY): a person-environment fit approach in education
Neutral Language
Multidimensional/
Interactional Approach
Universal
Language
Health Condition
(disorder/ disease)
Body functions and
structures
Activities
Participation
(full to limitations)
(full to restrictions)
(intact to impairment)
Environmental
factors
(barriers-facilitators)
Personal
factors
World Health Organization (2001; 2007)
Development and implementation
of inclusive education policies
Philosophy/Theories
HUMAN RIGHTS
AND VALUES
KNOWLEDGE
Legislation
Legislation
Practices/
Implementation
WHO is eligible?
HOW to assess?
Person-centred
planning; participationoriented goals
WHAT resources,
methods/strategies?
WHOM?
Participation as a result
from personenvironmental
interaction
’the way in which a problem is
Development and implementation
described says a great deal about
of inclusive education policies
how it will be resolved’ (Kirp, 1982).
Philosophy/Theories
HUMAN RIGHTS
AND VALUES
KNOWLEDGE
Legislation
Legislation
Practices/
Implementation
WHO is eligible?
How Portuguese
HOW to assess?
Person-centred
planning; participationoriented goals
WHOM?
Participation as a result
from personenvironmental
interaction
Legislation prompted the
connection between
practices
the state of
WHATand
resources,
the art?
methods/strategies?
Portuguese Legislation
Strengthening the connection between practices and the state of the art
12 years of compulsory education
Law # 85/2009
Decree-Law #
3/2008
Decree-Law #
281/2009
National System for
Early Childhood
Intervention
Specialized Supports
(Pre-school to Secondary
education)
Ordinance #
275-A/2012
Supporting the postschool transition
Portuguese Legislation – Decree-Law No. 3/ 2008
Strengthening the connection between practices and the state of the art
Promotion of Inclusive School
Partnerships
The educative
responses in
IEP belong to
the whole plan
of schools
Cap. I
Goals,
and
guiding
principals
Goals,framework
framework
and
guiding
principals
Cap. II
Referral and Assessment procedures
Cap. III &
IV
Individualised Education Plan (IEP) and
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) and Educational
measures
Cap. V
Specific Modalities of Education
Cap. VI
Cooperation relationships with other institutions and
services
To respond to the diversity of characteristics
and needs of all students (Preamble)
Biopsychosocial
model and
functioning
profile using ICF
as referral
Interdisciplinary Teams
10
Portuguese Legislation – Decree-Law No. 3/ 2008
Strengthening the connection between practices and the state of the art
Promotion of Inclusive School
Partnerships
The educative
responses in
IEP belong to
the whole plan
of schools
Cap.
Cap. II
Goals,
and
guiding
principals
Goals,
framework
and
guiding
principals
Goals,framework
framework
and
guiding
principals
Cap.
Cap. II
II
Referral
andAssessment
Assessment
procedures
Referral
How is and
the
process
ofprocedures
referral
and
assessment?
Cap.
Cap. III
III &
&
IV
IV
Individualised
Education
Plan
and
Individualised
Education
(IEP) (IEP)
and
Who is eligible
for thePlan
special
education
Individualized
Transition
and
Individualized Transition
PlanPlan
(ITP) (ITP)
and Educational
services
–
i.e.,
for
the
designing
of
an IEP?
measures
Educational
measures
Cap. V
Specific Modalities of Education
Cap. VI
Cooperation relationships with other institutions and
services
To respond to the diversity of characteristics
and needs of all students (Preamble)
Biopsychosocial
model and
functioning
profile using ICF
as referral
Interdisciplinary Teams
11
How is the process of referral and assessment?
The use of the ICF-CY framework to guide the assessment process
1. Referral
I. REFERRAL FORM
Referral is made to school’s administrators in the area of residence ever it is suspected
the existence of permanent educational needs
2. Assessment
The department of special education and technical-pedagogical services that support
students analyze the available information and decide on the need for a specialized
assessment by reference to the ICF-CY
3. Student does not need a
specialized assessment
5. The student does not need
educational responses from
special education services
7. The department of special education
and technical-pedagogical services that
support students guide student to the
available supports by school, provided
in Education Project
4. Student needs a specialized
assessment, by reference to the ICF-CY
6.The student needs
educational responses from
special education services
8. Development of the IEP based on
data in the technical-pedagogical
report, resulting from the specialized
assessment previously conducted by
reference to the ICF-CY
II. PLAN OF A SPECIALIZED
ASSESSMENT
III. TECHNICALPEDAGOGICAL REPORT
IV. INDIVIDUALIZED
EDUCATION PROGRAM
Adapted from Capucha et al., 2008
WHO is eligible for special education services?
