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Barramundi – the next big global marine finfish

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Barramundi – the next big global marine finfish
Barramundi – the next big global marine
finfish
Dean Jerry
Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture
James Cook University
Australia
Presentation outline







Global changes in food commodity consumption
Barramundi as the gap filler
Biological attributes of barramundi
Broodstock management
Hatchery production
Challenges to farming
Potential in Brazil
Changing populations with changing diets
27%
Cereals
58%
28%
Fruit and
vegetables
18%
Sugars and
alcohol
30%
6%
7%
Developing
27%
Developed
Meat, fish
and other
products
Changing populations with changing diets
27%
Cereals
58%
28%
Fruit and
vegetables
18%
Sugars and
alcohol
30%
6%
7%
Developing
27%
Developed
Meat, fish
and other
products
Changing populations with changing diets
The portfolio gap
The portfolio gap
What is barramundi?
Species: Lates calcarifer
Snooks (Americas)
Centropomus sp.
Nile perch (Africa)
Lates niloticus
Distribution of barramundi/seabass
Australia
SE Asia
Philippines
Cambodia
Vietnam
Indonesia - SW
Indonesia - KM
Australia vs SE Asia Barramundi
Catadromous and protandrous life-history
Catadromous - live in fresh water but migrate to marine waters to breed
Protandrous Hermaphodite – born males and change sex into females later in life
Attractiveness for farming
Euryhaline (wide salinity tolerance):
Cultured in fresh, brackish or seawater
Fast growth: 1 kg in 1 year
Accept well artificial food: wean
onto pellets early, specialised diets
available
Good Feed Conversion Ratio
FCR = < 1.5 :1 (Kg feed : Kg fish)
Hardy: up to 100 kg / m3, 50t/ha
Food conversion efficiency
Strong consumer preference
Versatility of farming systems
Freshwater/brackish ponds
Intensive raceways
Sea Cages
RAS
Production Statistics - Global
Production Statistics - Australia
Production Statistics - Australia
Broodstock management
 Require saltwater (28-35ppt) for final gonadal maturation
 Tanks – 10 000 – 50 000L
 Ponds – ½ ha
 Net cages
 Feeding (3x/wk): fish, squid, commercial broodstock feed, Vitamin E
Broodstock management
H
O
R
M
O
N
A
L
M
A
N
IP
U
L
A
TI
O
N
Anesthetised fish
I.D. checks: weight, sex, history…
400 μm
____
Cannulation of broodstock
Eggs examined
via microscopy
If broods ready:
Intramuscular
Injection of LHRHa*
F: 50-100 μg/Kg
M: 25 μg/Kg
* LHRHa: Luteinising Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue
Highly fecund species
Hatchery management - Nutrition
Standard marine finfish larviculture protocols
Fertilized eggs float
• 30 to 150 larvae / L
• ideal 29C & 30ppt
DAYS AFTER HATCH (DAH)
1
2
8
10
14 15
19
22
24
ALGAE (ex. Chlorella sp.)
ROTIFER (Brachionus sp.)
ARTEMIA NAUPLI
HUFA ENRICHED ARTEMIA
Egg collector
2 DAH
ARTIFICIAL FEED
6 DAH
11 DAH
14 DAH
Day 40 – ready to leave the hatchery
7,253,000 fingerlings out of a room 5 x 5 m2
Hatchery management - grading
16 DAH
Continuous grading is
required after 16-20 DAH to
improve survival and avoid
even greater size differences
Mean weight (g)
Grade weights 27 DAH
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
Small
Medium
Large
Extra large.
Hatchery management - grading
Hatchery management - grading
Nursery Culture
Growout
•
•
•
•
•
Stock 100 mm animals (50g)
Ponds 5,000-20,000 fish/ha
Cages 10-15 fish/m3
Survival >85%
Harvest
– Plate size (600-1000g)
– Fillet size (2-3kg)
Growout
kg/m3
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Pond
Seacage
kg/m3
RAS
Growout (optimal temp)
Challenges to Farming - Sex change
• Broodstock management
• Infrastructure
• Selective breeding
Diseases of barramundi
Hatchery phase
Ponds/tank
0 Days of culture (DOC)
0g
VNN
Nursery phase
tanks
40 DOC
Pre growout
Small cages
80 DOC
2g
20 g
Growout
Ponds/cages etc
140 DOC
400 DOC
150 g
1.5 kg
Big belly
Iridovirus
Benedenia parasites
Streptococcus iniae
Scale drop disease
Challenges to Farming - Selection
• High heritability growth, low GxE
• Mass spawning, sex change, infrastructure
resourcing challenges
• Selective breeding programs
– Singapore
– Indonesia
– Australia
Challenges to Farming – Flavour tainting
Geosmin
Potential in Brazil
• Species with proven
technology
(breeding, feeds)
• Adapted to brackish
systems
• Seedstock supply
• Replacement in
shrimp ponds
(Thailand, Australia)
Acknowledgements:
Fenacam organizing committee
Mainstream Aquaculture Pty Ltd for providing
some slide material
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