Replacement of diagnosis by functioning profiles
The target group for special education services was defined
as students with:
"significant limitations in terms of activity and
participation in one or more areas of life, due to structural
and functional permanent changes resulting in continued
difficulties in communication, learning, mobility, autonomy,
interpersonal relationships and social participation"
(Paragraph 1 of Article 1st, Chapter I).
WHO is eligible for special education services?
Replacement of diagnosis by functioning profiles
From a
one-dimensional view
Towards a
multidimensional view
“... Diagnostic: Malformation
Syndrome (hc)”
“... Child with macrocephaly (hc),
with big hand and feet (s750), with
dolichocephalic cranium (s110),
high forehead ... Evidence of Sotos
Syndrome (hc)”
“... Strabismus (b2152), nystagmus
(b2152), hypotonia in flexor
muscles of the neck (b735)”
Through the use of observation
(d110.0), Daniel begins to imitate
adults’ actions – showing, however,
severe limitations on reproducing the
gestures (d130.3). These difficulties are
motivated by impairments on
sequencing complex movements
(b176.3  d130.3). When actions
are segmented and when adults shapes
his movements, he imitates simple
gestures (e330+2  d130.3_2).
Sanches-Ferreira, 2013 – Communication presented at 20th April, ESE Bragança
Portuguese Legislation – Decree-Law No. 3/ 2008
Strengthening the connection between practices and the state of the art
Promotion of Inclusive School
Partnerships
The educative
responses in
IEP belong to
the whole plan
of schools
Cap. I
Goals, framework and guiding principals
Cap. II
Referral and Assessment procedures
Cap. III &
IV
Individualised Education Plan (IEP) and
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) and
By whom?
Educational measures
Cap. V
Specific Modalities of Education
Cap. VI
Final dispositions
Biopsychosocial
model and
functioning
profile using ICF
as referral
What resources and strategies?
Interdisciplinary Teams
15
WHAT resources and strategies? And by WHOM?
Strengthening mainstream contexts
Respond to the diversity of characteristics and needs of all students
Inclusive Resource Centers
Individual Transition Plans
Comunity
School
Regular education teacher as coordinator of the
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Student
and
Famíly
Regular schools of reference in the areas of low
vision and blindness and deafness, and specialized
units to support the education of students with
autism and multiple disabilities
Parents right and duty of involvement in all
process of decision-making and IEP design
Sanches-Ferreira, 2013 – Communication presented at 20th April, ESE Bragança
Lessons Learnt from Decree-law No. 3/ 2008 implementation
- Did the use of the ICF-CY promote a holistic view
of students?
(project developed between Jan2009-Dec2010. Coordinator: Manuela Sanches-Ferreira;
Consultant: Rune Simeonsson)
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the use of the ICF-CY promote a holistic view of students?
The profiles (25 codes)
ENVIRONMENTA
L FACTORS
5 codes
In the functionality profile component
Activities and Participation is considered
as easy to assess.
BODY
FUNCTIONS
7 codes
19%
28%
ACTIVITIES AND
PARTICIPATION
13 codes
53%
The professionals’ opinion
The ICF enabled a better understanding
of students and their needs;
Professionals considered that the focus
on functioning and on Environmental
Factors is present in the profiles.
18
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the use of the ICF-CY promote a holistic view of students?
The profiles (25 codes)
ENVIRONMENTA
L FACTORS
5 codes
BODY
FUNCTIONS
7 codes
The professionals’ opinion
In the functionality profile component
Activities and Participation is considered
as easy to assess.
19%
The ICF enabled a better understanding
The biopsychosocial
model,
28% operationalized by ICF, enabled a
of students and their needs;
greater understanding of students
and their needs
ACTIVITIES AND
PARTICIPATION
13 codes
53%
Professionals considered that the focus
on functioning and on Environmental
Factors is present in the profiles.
19
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the use of the ICF-CY promote a holistic view of students?
Environmental Factors less represented and
described mainly as facilitators
ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS
5 codes
BODY
FUNCTIONS
7 codes
19%
28%
ACTIVITIES AND
PARTICIPATION
13 codes
53%
Static and linear connection between
participation restrictions and BF impairments
Functional contents less represented on students
with ISC (high individualized curriculum) profiles
(e.g., mobility, self-care, domestic life, major life
areas)
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the use of the ICF-CY promote a holistic view of students?
Environmental Factors less represented and
described mainly as facilitators
ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS
5 codes
BODY
FUNCTIONS
7 codes
19%
The
Static and linear connection between
functioning
are still
not fully
participation
restrictions
and BF impairments
28% profiles
informing the IEP design
ACTIVITIES AND
PARTICIPATION
13 codes
53%
Functional contents less represented on students
with ISC (high individualized curriculum) profiles
(e.g., mobility, self-care, domestic life, major life
areas)
Lessons Learnt from Decree-law No. 3/ 2008 implementation
- How the use of the ICF-CY has been supporting
the eligibility decision-making based on students’
functioning profiles?
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
How the use of the ICF-CY has been supporting the eligibility decision-making
based on students’ functioning profiles?
No. Codes
Level of severity
18
12
3
6
12
2
4
6
0
FC
AP
FA
18
12
6
6
5
FC
18
AP
FA
8
5
FC
AP
2
2.1
1.8
Eligible
without ISC
0
FC
2.1
AP
FA
2.4
1.9
2
Eligible
with ISC
1
6
(t(154)=-2.75, p=.007)
0
FC
AP
0
FA
Non
Eligible
FA
1
3
16
1.2
1
(t(185)=5.7, p<.001)
0
2
0
12
1
3
11
0.9
FC
AP
FA
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
How the use of the ICF-CY has been supporting the eligibility decision-making
based on students’ functioning profiles?
No. Codes
Level of severity
18
12
3
6
12
2
4
6
0
FC
AP
FA
18
12
6
6
1.2
1
FC
AP
2
2.1
FA
1.8
The ICF-CY allowed
the gradation of functionality
5
1
FC
18
AP
FA
8
5
FC
2.1
AP
FA
2.4
1.9
2
Eligible
with ISC
1
6
(t(154)=-2.75, p=.007)
0
FC
AP
0
FA
Eligible
without ISC
0
3
16
Non
Eligible
(t(185)=5.7, p<.001)
0
2
0
12
1
3
11
0.9
FC
AP
FA
Lessons Learnt from Decree-law No. 3/ 2008 implementation
- Did the decree law promote/ reinforce the
inclusive school?
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the decree law promote/ reinforce the inclusive school?
Comunity
School
Student
and
Famíly
Incipient ITPs implementation
Barriers: difficulties on developing collaboration and
partnerships mechanisms
Greater involvement of regular education teacher.
Barriers: difficulties managing schedules, lack of
knowledge
Regular schools of reference and specialized units
were important supports for students’ educational
success
Greater involvement of parents on the process
There is still room to increase their participation
Sanches-Ferreira, 2013 – Communication presented at 20th April, ESE Bragança
Lessons Learnt from Decree-Law implementation
Did the decree law promote/ reinforce the inclusive school?
Comunity
School
Incipient ITPs implementation
Barriers: difficulties on developing collaboration and
partnerships mechanisms
Greater involvement of regular education teacher.
Main conclusions:
Barriers: difficulties managing schedules, lack of
knowledge
The DL promoted the inclusive process, namely enhancing the time
Student
and the engagement
on the classroom
activities
by the
studentsunits
with
Regular schools
of reference
and specialized
and
were
supports for
students’ educational
SEN and that the quality
ofimportant
educational
measures
Famíly
success
Greater involvement of parents on the process
There is still room to increase their participation
Sanches-Ferreira, 2013 – Communication presented at 20th April, ESE Bragança
Development and implementation
of inclusive education policies
Philosophy/Theories
Reinforcing human
rights and values;
sustaining a personenvironment fit
approach
Legislation
Promoting a
constellation of
services towards a
fusion between regular
and special education
Practices/
Implementation
Making the inclusion a
routine - improving
education efficiency
and students’
experiences
External Evaluation of the Decree-Law implementation
REFERENCES
Final Report:
http://www.dgidc.min-edu.pt/educacaoespecial/data/ensinoespecial/estudo_simeonsson.pdf
Executive Summary:
http://www.dgidc.minedu.pt/educacaoespecial/data/ensinoespecial/estudo_simeonsson_sumario.pdf
Related Articles:
• Sanches-Ferreira M, Simeonsson R, Silveira-Maia M, Alves S, Pinheiro S, Tavares A.
Portugal’s special education law: implementing the International Classification of
Functioning, Disability and Health in policy and practice. 2013. Disability and
Rehabilitation, 35(9-10): 868–873
• Sanches-Ferreira M, Lopes-dos Santos P, Alves S, Santos M, Silveira-Maia M. How
individualised are the Individualised Education Programmes (IEPs): an analysis of the
contents and quality of the IEPs goals. 2013. European Journal of Special Education
Needs.
• Sanches-Ferreira M, Silveira-Maia M, Alves S. The use of the International Classification
of Functioning, Disability and Health, version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), in
Portuguese special education assessment and eligibility procedures: the professionals'
perceptions (accepted). 2014. European Journal of Special Education Needs.
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